Abhraka: 17 definitions


Abhraka means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Abhrak.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Rasashastra (Alchemy and Herbo-Mineral preparations)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

1) Abhraka (अभ्रक) is the Sanskit name for “mica”, a group of silicate minerals, according to the Rasaprakāśasudhākara: a 13th century Sanskrit book on Indian alchemy, or, Rasaśāstra. It has the following commonly used synonyms: Gagana, Vyoma or simply Kha.

Abhraka has the following 4 varieties, defined by its color:

  1. Śvetābhra (‘white mica’) ,
  2. Raktābhra(‘red mica’),
  3. Pītābhra (‘yellow mica’)
  4. and Kṛṣṇābhra (‘black mica’).

Each type is further divided into four sub-varieties: a) Vajra, b) Pināka, c) Nāga and d) Maṇḍūka. Thus making sixteen total varieties of Mica (abhraka).

2) Abhraka (अभ्रक, “mica”):—One of the eight mahārasa (‘superior minerals’), according to the Rasaprakāśasudhākara: a 13th century Sanskrit book on Indian alchemy, or, Rasaśāstra. It is also known by the name Gagana.

Source: Indian Journal of History of Science: Rasaprakāśa-sudhākara, chapter 4-5

Abhraka (gagana) is of four types as per colour:

  1. Śveta
  2. Rakta
  3. Pīta
  4. and Kṛṣṇa.

The white one is suitable for śveta-krityā, rakta and pīta are suitable for pīta-karma while kṛṣṇābhra is always considered suitable for rogaharaṇa (curing of diseases).

Each of these are again subdivided in four sub-varieties: 1. vajra 2. pināka 3. nāga and 4. maṇḍūka. In this way sixteen varieties of abhraka have been mentioned here. Out of these four Abhraka sub-varieties, the vajra variety is the best and remaining three are not considered good for use, as these are likely to produce severe types of diseases, hence by the good physicians these have always been discarded.

Mṛta-vajrābhraka (vajrābhraka-bhasma) should always be usedinternally by wise persons for destroying balī, and palita (wrincles and graying of hairs) and to strengthen the body.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Critical Review of Rasaratna Samuccaya

Abhraka (अभ्रक) refers to “mica”, and mentioned in the Rasaratnasamuccaya: a 13th century C.E. alchemical treatise, authored by Vāgbhaṭa, is a useful compilation related to preparation and properties of drugs of mineral and metallic origin.

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Abhraka (अभ्रक) (or Abhra) refers to an herbal ingredient which is included in a (snake) poison antidote recipe, according to the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Viṣavidyā or Sarpavidyā).—In the Añjana or Collyrium segment of the eighth Adhyāya, Kāśyapa prescribes eight types of permutation and combination of herbs that effectively arrest poison. According to Kāśyapasaṃhitā (verse VIII.38)—“The oil extracted from Śilāla, Candana, Kuṣṭha, Abhraka dipped in Tulasī and heated with a little of Māṃsī, Mustard and Spṛkkā soaked in Hiṅgu water form a group of poison-alleviating drugs to make an añjana”.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (shilpa)

Abhraka (अभ्रक) or “mica” refers to one of the materials used to make Colours in the ancient Indian tradition of Painting (citra), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy. In the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, five colours are regarded as the primary ones, (viz., white, yellow, colour of vilomata, black, dark blue.). Various materials are seen to be used to make colours. e.g., abhraka (“mica”). A painter can create hundreds or thousands of colours by amalgamating the primary colours

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: IJPPR: Conceptual Review of Abhraka (Biotite)

Abhraka is the first mineral of the Maharasa group, used in the form of bhasma for therapeutic purposes. Acharya Vagbhatta had mentioned Abhraka in Ayuverdic texts first time in the treatment of arsha. It’s Latin name is “Mica” and in english, the mineral is known as “Glimmer”.

Abhraka was supposed to have following origin:—

  1. Abhraka is supposed to be the virya of ‘Girija’ (Parvati) which she used to discharge when excited.
  2. Abhraka is supposed to have originated from the fire produced from Vajra (a weapon of Indra) while it was in operation during battle. It is said further that Abhraka was supposed to be distributed in the hilly areas which came into contact with the fire.

It has the following synonyms: (origin-based) Girija, Gauriteja, Girijavija etc., (appearance-based) Ambara, Bahupatra, Subhra etc., (action-based) Rasamula, Abhra etc.

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

abhraka (अभ्रक).—m n (S) Talc. abhrakabhasma n (S) Calx of talc.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

abhraka (अभ्रक).—m Talc.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Abhraka (अभ्रक).—[svārthe kan] Talc, mica; said to be produced from Pārvatī's menstrual discharge.

Derivable forms: abhrakam (अभ्रकम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Abhraka (अभ्रक).—n.

(-kaṃ) The mineral substance called talc. E. abhra the same, and kan aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Abhraka (अभ्रक):—[from abhra] n. talc, mica, [Bhāvaprakāśa etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Abhraka (अभ्रक):—(kaṃ) 1. n. Talc.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Abhraka (अभ्रक) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Abbhaya.

[Sanskrit to German]

Abhraka in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Abhraka in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Abhraka (अभ्रक) [Also spelled abhrak]:—(nm) see [abaraka].

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Abhraka (ಅಭ್ರಕ):—

1) [noun] a mineral (complex silicate) that crystallize in thin, somewhat flexible, translucent or coloured, easily separated layers, resistant to heat and electricity; mica.

2) [noun] the grass often found on wet ground or in water, having usually triangular, solid stems, three rows of narrow, pointed leaves, and minute flowers borne in spikelets, Cyperus rotundus ( = C. hexastachyus) of Cyperaceae family and its bulbous root; sedge.

3) [noun] a visible mass of tiny, condensed water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the atmosphere; cloud.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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