Abhisheka, Abhiseka, Abhiṣeka: 44 definitions


Abhisheka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Abhiṣeka can be transliterated into English as Abhiseka or Abhisheka, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Abhishek.

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In Hinduism

Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary

Abhiṣeka (अभिषेक).—A bathing ceremony, particularly for the coronation of a king or the installation of the Lord's Deity form.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Abhisheka in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Abhiṣeka (अभिषेक) refers to “performing ablution ” and represents one of the sixteen upacāra, or “sixteen types of homage and services”, as described while explaining the mode of worshipping the phallic form (liṅga) of Śiva in the Śivapurāṇa 1.11. Accordingly, “[...] the devotee shall install the phallic emblem (liṅga) and it will accord directly the region of Śiva. Or the devotee need perform the rites from water-offering to food offering alone duly. Or the devotee shall daily perform, as he can, ablution (abhiṣeka); food offering (naivedya); and obeisance (namaskāra) and propitiation (tarpaṇa),—all these in order. It will accord him the region of Śiva”.

Note: Abhiṣeka (ablution) is mentioned in the Śivapurāṇa 1.20 as being performed with the mantra ‘devasya tvā’ etc.

2) Abhiṣeka (अभिषेक) refers to the “ceremonial head-bath” (as part of the marriage ceremony), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.50 (“Description of fun and frolic”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada: “O Nārada, thereafter at the bidding of Śiva, I carried out the concluding ceremonies of the wedding of Śiva and Pārvatī joyously through the sages. Their ceremonial head-bath (abhiṣeka) was respectfully gone through. The Brahmins showed the Pole star Dhruva with respect. Thereafter the rite of Hṛdayālambhana was performed. O great Brahmin, then Svastipāṭha was jubilantly celebrated. [...]”.

Note: During Abhiṣeka, the bride is sprinkled on her head. The ceremony renders the bride free from physical troubles and sanctifies her for the married life.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Abhiṣeka (अभिषेक).—The anointing ceremony: when Puru, the last son was recommended by Yayāti, the people said that it was dharma to anoint the eldest; defined the law that the faithful son alone was fit for the throne; Puru having fulfilled his father's wishes was to be regarded the faithful and dutiful; this was agreed to; further it was endorsed by Śukra.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 93. 76-87; 99. 451.
Source: valmikiramayan.net: Srimad Valmiki Ramayana

Abhiṣeka (अभिषेक) refers to “ceremonial bath” (to be performed three times a day), according to the Rāmāyaṇa chapter 2.28. Accordingly:—“[...] soothening with kind words to Sītā, when eyes were blemished with tears, the virtuous Rāma spoke again as follows, for the purpose of waking her turn back: ‘[...] The celestials, the ancestors, the guests who arrive are to be worshiped always according to the prescribed rites. Bath (abhiṣeka) is to be performed three times a day at appropriate time by the one moving in the forest, with one’s mind kept in restraint. Hence, living in a forest is very much a misery’”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ganapatya (worship of Ganesha)

[ next»] — Abhisheka in Ganapatya glossary
Source: Google Books: Ganapati: Song of the Self

Abhiṣeka (अभिषेक) refers to “ritual bath”, representing one of the possible preliminary rites (upacāra) of a pūjā (deity worship).—Each act in a pūjā is not only physical and/or mental, but also symbolic, cosmic, and spiritual. Sprinkling, sipping, and bathing are symbolic of purification, of the worshipped as well as of the worshipper and the surroundings. Various offerings [viz., abhiṣeka] symbolize the surrendering of one’s latent tendencies (vāsanā) as expressed in thoughts, words, and deeds.

context information

Ganapatya (गाणपत्य, gāṇapatya) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Ganesha is revered and worshipped as the prime deity (ishta-devata). Being a minor though influential movement, Ganapatya evovled, llike Shaktism and Shaivism, as a separate movement leaving behind a large body of literature.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Abhisheka in Shaivism glossary
Source: Shodhganga: Temple management in the Āgamas

Abhiṣeka (अभिषेक) refers to the “daily snapana ceremony”, to be performed during pūjā (ritualistic worship), according to the Arcanāvidhipaṭala of Kāmikāgama.—[After pādya, ācamana and arghya], the Ācārya then performs abhiṣeka or the daily snapana. The water in the snānakumbha is first worshipped with puṣpa and dhūpa. First, the Ācārya rubs new oil and fresh fragrant ghee onto the liṅga and pīṭha. He then offers dhūpa. Then he rubs a mixture of turmeric powder, rice powder and gram powder before performing abhiṣeka. One can also rub other fragrant unguents at this point, including gooseberries. One can also perform abhiṣeka with warm water fragranced with sandal paste. Then the Ācārya offers milk, curd, ghee, honey, sugar, tender coconut water, fruit juices, flowers, water mixed with precious stones and gold, sandal water, etc. as abhiṣeka. The Ācārya intermittently offers dhūpa and dīpa during the abhiṣeka. The Āgama cautions that the top of the liṅga should never be śūnya or without a puṣpa/ candana etc.

Pañcagavya-abhiṣeka may also be performed. The large bell must be sounded during the abhiṣeka. There must be upasnāna or washing with water after each round of abhiṣeka, followed by dhūpa.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Abhiṣeka (अभिषेक) refers to “consecration (to adopt ascetic observance)”.—Accordingly, the Yoginīsaṃcāra requires anyone who has gone through its initiation ceremony and then received consecration (abhiṣeka) to adopt one of three forms of ascetic observance in order to gain mastery over the Vidyā (vidyāvrata): the Bhairavavrata, the Cāmuṇḍāvrata, or the Triṣaṣṭikulavrata, the observance of the sixty-three families [of the Mothers], which it also calls the Kāpālavrata, i.e. the Kāpālika.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Abhisheka in Shaktism glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Abhiṣeka (अभिषेक, “dedication”) refers to one of the ten purifying rites of mantras, according to the 11th century Kulārṇava-tantra: an important scripture of the Kaula school of Śāktism traditionally stated to have consisted of 125.000 Sanskrit verses.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Śrī Devī: “For those who do japa without knowing these [sixty defects: ...], there is no realization even with millions and billions of japa. Oh My Beloved! there are ten processes [i.e., abhiṣeka—dedication] for eradicating defects in Mantras as described. [...] Just as the weapons rubbed on the stone are sharp, so the Mantras subjected to these ten processes acquire power”.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Abhiṣeka (अभिषेक) refers to “royal consecration”, and formed a part of the Navarātra Tantric ritual (an autumnal festival of the warrior goddess Caṇḍikā).—On Daśamī: worship of goddess Aparājitā; śābarotsava; royal consecration (abhiṣeka) of king with empowered water from the opening kalaśapūjā.—Various 8th century sources refer to rituals such as abhiṣeka, for example: Devīpurāṇa, Kālikāpurāṇa, Kṛtyakalpataru, Durgābhaktitaraṅgiṇī, Durgāpūjātattva, Durgāpūjāviveka, Bhadrakālīmantravidhiprakaraṇa in Sanderson (2007); account of the Durgā Pūjā in Kelomal, West Bengal (Nicholas 2013).

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Oxford Academic: Homo Ritualis: Hindu Ritual and Its Significance to Ritual Theory

Abhiṣeka (अभिषेक) refers to “sprinkling (water)” (from a certain pot) (on the seat of a deity) and represents one of the elements of Newar rituals.—Books such as the Daśakarmavidhi detail on the most common rules to be followed by the Newar priests, the priest’s clients, or the clan’s oldest men or women who are mostly ritually responsible for the ritual, and the individual(s) for whom the life-cycle ritual is performed.—The Abhiṣeka rite is mentioned under the heading “Preliminary rites”.

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Mantrashastra (the science of Mantras)

[ next»] — Abhisheka in Mantrashastra glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Mantrashastra

Abhiṣeka (अभिषेक, “consecration”) refers to one of the mantra-defect elimination methods which consist in performing purification rites (saṃskāra), according to the Kulārṇava-tantra verse 15.71-2 and Śaradātilaka verse 2.114-22.—Consecration (abhiṣeka) is described as:—According to the rules laid down in the tradition, the practitioner sprinkles the syllables of the mantra with water mixed with as many branches of the holy tree (Ficus religiosa) as there are syllables in the mantra. [unverified translation!]

context information

Mantrashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, mantraśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mantras—chants, incantations, spells, magical hymns, etc. Mantra Sastra literature includes many ancient books dealing with the methods reciting mantras, identifying and purifying its defects and the science behind uttering or chanting syllables.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: archive.org: Catalogue of Pancaratra Agama Texts

1) Abhiṣeka (अभिषेक) refers to “drenching the temple-idol with consecrated water”, as discussed in the ninth chapter of the Aniruddhasaṃhitā, an ancient Pāñcarātra Āgama text dealing with the annual festivals of temples and regular temple worship routines.—Description of the chapter [abhiṣeka-vidhi]: Intimate knowledge of the rules of abhiṣeka-ceremonies is necessary for the ācārya for his assistants [sādhakas] and for kṣatriyas (1). An abhiṣeka-ceremony requires a special maṇḍapa-pavilion, seed-offerings, the presence of the Ananta-form of Viṣṇu, a fire, sanctified vessels placed according to specific instructions, ten kinds of flowers, several fruits, spices, grains, gems, etc. (2-40). The 12 prepared pots of water necessary for the drenching ceremony are then turned over to the ācārya who must await the auspicious moment to commence the actual abhiṣeka-ceremony (41-49). After the ceremony all—including Brahman as, Kṣatriyas, Vaiśyas and Śūdras—must prostrate before the idol (50-50).

2) Abhiṣeka (अभिषेक) refers to a “ritual bath” (given to the Śiṣya—aspirant/disciple), as discussed in the eighteenth chapter of the Jayākhyasaṃhitā: a Pāñcarātra Āgama text composed of 4500 verses in 33 chapters dealing with topics such as mantra (formulas), japa (repetitions), dhyāna (meditations), mudrā (gesticulations), nyāsa (concentrations) etc.—Description of the chapter [abhiṣeka-vidhi]:—An abhiṣeka-ritual bath must be given the candidate. Various choices and alternatives in regard to the personnel to conduct the abhiṣeka-rites are given (1-19) before the general steps for the procedures are outlined (20-33) for each of the four classes of śiṣyas (discussed in ch. XVII). Each class of śiṣya deserves the treatment and éclat for his respective abhiṣeka bath as is afforded to a commander-in-chief of the army, to a prime minister, to a prince, and to a king respectively (34-35). [...]

3) Abhiṣeka (अभिषेक) refers to the “initiatory bath”, as discussed in the tenth chapter of the Nāradīyasaṃhitā: a Pāñcarātra document comprising over 3000 verses in 30 chapters presenting in a narrative framework the teachings of Nārada to Gautama, dealing primarily with modes of worship and festivals.—Description of the chapter [abhiṣeka-vidhāna]: Gautama wants to hear details concerning the qualifying abhiṣeka-bath that admits an initiate to deśika-status (1): Nārada turns first to the general qualifications for any preceptor (2b-3a), and then, turning to what is the first of three types of abhiṣeka to be distinguished, notes that attention must be given to selecting an appropriate maṇḍala-design within which the abhiṣeka-activities will transpire. [...] Another type of abhiṣeka-rite requires only one pot to be used, at the conclusion of which bathing ceremony the candidate is given the symbols of his new office ([...]). A third type of abhiṣeka-rite involves another, much larger pot [mahāghaṭa] (38-46). [...]

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

[«previous next»] — Abhisheka in Hinduism glossary
Source: Sanjay Rath: Maha Mrtyunjaya Mantra

The abhiṣeka ritual is a prayer for rain as the Sun draws the water from the oceans by its mighty rays and pours it down blessing the lands and rivers and bringing life on earth.

Source: ACHC: Smarta Puja

Abhiṣeka (अभिषेक) refers to the “ceremonial bathing of an icon”, representing one of the various services (upacāra) of a pūjā (ritualistic worship of a deity) which aim at the purification of the devotee.—The icon is offered the abhiṣeka bath, for which several arrangements can be made. A small icon is shifted from its place to a shallow dish (Mar. tāmhan) over which the vessel (Mar. abhiṣeka-pātra) is fixed on a stand (cf. illustration); in case of large icons in temples the abhiṣeka-pātra is fixed (hanging over the icon) with a chain; abhiṣeka can also be given to a small icon as a substitute. Mūrtis made of clay or wood are not bathed.

Abhiṣeka occurs in the Brahmana texts as sprinkling of water at the consecration of a king. The anointing with special substances is a means to transfer the power of these substances to the icon. A similar concept underlies the dhara (pūjā) where water or a substance like ghee, honey is poured in a continuous stream. Abhiṣeka is in none of the original services which are commonly listed in the texts. This may indicate that it is a late addition, part of the extension of the bathing rites (snāna).

Source: Shodhganga: Temples and cult of Sri Rama in Tamilnadu (h)

Abhiseka refers to “sacred bath to the image” and represents one of the various daily ceremonies performed during puja (worship).—Offering of water and food or tirtham and prasadam to the deities on the different occasions or specified hours of the day is an important item in the daily pujas. [...] While for the daily routine, only ordinary plain rice was offered, special food preparations were offered often on festival days. [...] The daily routine includes a number of ceremonies [viz., Abhiseka] that are repeated.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

The name of a statue of the Buddha in the Abhayagiri vihara. King Dhatusena had a golden ornament made for it (Cv.xxxviii.67), and in the time of Kassapa I., a senapati, named Migira, built a house for it (Cv.xxxix.6). Migara also instituted a dedication festival for Abhiseka Buddha. Ibid., 40; see also Geigers trans, i.35, n.7; 36, n.2.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Abhisheka in Mahayana glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Abhiṣeka (अभिषेक) refers to the “crucial anointment” and represents one of the ten Bodhisattva grounds (bodhisattabhūmi), according to the Mahāvastu referring to a Daśabhūmikasūtra, as mentioned in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 52.

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Abhiṣeka (अभिषेक) refers to “consecration”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “The Lord said [to Pradīpapāṇi]: “Son of good family, the Bodhisattvas, the great beings [...] who reached to the limit of distinguishing marks by the annihilation of all distinguishing marks, who purified their knowledge which reached to its limit, who are endowed with inexhaustible patience, who have attained the prediction that they will understand the knowledge of the Tathāgata, who have set the boundary [for practice] and entered into the state of being determined as a Bodhisattva, who have attained the consecration (abhiṣeka-pratilambha) as sealed with the seal of non-retrogression, [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (tantric Buddhism)

Abhiṣeka (अभिषेक) refers to (the three higher) “initiations”, according to the Saptāṅga and Vāgīśvarakīrti’s Tattvaratnāvaloka verse 17.—The coded language expresses what happens in the three higher initiations (guhya-abhiṣeka, prajñājñāna-abhiṣeka, caturtha-abhiṣeka), the first two of which are of a sexual nature. The Saptāṅga makes it clear that the first stage, where the seed from the thunderbolt oozes and cleanses, alludes to the guhya-abhiṣeka, where in practice the officiating master copulates with a consort and the ejaculates are placed in the mouth of the blindfolded initiand. Via this rite, the mind of the initiand, which is similar to a field, is purified. The second stage, where a sprout is said to be born and made to grow in a pure lotus, alludes to the prajñājñāna-abhiṣeka, where it is the initiand who copulates with the/another consort. The sprout represents his fledgling wisdom. The logic of the allegory demands that it is in the caturtha-abhiṣeka where this sprout comes to full bloom, that is to say, reaches the highest state, here called “the Fourth.” This is somewhat confusing, since just above the author of the Gūḍhapadā seems to advocate a state “beyond the fourth” as the highest.

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Abhiṣeka (अभिषेक) refers to the “consecration (of all Tathāgatas)” [i.e., oṃ āḥ hūṃ sarvatathāgatābhiṣeka-samāśriye hūṃ], according to the Guru Mandala Worship (maṇḍalārcana) ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.

Source: MDPI Books: The Ocean of Heroes

Abhiṣeka (अभिषेक) refers to “consecration”, according to the 10th-century Ḍākārṇava-tantra: one of the last Tibetan Tantric scriptures belonging to the Buddhist Saṃvara tradition consisting of 51 chapters.—Accordingly: “He should ask for consecration (abhiṣeka) after [recitation of] this verse: ‘Just as all the Tathāgatas were bathed as soon as [they were] born, so I shall bathe [you] in purity with divine water’ [...]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Abhisheka in Buddhism glossary
Source: Google Books: Buddhist Tantra: A Philosophical Reflection and Religious Investigation

According to Śrī Cakra-Sambhāra-Cakra there are six kinds of Abhiṣeka, i.e. Abhiṣeka with Udaka (water), Mukuṭa (crown), Vajra (indestructible), Ghaṇṭā (bell), Nāma (name) and Ācāraya (preceptor). These six Abhiṣekas are of the nature of six Tathāgathas.

  1. The initiation with Udaka (water) is the nature of ideal knowledge and it represents Akṣobhaya.
  2. The initiation with Mukuṭa (crown) represents the equalizing knowledge (Samatajñāna) and it represents Ratnasambhava.
  3. Initiation with Vajra refers to discriminative knowledge. It stands for Amitabha.
  4. The initiation with Ghaṇṭā connotes the performance of duties and it represents Amoghsiddhi.
  5. The initiation with Nāma represents the knowledge of pure Dharma Dhātu and it represents Vairocana.
  6. And the last kind of Kalasābhiṣeka by Ācāraya represents the pure knowledge (Vajrajñāna).

These Abhiṣekas are followed by the Guhyābhiṣeka, i.e. the initiation into the secret of Tāntric esotericism.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous next»] — Abhisheka in Jainism glossary
Source: HereNow4U: Glossary

Indian tradition relates the Abhiṣeka motif usually to the Hindu goddess Śrī Lakṣmī. In her appearance as Gajalakṣmī she is attended by a couple of water sprinkling elephants.

Jina Abhiṣeka: According to the Ācārāṅgasūtra (2.15.9) Mahāvīra was brought to Mount Meru by god Śakra (Indra) in the night after his birth. Śakra made himself fivefold to carry the child safely to the top of the mountain, where the 63 Indras came to bathe future Jina. Similar legends were told about Pārśvanātha and Ṛṣabhanātha. The Jina Abhiṣeka is a common subject of Jain miniature paintings and illustrates manuscripts of the Kalpasūtra and other texts.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Abhiṣeka (अभिषेक) refers to a “(royal) inauguration”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Here [in this world], for that same man for whom the splendour of a royal inauguration (rājya-abhiṣeka-śrī) is seen near daybreak, also on that day the smoke from [his] funeral pyre is seen”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Abhiṣeka.—(EI 4), coronation; cf. abhiṣeka-kkāṇi, abhiṣeka- kkāṇikkai (SITI), Sanskrit-Tamil; presents offered to the king at the time of his coronation. Note: abhiṣeka is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Source: Yale Journal of Music & Religion: Ritual Music in Contemporary Brahmanical Tantric Temples of Kerala

Abhiṣeka (अभिषेक) refers to the pouring of water and other substances on the icon of the deity.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Abhisheka in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

abhiseka : (m.) consecration; ablution; sprinkling.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Abhiseka, (fr. abhi + sic, cp. Sk. abhiṣeka) anointing, consecration, inauguration (as king) A.I, 107 (cp. abhisitta); II, 87 read abhisek’—anabhisitto; J.II, 104, 352; DhA.I, 350; PvA.74. Cp. ābhisekika. (Page 72)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Abhisheka in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

abhiṣēka (अभिषेक).—m (S) abhiṣiñcana or abhiṣēcana n S Dropping drop by drop (holy water, milk &c.) over an idol, a king, an officiating priest, a sick person &c. by way of ceremonial ablution, royal inunction or inauguration, or solemn purification and preparation (whether by dropping over, or aspersion, or immersion &c.) Ex. paya dadhi āṇi dhṛta || madhu śarkarā guḍa saṃyukta || mūrtti nhāṇōni pañcāmṛtēṃ || a0 karitī maga tēvhāṃ || 2 Sprinkling.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

abhiṣēka (अभिषेक).—m-ṣiñcana-ṣēcana n Dropping drop by drop (holy water &c.) over an idol, a king, &c., by way of ceremonial ablu- tion, royal inauguration, etc. Sprinkl- ing, watering. Coronation, installa- tion (of kings).

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Abhisheka in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Abhiṣeka (अभिषेक).—

1) Sprinkling, watering, wetting.

2) Anointing, inaugurating or consecrating by sprinkling water (a king, idol &c.). ततो हि नः प्रियतरं नान्यत्किंचिद्भविष्यति । यथाभिषेको रामस्य (tato hi naḥ priyataraṃ nānyatkiṃcidbhaviṣyati | yathābhiṣeko rāmasya) Rām.2.17.11; अग्निहोत्राभिषेकौ (agnihotrābhiṣekau) Kau. A. 1.3.

3) (Particularly) Coronation, inauguration, installation (of kings); royal unction; अथाभिषेकं रघुवंशकेतोः (athābhiṣekaṃ raghuvaṃśaketoḥ) R.14.7.

4) The (holy) water required at inauguration, coronation water; अमात्यपरिषदं ब्रूहि संभ्रियतामायुषो राज्याभिषेक इति (amātyapariṣadaṃ brūhi saṃbhriyatāmāyuṣo rājyābhiṣeka iti) V.5; यौवराज्य ° (yauvarājya °) ibid.; R.17.14.

5) Bathing; ablution, holy or religious bathing; अभिषेकोत्तीर्णाय काश्यपाय (abhiṣekottīrṇāya kāśyapāya) Ś.4; अत्राभिषेकाय तपोधनानाम् (atrābhiṣekāya tapodhanānām) R.13.51, 1.85, 1.63,13.58,14.82; K.22,36,96; Kumārasambhava 5.16;7.11; Ś.7.12; H.4.87.

6) Bathing or sprinkling with water (of a divinity to whom worship is offered).

Derivable forms: abhiṣekaḥ (अभिषेकः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Abhiṣeka (अभिषेक).—name of the tenth (bodhisattva-) bhūmi in one list (not the ordinary one, see bhūmi 4; see also next): Mahāvastu i.76.18 daśamī tv abhiṣekāto; 124.20 °ka-bhūmi- prāptānāṃ; Gaṇḍavyūha 472.25 °ka-bhūmi-sthita, said of Maitreya; Gaṇḍavyūha 514.7 ekajāti-pratibaddhānām abhiṣekaprāptānāṃ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Abhiṣeka (अभिषेक).—m.

(-kaḥ) Bathing, sprinkling. E. abhi before sic to sprinkle, and ghañ affix; the word is often used for initiation, royal unction, &c. sprinkling with the water of the Ganges, or water in which various articles have been immersed, being an essential part of the rites; also for a religious ceremony, including the presentation of a variety of articles, fruits, gems, &c. along with water or fluid substances for the bathing of the deity to whom worship is offered.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Abhiṣeka (अभिषेक).—i. e. abhi-sic + a, m. 1. Sprinkling with water, inauguration of a king, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 267. 2. The water used for an inauguration. 3. Ablution, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 50, 16.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Abhiṣeka (अभिषेक).—[masculine] sprinkling over, bathing, religious, ablation, consecration, inauguration; the consecrated water itself.

--- OR ---

Ābhiṣeka (आभिषेक).—([feminine] ī) relating to the inauguration of a king.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Abhiṣeka (अभिषेक):—[=abhi-ṣeka] [from abhi-ṣic] m. anointing, inaugurating or consecrating (by sprinkling water), inauguration of a king, royal unction

2) [v.s. ...] the water or liquid used at an inauguration, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] religious bathing, ablution, [Mahābhārata] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] bathing of the divinity to whom worship is offered, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (cf. mahābhiṣeka and mūrdhābhiṣeka.)

5) Ābhiṣeka (आभिषेक):—mfn. ([from] abhi-ṣeka), relating to the inauguration of a king

6) serving for it, [Varāha-mihira’s Yogayātrā]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Goldstücker Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Abhiṣeka (अभिषेक):—[tatpurusha compound] m.

(-kaḥ) Sprinkling over; hence 1. Sprinkling consecrated liquid over a sacrificer, inaugurating or consecrating him; e. g. (in reference to the sacrifice abhiṣecanīya q. v.) Śatapathabr.: ṣaṭpurastādabhiṣekasya juhoti; or Mādh. Jaim. nyāy.: rājasūye somayāgasyābhiṣecanīyasya saṃnidhau videvanaśaunaḥśepākhyānābhiṣekāḥ krameṇāmnātāḥ. The term applies especially to a ceremony performed by a king and a military commander and concerns, as such, the rites of the second caste only; (comp. Sāyaṇa on the Aitar. Br. chap. 33 seqq.: uktaṃ dvātriṃśadadhyāyaiḥ karma varṇatrayānvitam . atha tvaṣṭabhiradhyāyairvarṇyate rājakartṛkam, the ceremony being described in the chapters 37-39). The general object of the ceremony is attainment of supreme power in this and the future world, as well as long life and happiness. (A detailed account of this purpose, as given in the Aitar. Br. is subjoined p. 278 a, 1. 32 ff.; for the post-vaidik period comp. e. g. Mahābh. Anuśāsanap.: ye rājāno rājasūyābhiṣiktā dharmātmāno rakṣitāraḥ prajānām . ye cāśvamedhāvabhṛthe plutāṅgāsteṣāṃ lokā dhṛtarāṣṭro na tatra; or Harivaṃśa: bhavānrājāstu mānyo me yadūnāmagraṇīḥ prabhuḥ . vijayāyābhiṣicyasva svārājye rājasattama; or rājasūyābhiṣiktastu pṛthurebhirnarādhipaiḥ vedadṛṣṭena vidhinā rājarājye narādhipa ..). A. Inauguration Of A King. This ceremony is either part of a Rājasūya, and performed by a king at the end of this sacrifice—when it is called punarabhiṣeka or second inauguration, since the Abhisheka or first inauguration of a king must have taken place previously—; or it is not part of a sacrifice and occurs at a king’s accession to the throne—then it is the abhiṣeka proper. [Both ceremonies are described in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, first the Punarabhisheka, then the Abhisheka; in conformity with this authority the same order has been preserved in the following account, since the Abhisheka ceremony refers in many respects to that of the Punarabhisheka.] a. The Punarabhisheka is performed by a king at the end of a Rājasūya, after he has undergone preliminary purification (dīkṣā), when he has risen from the Avabhṛtha ceremonies, has performed the Anūbandhya sacrifice and completed the final rite, the Udavasanīyā. There must have been prepared for the occasion a throne-seat (āsandī) of the wood of the Udumbara (ficus glomerata), resting on four legs a span (prādeśa) high, with boards placed on them (śīrṣaṇya; see below page 277b, line 6 ff.) and side boards (anūcya; see ibid.) of the dimension of a cubit (or two spans; aratni, Sāyaṇa: prādeśadvayamaratniḥ); the whole well fastened together with a texture made of cords of Munja grass (Saccharum munja), a tiger skin which is placed on the seat with the hairs upwards and the neck to the east, a large (four cornered) ladle (camasaḥ; Sāy. at a later occasion: = catuṣkoṇo daṇḍayuktaḥ pātraviśeṣaḥ) of Udumbara wood and a branch of the same; in the ladle have been put eight things: curd (dadhi), honey (madhu), clarified butter (sarpis), water proceeding from rain during sunshine, before it has fallen down (ātapavarṣyā āpaḥ; Sāy.: = ātapayuktavarṣabhavāḥ); blades of Syāma grass (śaṣyāṇi; Sāy.: = śyāmatṛṇāni), sprouts (tokmāni; Sāy.: = aṅkurāṇi), spirituous liquor (surā) and Dūb grass (dūrvā, Panicum dactylon). (To prepare a site for the throne three lines have been drawn on a place of sacrifice with the sacrificial implement called Sphya (q. v.), one southwards, another westwards and a third northwards); the one to the south is that on which the throne is to be placed with its front towards the east, so that the two feet to the north come to stand within the Vedi or sacrificial ground and the two to the south without; this latter spot occupied by the throne-seat is called Śrī; (as a type of happiness or prosperity; Sāy.: śrīrvai saṃpadrūpaiva). The place within the Vedi being small, but that without being illimited, this position of the throne indicates that the sacrificer may obtain definite and indefinite wishes within and without the Vedi. The tiger skin is the type of increase of Kshatriya power, for the tiger is the Kshatriya or hero of the wild beasts; the Udumbara wood of the throne, ladle and branch is the type of essential juice (ūrj Sāy.: = kṣīrādirasaḥ) and of food (which the sacrificer is supposed to acquire by this symbol); curd, honey and clarified butter typify the essence of water and plants; (curd and butter, as Sāyaṇa observes, because they originate in grass and water which are the food of cattle; honey, because it originates in the juice of plants collected by bees); water proceeding from rain during sunshine, before it has fallen down typifies (on account of the sunshine) lustre (or energy; tejas) and (rain being the consequence of oblations to the gods) holiness (brahmavarcasam; Sāy.: = śrutādhyayanasaṃpattiḥ); grass and sprouts typify food (irā; they being the food of cattle), hence prosperity (puṣṭi, increase) and progency (prajā); spirituous liquor is the type of a Kshatriya’s power (on account of its fierceness or hotness; Sāy.: surayā kṣatriyasyaiva madayogātkṣatrarūpatvam) and of the essence of food (or rice, liquor being made of rice; comp. annarasa; annasya rasaḥ; Sāy.: annajanyatvādannarasatvam); Dūb grass (being the Kshatriya of the plants and firmly established in the soil with its many roots) is the type of Kshatriya-power and of a firmly established rule.—The principal features of the ceremony itself are the following. The king who performs the sacrifice kneels down at the back part of the throne-seat with his face to the east and his right knee touching the ground (while his left knee remains upwards); he then touches with his hands the throne-seat and invites the gods to ascend it together with various metres: Agni with the metre Gāyatrī, Savitṛ with the Uṣṇih, Soma with the Anuṣṭubh, Bṛhaspati with the Bṛhatī, Mitra and Varuṇa with the Pankti, Indra with the Triṣṭubh, the ViśveDevās with the Jagatī, for the purpose of obtaining kingly power (rājyam; Sāy.: = deśādhipatyam), righteous government (sāmrājyam; Sāy.: = dharmeṇa pālanam), increase of enjoyment (bhaujyam; Sāy.: = bhogasamṛddhiḥ), independent rule (svārājyam; Sāy.: = aparādhīnatvam), attainment of more distinguished qualities than those possessed by other kings (vairājyam; Sāy.: = itarebhyo bhūpatibhyo vaiśiṣṭyam), coming (after death) into the world of Brahman (pārameṣṭhyam; Sāy.: etaduktamaihikam—i. e. what precedes—athāmuṣmikamucyate . pārameṣṭhyaṃ prajāpatilokaprāptiḥ) and obtaining there dominion (rājyam; Sāy.: = tatra rājyamaiśvaryam), a mighty rule (māhārājyam; Sāy.: = tatratyebhya itarebhya ādhikyam), mastership (ādhipatyam; Sāy.: = tānitarānprati svāmitvam), independence (svāvaśyam; Sāy.: = apāratantyam) and a long residence there (ātiṣṭham; Sāy.: cirakālavāsitvam). [Of the metres mentioned before each following metre has four syllables more than each preceding one; the invitation itself which is addressed to the gods is founded on the Ṛgv. 10. 130. 4.; and the company of the gods is solicited by the king in order to ensure the attainment of what was before unattained by him (yogaḥ; Sāy.: = aprāptasya lābhasya prāptiḥ) and the preservation of what he has obtained (kṣemaḥ; Sāy.: = prāptasya vastuno rakṣaṇam).] The gods have arrived and the king now ascends himself the throne-seat, first with his right and then with his left knee.—The next ceremony is the propitiation of the liquid in the ladle, which is performed by the priest who will pour it over the king, by reciting the hymn: ‘waters behold me with a favourable eye, with a favourable body touch my skin; all fires, for they reside in water, I invoke on your account; do you produce in me beauty, bodily strength and energy’; and by the king repeating these words after him. If this propitiation did not take place, the liquid would destroy the vigour of the king. (The quoted verse occurs, though with some variations, in the Atharvav. 10. 1. 12 and 13.) After this, the priest covers the head of the king with the Udumbara-branch and pours the liquid over him while reciting the following three Ṛgveda-verses: ‘These waters are most propitious, they have healing power to free from all disease (Sāy. ‘poverty and other diseases’: dāridryādirogasya bheṣajīḥ); they are the augmenters of kingly power, and (therefore) its supporters; they are immortal.’ ‘With which Prajāpati sprinkled Indra, the king Soma and Manu, with these I sprinkle thee, that thou becomest king of kings in this world.’ ‘The queen, thy mother, bore thee to be great amongst the great, and a righteous ruler over men; an auspicious mother bore thee’; and this Yajurveda-verse: ‘The divine Savitṛ has given his consent, therefore I pour (this liquid) over thee with the arms of the Aśviṃs (Sāyaṇa: not with my own), with the hands of Pūṣan, with the beauty of Agni (tejas; Sāy.: = śārīrakāntiḥ), with the radiance of Sūrya (varcas; Sāy.: = vāhyaprakāśaḥ) and with the (sharp) senses of Indra (indriyam; Sāy. ‘with the sharpness of the eyes’ &c.: = cakṣurādipāṭavam), for the sake of strength (balam), prosperity (śrīḥ; Sāy.: = hastyaśvādisaṃpad), glory and increase of food (annam; Sāy.: = annasamṛddhiḥ)’. If the priest wishes that the king may enjoy good health (lit. may eat food), he must, after these verses, utter the sacred word Bhūr! (earth!). If he wishes that the king may enjoy good health and live to see a son and a grandson (dvipuruṣa) he must utter the sacred words: Bhūr! Bhuvas! (earth! intermediate region between earth and sun!), and if he wishes him to enjoy good health and live to see three generations (tripuruṣa), or if he wishes him to remain unrivalled, he must utter the sacred words: Bhūr! Bhuvas! Swar! (earth! intermediate region! heaven!). [The text of the Aitar. Br. mentions on this occasion that some authorities object to the enunciation of the latter words; but it quotes, too, the opinion of the Ṛṣi Satyakāma, the son of Jābālā, who maintains that a king who is not inaugurated with these Vyāhṛtis or sacred words, will die before the due term of his life, and that of Uddālaka, the son of Aruṇa, who says that a king who is inaugurated with these words, will arrive at the full term of his life and conquer his enemies.] Since at the pouring of the liquid the essence of water, holiness and the other boons which are conferred on the king by the ingredients placed in the ladle, are shed and go away, as it were, from the king, he must, to secure them, before the liquid is poured over him, make two oblations (while uttering the words: brahma prapadye svāhā kṣatraṃ prapadye svāhā i. e. I am obtaining holiness, Svāhā! I am obtaining power, Svāhā!). After the liquid has been poured over the king, the priest places in his hand a goblet of spirituous liquor and recites the following verse (Ṛgv. 9. 1. 1. = Sāmav. 2. 39. = Vājas. 26. 25.): ‘Soma with thy most sweet exhilarating drops purify (this sacrificer), for thou wast poured out for Indra to drink.’ Then he recites and makes the king repeat after him the following invocation: ‘(Soma and spirituous liquor), because a separate residence has been allotted to you by the gods, therefore do not combine in the lofty æther; liquor, thou art powerful, but thou, Soma, art a king; do not harm him (the king), when you enter into your several receptacles (i. e. into his stomach).’ [This verse occurs with some variations in the Vājas. 19. 7.] By the recital of these verses spirituous liquor and Soma become identified; compare page 279a, line 52ff. Having drunk the king then presents the rest to a man whom he considers his friend, for drinking out of the same cup is the mutual practice of friends. He then places the Udumbara branch on the ground as a symbol of essential juice (ūrj) and food, and prepares himself for descending from the throne-seat; but while he is still seated and puts his feet on the ground he says: ‘I firmly stand on heaven and earth, I firmly stand on exhaled and inhaled air (prāṇa and apāna), I firmly stand on day and night, I firmly stand on food and drink; on what is Brahmaṇa, on what is Kshatriya, on these three worlds stand I firmly.’ He then descends, sits down on the ground with his face towards the east, utters thrice the words ‘adoration to what is Brāhmaṇa’ and offers a gift (Sāy.: a cow) to a Brāhmaṇa; the object of this gift is the attainment of victory in general (jitiḥ), of victory everywhere (abhijitiḥ; Sāy.: = abhitaḥ sarveṣu deśeṣu jitiḥ); of victory over strong and weak enemies (vijitiḥ; Sāy.: = prabaladurbalaśatrūṇāṃ tāratamyena vividho jayaḥ) and of complete victory (saṃjitiḥ; Sāy.: = śatrutvarāhityāya samyagjayaḥ); and his threefold expression of adoration to what is a Brāhmaṇa implies that a kingdom prospers and has valiant men when it is under the control of the Brāhmaṇas, and that a valiant son will be born to him. After this ceremony the king rises and puts fuel into the Āhavanīya fire while uttering the words: ‘(wood) thou art fuel, bestow on me sharpness of sense and strength of body’. Then he is going to take three steps to the east, north (and as Sāy. explains), to the north-cast, but previously to doing so points to the region, and addresses the step he is about to take with these words: ‘thou subduest for me the regions; enable me therefore to adore the gods, and may attainment of my desires and preservation of what I have attained be granted to me; may there be no danger (or fear) to me’. [The injunctions which follow in the text of the Aitar. Br. are merely incidental and refer to the conduct of a king and the ceremonies he has to perform, when his assistance in warfare is sought for by another king.] Upon this and having recited the Ṛgveda- verse (10. 131. 1.), with the purpose of freeing himself from enemies, he returns to his palace, when he will be without foes and peril and day by day increase in prosperity, authority and sovereignty. There he sits down by the domestic fire and the Adhwaryu priest makes for him, out of a goblet, four times three oblations with clarified butter to Indra while reciting the three Ṛgveda-verses 9. 110. 1-3. or Sāmav. 2. 714. 716. 715. [The recital of these verses takes place in a peculiar manner, called prapadam, which consists in inserting between the syllables of some word in the second Pāda of either of these verses certain other words which are foreign to the text of the Ṛgv.-hymn, viz. the words bhūrbrahma prāṇamamṛtaṃ prapadyateyamasau śarma varmābhayaṃ svastaye saha prajayā saha paśubhiḥ between the second and third syllables of the word vṛtrāṇi in the second Pāda of Ṛgv. 9. 110. 1.; the words bhuvo brahma &c. …paśubhiḥ between the second and third syllables of the word samaryarājye in the second Pāda of Ṛgv. 9. 110. 2.; and the words svarbrahma &c. …paśubhiḥ between the first and second syllables of the word śakmanā in the second Pāda of Ṛgv. 9. 110. 3.; the sense of these words is: ‘he (the king) seeks the protection of earth (bhūr; in the second verse…of bhuvas or the intermediate region; in the third of svar or heaven), of the Veda, of life, of Amṛta; for the sake of his bliss grant him (o Indra) happiness, armour and safety with his children and his cattle’.] A king for whom these libations are made to Indra in the indicated manner becomes free from disease, cannot be injured by enemies, is exempt from poverty, everywhere protected against danger, and thus becomes victorious in all the quarters, and after death established in Indra’s heaven.—At the end of the whole ceremony the king prays for increase in cows, horses and progeny and more especially to obtain a son who would be liberal towards the priests at his sacrifices and a powerful protector of his subjects.—Priests who understand well how to perform the whole rite will raise the king to an exalted position; those on the contrary who are ignorant of the manner in which it is to be performed, will bring him unto perdition. (As an instance of the efficacy of this part of the Rājasūya sacrifice when performed by priests who well understand their duties, the text of the Aitar. Br. quotes the instance of Janamejaya, the son of Parīkṣit.) b. The rites of the Abhisheka which is not part of a Rājasūya sacrifice, but a ceremony performed at a king’s accession to the throne, are similar to, but not identical with, those of the Punarabhisheka; they are founded on the proceedings which took place when Indra was consecrated by the gods as their supreme ruler, and which form the subject of the 38[th]) chapter of the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa. It is there told that the throne-seat which served at Indra’s inauguration was made of Ṛgveda-verses, its eight parts consisting of Sāmaveda-verses, viz. the two fore-legs of the Bṛhat and Rathantara, the two hind-legs of the Vairūpa and Vairāja, the two top boards of the Śākvara and Raivata, and the two side boards of the Naudhasa and Kāleya. [In the corresponding passage of the Punarabhisheka, Sāyaṇa speaks of several śorṣaṇya and renders the word ‘boards placed on the legs of the throne-seat’: teṣāṃ pādānāṃ śirasyuparibhāgevasthitāni śīrṣaṇyāni; in the present passage the text has the dual śīrṣaṇye which Sāyaṇa explains as the board where the head of Indra and, by implication, as the board where his feet rest upon: āsandyāṃ śayānasyendrasya śirodeśasthaṃ phalakaṃ śīrṣaṇyam . tacca pādadeśāvikṛtasya phalakasyāpyupalakṣaṇam; Sāyaṇa likewise speaks in his comm. on the first passage of several anūcya, while the text of the latter mentions distinctly two, viz. anūcye; the former explanation of śīrṣaṇya seems more natural, since the latter is at variance with the dimensions of the throneseat stated before, but it is probably more correct to view the compound śīrṣaṇyānūcyāni which occurs in the chapter on the Punarabhisheka, as representing two duals]; of the threads of the texture which was to hold this structure together, those that went lengthwise were made of Ṛgveda- and those that went crossways of Sāmaveda-, the intervals being Yajurveda-verses; the covering of the throne was (the goddess of) Glory, the pillow (Sāy.: where his head rested upon) Śrī (the goddess of Happiness). Savītṛ and Bṛhaspati supported the fore-legs, Vāyu and Pūṣan the hind-legs, Mitra and Varuṇa the two top boards and the two Aśviṃs the two side boards of the throne-seat, while Indra ascended it after having invited the Vasus to take place on it with the metre Gāyatrī, the Stoma (q. v.) Trivṛt and the Sāman (q. v.) Rathantara for the sake of obtaining righteous government (sāmrājya), the Rudras for increase of enjoyment (bhaujya), the Adityas for independent rule (svārājya), the Viśve-Devas for the attainment of distinguished qualities (vairājya), the Sādhyas and Āptyas for dominion (rājya), the Maruts and Āṅgirasas for coming into the world of Brahman (pārameṣṭya), superiority (māhārājya), mastership (ādhipatya), independence (svāvaśya) and a long residence there (ātiṣṭha), these divinities being accompanied severally, like the Vasus, with various metres, Stomas and Sāmaṃs (as specified in the text of the Ait. Br.). All these gods having then proclaimed the high qualities of Indra, to strike terror, by their panegyric, into the mind of his enemies, and Prajāpati who performed the function of inaugurating priest, having recited the Ṛgveda-verse 1. 25. 10. (where between the ending words sāmrājyāya and sukratuḥ the words bhaujyāya, svārājyāya &c. &c. are inserted), the latter placed himself before (i. e. east of) the throne with his face towards the west, covered the head of Indra with a moist Udumbara branch (i. e. with an Udumbara branch the leaves of which had been wetted) and a gold Pavitra (q. v.) and sprinkled him with the liquid, while reciting the three Ṛgveda-verses ‘these waters &c.’, the Yajurveda-verse ‘the divine Savitṛ &c.’ and uttering the three sacred words, Bhūr, Bhuvas, Swar (see above page 276 a, line 22 ff.). Thirtyone days after this inauguration by Prajāpati, the divine Vasus sprinkled him in the East with the same liquid while reciting the same verses and uttering the same sacred words, to ensure his righteous government (sāmrājya), hence the inaugurated kings of the Eastern peoples are called Samrāj; next in thirty-one days the Rudras performed the same ceremony in the South to ensure his increase of enjoyment (bhaujya), hence the inaugurated kings of the Satwats in the South are called Bhoja; then in other thirty-one days the Ādityas performed this ceremony in the West, to ensure his independent rule (svārājya), hence the inaugurated kings of the Nīchyas and Apāchyas in the West are called Svarāj; then in other thirty-one days, the Viśve-Devas in the North, to ensure his attainment of higher qualities than those possessed by others (vairājya), hence the inaugurated kings of the Uttarakurus and Uttaramadras are called Virāj; afterwards in other thirty-one days the Sādhyas and Āptyas performed the same ceremony in the central region (which is the ‘fixed’ region, since east, west &c. become determined through it, and which at the same time is the region where the vaidik rites are established), for the sake of his rulership (rājya), hence the inaugurated kings of the Kurus and Pañchālas and of the Vaśas and Uśīnaras in that region are called Rājan. Lastly, in further thirty-one days the Maruts and the Angirasas performed this ceremony in the upper region (or Swarga) to ensure his attainment of the supreme abode (pārameṣṭhya), his mighty rule there over every one (māhārājya), as well as his mastership (ādhipatya), independence (svāvaśya) and long residence there (ātiṣṭha), hence he attained the supreme abode (parameṣṭhin) and became united with Prajāpati (prājāpatya). ‘Thus inaugurated by that great inauguration Indra conquered all conquerable battle grounds (jitīḥ; Sāy.: = jetavyāḥ sarvā yuddhabhūmīḥ), took possession of all worlds, obtained the highest dignity amongst gods (śraiṣṭhyam; Sāy.: = atiśayena praśastatvam), transcendent rank (atiṣṭhām; Sāy.: = sarvānatikramyāvasthānam) and preeminence (paramatām; Sāy.: = utkṛṣṭatvam), conquered righteous government, increase of enjoyment, absolute dominion, distinguished qualities, supreme abode, rulership and mighty rule and mastership there; and thus he became in this world a Prajāpati, an absolute king, long-lived (amṛtaḥ; Sāy.: = itaramanuṣyavadalpakāle maraṇarahitaḥ), and in the other world having obtained all his desires, he became entirely exempt from death’ (or liberated; amṛtaḥ; Sāy.: = maraṇarahito muktaḥ). The purpose for which the inauguration of a mortal king takes place, is defined by the Aitar. Br. in precisely the same terms as those contained in the preceding passage, [with the obvious alteration of ‘amongst kings’ instead of ‘amongst gods’. This definition occurs ch. 39. 5.; in the commencement of ch. 39. 1. the purpose of the ceremony is worded somewhat differently at the end of the passage but its bearing is similar, viz.: if he (i. e. a priest) wishes that a king should conquer all conquerable battle grounds &c. &c…(up to the words: ‘and mastership there’), that he should attain (every thing) in space and time (ayaṃ samantaparyāyī syāt; Sāy.: deśataḥ kālataḥ sarvavyāpī syāt), all land up to the seashore and all life to infinity (lit. to the amount parārdha; sārvabhaumaḥ sārvāyuṣa āntādā parārdhāt; Sāy.: samudratīraparyantaṃ sārvabhaumatvaṃ deśavyāptiḥ . ā parārdhātparārdhaśabdābhidheyakālasaṃkhyāparyantaṃ sārvāyuṣatvaṃ kālavyāptiḥ), and that he should become a sole ruler over the whole earth up to the ocean (pṛthivyai samudraparyantāyā ekarāṭ), let him &c. &c…and: if a king wishes, that he should conquer &c. &c., let him &c.].—The ceremony as practised at the vaidik period, is thus described in the Ait. Br. The priest in the commencement of the solemnity causes the king to take the following oath: ‘if I (the king) do ever harm to thee, thou (the priest) mayst deprive me of all pious acts (iṣṭāpūrtam; Sāy.: śrautasmārtadvayam) which I have done from the time of my birth up to that of my death, of heaven and whaterer else good has been accomplished by me, of long life and offspring’. He then orders his attendants to bring four kinds of fruits: the fruit of the Nyagrodha (ficus Indica), of the Udumbara (ficus glomerata), of the Aśvattha (ficus religiosa) and of the Plaksha (ficus infectoria); besides, four kinds of grain (auṣadhāni …tokmakṛtāni; Sāy.: aṅkuranimittānyauṣadhidravyāṇi): rice with small grain (vrīddīṇām; Sāy.: sūkṣmavījarūpā vrīhayaḥ), rice with large grain (mahāvrīhīṇām; Sāy.: prauḍhavījarūpā mahāvrīhayaḥ), Priyangu and barley. Next they bring, at his command, a throne-seat of Udumbara wood (made in the manner as described above, page 275a, line 34 ff.), a (four-cornered) ladle of Udumbara or, instead of the latter, a vessel of Udumbara (or, acc. to Sāyaṇa, an earthen vessel of an arbitrary shape) and an Udumbara branch. Then they put the four kinds of fruit and grain in the ladle or vessel and pour over them curds, honey, clarified butter and water proceeding from rain during sunshine, before it has fallen down; afterwards, having placed the ladle or vessel on the ground, they address the throne-seat with a Mantra which recalls the component parts of Indra’s throne and thus tends to identifiy both: ‘may thy front legs be Bṛhat and Rathantara &c. &c.; may Savitṛ and Bṛhaspati support thy fore-legs &c. &c. (see above page 277b, line 1 ff.)’. Then the priest asks the king to ascend the throne-seat, inviting the Vasus, Rudras, Ādityas and the other divinities which were invited by Indra at his inauguration (see page 277b, line 31 ff.), to ascend his throne with the same metres, Stomas and Sāmaṃs and for the same purposes as mentioned above. Upon this the relatives of the king (literally: ‘the kingmakers’, rājakartāraḥ; Sāy.: = pitṛbhrātrādayaḥ ‘father, brother &c.’), proclaim his high qualities in the same words as the gods proclaimed the greatness of Indra; the priest recites the Ṛgveda-verse 1. 25. 10. (with the same modifications as mentioned above) and, placing himself before the throne with his face towards the west, covers the head of the king with the Udumbara branch, the leaves of which have been wetted, and with a gold Pavitra, and sprinkles him with the liquid (in the ladle or vessel), while reciting the three Ṛgveda-verses, the Yajurveda-verse and uttering the three sacred words mentioned above (page 276a, line 22 ff.). Lastly he addresses the king with the prayer that the Vasus, the Rudras and the other divinities who performed this ceremony for Indra in the East, South &c. may severally do the same for him in thirty-one successive days and to the same effect as mentioned before (page 278a, line 1 ff.).—The ingredients of the sacred liquid used at this Abhisheka differ in some measure, as will have been seen, from those used at the Punarabhisheka; they differ from the latter also in their typical qualities. The Nyagrodha being on account of its wide spread the Rājan of the trees, and rice with small grain being among plants principally productive of strength, the fruit of the former and the grain of the latter are the type of the qualities of a Kshatra (kṣatram), which the king is supposed to acquire by these ingredients; and in a similar manner the fruit of the Udumbara and the grains of Priyangu are the type of increase of enjoyment (bhaujyam), the fruit of the Aśvattha and rice with large grains the type of righteous government (sāmrājyam), the fruit of the Plaksha the type of independent rule (svārājyam) and attainment of more distinguished qualities than those possessed by other kings (vairājyam), barley the type of military commandership (sainānyam); curds typify the sharpness of senses (indriyam; Sāy.: ‘because they make the senses sharp’: indriyapāṭavahetutvāt), honey typifies the essence of plants and trees (rasa oṣadhivanaspatiṣu; Sāy.: ‘because it originates in flowers’: puṣpajanyatvena); clarified butter, the brightness of cattle (tejaḥ paśūnām; Sāy.: ‘on account of its oily gloss’: snigdhabhāskaratvena) and the water, freedom from death or long life (amṛtam; Sāy.: ‘because it nourrishes’ āpyāyanahetutvāt).—The ceremony having been completed, the king has to make a present to the inaugurating priest, viz. a thousand (Nishkas) of gold, a field and cattle (catuṣpād; Sāy.: gavādikam cows &c.); but this amount seems merely to constitute a minimum acknowledgement of the exertions of the priest; for the text of the Aitareya adds that ‘they say, a king should give innumerable, illimited presents, since a king is illimited (in wealth) and thus will obtain illimited benefit to himself’; and the author of the Aitar. Br. seems rather inclined to adopt the latter opinion, for, amongst the instances he gives of royal inaugurations which have been performed in this fashion, he does not mention such at which the Brāhmaṇas received the ‘limited’ gifts, but tells, e. g., that Udamaya, the son of Atri, promised to his priest ten thousand elephants and ten thousand female slaves and gave each of the sons of that priest every day at the noon-oblation two thousand cows out of a thousand millions; that Anga gave his priest eighty thousand young white horses fit for carrying burdens on their back &c.; that Bharata distributed in Maṣṇāra a hundred and seven thousand millions of black elephants with white tucks and decked with gold &c. &c. (comp. also Colebr. Ess. I. p. 41 ff.).—After the priest has received the gift, he hands to the king a goblet of spirituous liquor in reciting the verse: ‘Soma with thy most sweet exhilarating drops &c.’ (see above p. 276b, line 13ff.), and the king drinks of it after having recited this verse: ‘what is left (in this goblet) of the tasteful liquid and what Indra (drank when it was consecrated by) various rites, that portion of it I consume now with a placid mind, (as if it were) the royal Soma’, and this verse: ‘to thee, supreme (Indra), I offer this liquid for drink, for it has been poured out on thy behalf, rejoice in it until thou art happy’; [the former of these mantras occurs with a few variations in the Vājas., 19. 35., the other in the Ṛgv., 8. 45. 22. or Sāmav., 1. 161.]. By this manner of drinking, the spirituous liquor becomes a kind of Soma, and it is the Soma not the spirituous liquor that is drunk by the king. Lastly the king recites the two Ṛgveda-verses 8. 48. 3. and 4. [What follows in the text of the Aitareya Br. up to the end of the 39[th]) ch. are illustratations of the happiness which is felt by a king in consequence of such an inauguration, and historical instances of kings who had this ceremony performed for them and bestowed liberal gifts on the functioning priests; for this portion of the text compare also the literal translation of it in Colebrooke's Essays 1. p. 39 seqq.— Inaugurations of a purely mythical nature are mentioned in the Upanishads, Epic poems and in the Purāṇas; thus the Harivaṇsa reports, ch. 109, an inauguration of Kṛṣṇa, the Śalyap. of the Mahābh., ch. 48, that of Varuṇa; a whole list is given in the Vishnup. 1. ch. 22 (where a note of Wilson refers to the corresponding passages in other Purāṇas); compare also Bṛhadār. Up. 1. 4. 11. One of the completest lists of this kind is that which occurs in the 4th chapter, and is varied in the 227[th]) chapter, of the Harivaṃśa. According to the former, Soma was inaugurated as king of the Brāhmaṇas (dvijānām; comm.: = brāhmaṇānām), plants, constellations, planets, sacrifices and austerities; Varuṇa as king of the waters; Kuvera as king of the kings; Vrīhaspati, of the Angirasas; Kāvya, of the Bhṛgus; Vīṣṇu, of the Ādityas; Pāvaka, of the Vasus; Daksha, of the Prajāpatis; Vāsava, of the Maruts; Prahrāda, of the Daityas and Dānavas; Yama, the son of Vivaśvat, of the defunct ancestors (or Manes); Śiva (with the trident) of the Yakshas, Rākṣasas, serpents (pārthivānām; comm.: = bhūdharāṇām . nāgāḥ sarpāścānekaphaṇatve bhinnāḥ), Piśāchas and all other evil genii (and, acc. to a v. l., of the Mātṛs or female energies of the gods, the religious vows, the vaidik hymns and the cows); Himavat, of the mountains; Sāgara, of the rivers; Nārāyaṇa, of the Sādhyas; Śiva (with the bull in his banner), of the Rudras; Viprachitti, of the Dānavas (sic); Vāyu, of odours, winds, and beings that are incorporeal, have the property of sound and reside in the æther; Chitraratha, of the oceans, rivers, clouds, rain and Gandharvas; Vāsuki, of the Nāgas; Takshaka, of the serpents (sarpa); Śeṣa, of all the reptiles with large teeth; Airāvata, of the elephants; Uchchaiḥśravas, of the horses; Garuḍa, of the birds; the tiger, of the wild beasts; the bull, of the cows; the Plaksha (ficus infectoria), of the large trees; Kāma, of the Gandharvas and Apsarasas; Samwatsara (the year), of the seasons, months, days, halfmonths, nights, hours, lunar-days (tithi) and holy days (parvan), minutes, seconds, the two Ayanas (q. v.) and the astronomical Yogas (q. v.); besides, Sudhanwan, son of the Prajāpati Vairāja, was inaugurated as king of the East; Śaṅkhapāda, the son of Kardama, of the South; Ketumat, the son of Rajas, of the West; and Hiraṇyaroman, the son of Parjanya, of the North; all these kings inaugurated Prīthu as king of kings.—The other list (ch. 227) is similar, but it represents Śiva as becoming the inaugurated king of the Piśāchas and other evil genii, of the Matṛs, cows, meteors, planets, diseases, pests, calamities and ghosts; Vaiśravaṇa, of the Yakshas, Rākṣasas, Guhykas, of wealth and jewels; Parjanya, of the oceans, rivers, clouds, rain and Ādityas; Chitraratha, of the Gandharvas; Kāmadeva, of the Apsarasas; the bull (the emblem of Śiva), of all beasts of burden and quadrupeds in general; Hiranyākṣa, of the Daityas (his Yuvarāja being Hiranyakaśipu, comp. page 281b, line 46 ff.); Viprachitti, of the Dānavas and Asuras; it mentions besides that Mahākāla was inaugurated as king of the Kālakeyas; Vrītra, of the sons of Anāyuṣā; Rāhu, of inauspicious meteors; Aruṇa, of the Yogas and Sādhyas; Viratha, as guardian-king of the East; Yama, the son of Āditya, of the South; Amburāja, the son of Kaśyapa, of the West, and Pingala, the one-eyed son of Pulastya, of the North; comp. also Mahābh. Śāntip. v. 4494 ff.] The type of the inauguration ceremony as practised at the Epic period may probably be recognized in the history of the inauguration of Rāma, as told in the Rāmāyaṇa, and in that of the inauguration of Yudhiṣṭhira, as told in the Mahābhārata. Neither ceremony is described in these poems with the full detail which is given of the vaidik rite in the Aitar. Br.; but the allusion that Rāma was inaugurated by Vasiṣṭha and the other Brāhmaṇas in the same manner as Indra by the Vasus (Yuddhakāṇḍa: vasiṣṭho vāmadevaśca &c. …abhyaṣiñcannaravaraṃ prasannena sugandhinā . salilena sahasrākṣaṃ vasavo vāsavaṃ yathā) and the observation which is made in some passages that a certain rite of the inauguration was performed ‘according to the sacred rule’ (Yuddhak.: śāstradṛṣṭena vidhinā sa tadā vidhivaddvijaḥ rāghavasyābhiṣekārthaṃ sa dvijebhyo nyavedayat; Śāntiparv.: juhāva pābakaṃ dhīmānvidhimantrapuraskṛtam or pūjayāmāsa tāṃścāpi vidhivadbhūridakṣiṇaḥ), admit of the conclusion that the ceremony was supposed to have taken place in conformity with the vaidik injunction. This inference is confirmed moreover by another passage of the Śāntīp. (v. 2496) which says ‘that inaugurating a king is a chief duty of the people of a country…for the Veda states: because they chose Indra for their king &c…’ (rāṣṭrasyaitatkṛtyatamaṃ rājña evābhiṣecanam…indrameva pravṛṇute yadrājānamiti śrutiḥ &c.; Arjunam. rāṣṭrasya = asya deśavāsino lokasya). Yet it results from the description given in the Epic poems that the vaidik ceremony had undergone various modifications at the time of their composition.—As the inauguration of Rāma was intended and the necessary preparations for it were made, when his father Daśaratha was still alive, but as the ceremony itself, through the intrigues of his stepmother Kaikeyī, did not take place then, but fourteen years later, after the death of Daśaratha, an account of the preparatory ceremonies is given in the Ayodhyākāṇda as well as in the Yuddhakāṇḍa of the Rāmāyaṇa, but an account of the complete ceremony in the latter book alone. According to the Ayodhyāk. on the day preceding the intended inauguration Rāma and his wife Sītā held a fast, and in the night they performed this preliminary rite: Rāma, having made his ablutions, approached the idol of Nārāyaṇa, took a cup of clarified butter, as the religious law prescribes (vidhivat), made a libation of it into the kindled fire and drank the remainder while wishing what was agreeable to his heart. Then, with his mind fixed on the divinity, he lay, silent and composed, together with Sītā, on a bed of Kuśagrass, which was spread before the altar of Viṣṇu, until the last watch of the night, when he awoke and ordered the palace to be prepared for the solemnity. At day-break, reminded of the time by the voices of the bards, he performed the usual morning devotion and praised the divinity. In the mean time the town Ayodhyā had assumed a festive appearance and the inauguration implements had been arranged: a beautiful golden throne-seat (bhadrāsana or siṃhāsana, also called in other passages bhadrapīṭha; the vaidik term is āsandī) covered with a tiger-skin, water taken from the confluence of the Ganges and Jumna as well as from other sacred rivers in all directions and from all oceans, golden jars filled with shoots of the Udumbara tree and various lotus flowers (padmotpala), Ruchakas (citrons?) and Rochanas (pomegranates?), clarified butter, honey, milk, curd, as well as soil, water and other propitious objects taken from places of pilgrimage (tīrtha), a white pearl sceptre, a chowri (cāmara), a fan, and a white parasol decorated with beautiful garlands; besides, a white bull, a white horse and a splendid, furious elephant (matto gajavaraḥ), also eight beautiful damsels in fine attire, all kinds of musical instruments and bards in festive dress. [This is the account according to the text of the Rāmāyaṇa in Mr. Gorresio's edition; the edition of Schlegel, mentions (2. 15. 4-12) the following implements and in the following order: golden waterjars, an ornamented throne-seat, a chariot covered with a splendid tiger-skin, water taken from the confluence of the Ganges and Jumna, as well as from other sacred rivers, tanks, wells, lakes and from all oceans, honey, curd, clarified butter, fried grain (lājāḥ), Kuśa grass, flowers, milk; besides, eight beautiful damsels and a splendid, furious elephant; golden and silver jars, filled with water, covered with Udumbara branches (kṣīribhiśchannāḥ) and various lotus flowers; besides a white, jewelled chowrie (bālavyajana), a white splendid parasol, a white bull, a white horse, all manners of musical instruments and bards. A similar enumeration occurs in the preceding chapter v. 32 ff. of the same edition where the throne-seat is defined as ‘made of Udumbara wood’, the chariot as ‘drawn by four horses’, the bull as ‘accoutred with golden ropes, fullgrown (lit. having its hump) and white’, and the horse as ‘strong and having four large teeth’; there are mentioned also two white chowries, instead of one, and all kinds of seeds, perfumes and jewels, a scimitar (nistriṃśa), a bow, a litter (vāhanaṃ narasaṃyuktam; comm. = śivikādi), a golden vase (bhṛṅgāraṃ hiraṇmayam) and a blazing fire, and amongst the living implements of the pageant, instead of the bards, gaudy courtezans, and besides the eight damsels: ‘professors of divinity (ācāryāḥ), Brāhmaṇas, cows and pure kinds of wild beasts and birds, the chiefs of town-and country-people and the citizens with their train’.—The whole passage however (2. 14. 32-39.) seems to be an interpolation in the speech of Vasiṣṭha, at variance with the hurry of his message to the king and made superfluous by the narrative of the following chapter.] The Yuddhakāṇḍa mentions of implements only a jewelled throne-seat (ratnamayaṃ pīṭham) and four golden jars ornamented with jewels in which four monkey chiefs, the allies of Rāma in his war against Rāvaṇa, carried water from the ocean of the four regions; Ṛṣabha carried it from the southern ocean, his jar being filled with red sandal branches, Jāmbavat from the western ocean, his jar being ornamented with aloe shoots; Vegadarśin from the northern ocean, his jar being decorated with large branches (of what tree, is not said), and Suṣeṇa from the eastern ocean, his jar being ornamented with bracelets (? aṅgadakeyūraiḥ).—Of the ceremony itself it is said that it was performed in the fashion of Indra’s inauguration, but a first difference which, to judge from the scanty detail of the text, appears to exist between the manner in which the ceremony was conducted at the epic and that in which it is conducted in the vaidik period, is that the wife of Rāma shares in a portion of the ceremonies and in a seat on the throne with her husband, while a participation of the wife of the king in the ceremony is not mentioned in the Aitar. Br.; and a second and still more important difference results from the circumstance that not merely Vasiṣṭha, the officiating priest, sprinkled Rāma with the consecrated liquid, but after him ‘Vāmadeva, Jābāli, Vijaya, Kāśyapa, Gotama, Kātyāyana, Viśvāmitra and other eminent Brāhmaṇas; moreover, after them, in succession, the assistant priests, the damsels, the military chiefs and the citizens, the gods shedding over him from the sky the essence of all plants’; for although the Vasus and other gods sprinkled Indra with the liquid, to inaugurate him as king of the several heavenly quarters, no mention is made in the vaidik ceremony, as applied to a mortal king, that any one else but the officiating priest inaugurated the king with the sacred liquid, or that the active share of the assembly in the ceremony goes beyond their eulogizing the good qualities of the king. A comparison, besides, between the implements of inauguration at the two periods and between the ingredients which constitute the consecration-liquid of the vaidik and that of the epic ceremony, show that the typical quality of the former had, in a great measure, been lost sight of at the period of the epic poems.—The same and other deviations are apparent in the account which is given in the Śāntiparvan of the Mahābhārata, of Yudhisṭhira's inauguration: ‘Free from anger and pain the royal son of Kuntī sat down joyfully on the golden throne-seat (paramāsana), his face turned towards the east; in front of him took their seat on a beautiful golden stool (pīṭha) the valiant Sātyaki and Vāsudeva; at either side of him, on fine-shaped jewelled stools the noble Bhīmasena and Arjuna; on a sumptuous ivory throne-seat embellished with gold (but acc. to a comm. ‘on a sumptuous solid throne-seat’; dānte siṃhāsane, Arjunam.: dānte saṃharṣakṣame), Prithā with Sahadeva and Nakula, and on seats as brilliant as fire separately Sudharman (the priest of Duryodhana) Vidura, Dhaumya and Dhṛtarāṣṭra, as well as the pugnacious Sanjaya and the illustrious Gāndhārī, all entering from the side whence came Dhṛtarāṣṭra. But the righteous king having taken his seat, touched with his fingers white flowers, auspicious emblems (svastikān), fried grain (akṣatān), the soil, gold, silver and a pearl; when all his subjects, headed by the house priest, became aware that he had thus possessed himself in an auspicious manner of earth, gold and the various kinds of jewels. The implements of the inauguration prepared and ready, were: filled jars made of gold, Udumbara wood, silver and clay, flowers, fried grain (lājāḥ), sacrificial grass (barhis), cow’s milk, fuel of Śami (Acacia suma)-, Aśvattha (Ficus religiosa)-, and Palāśa (Butea frondosa)- wood, honey and clarified butter, a ladle (śruva) made of Udumbara-wood, and a conch (śaṅkha) ornamented with gold. Then, in obedience to the orders of Kṛṣṇa, Dhaumya, the family priest, marked the sacrificial ground with a line in the direction of north-east (prāgudakplavane vedīṃ lakṣaṇenopalikhya ca), requested the noble king and the dark daughter of Drupada to be seated on the white, solid-legged throne-seat (sarvatobhadra āsane; comp. bhadrāsana, bhadrapīṭha) which was brilliant like fire and covered over with a tiger-skin, and made a libation into fire while reciting the appropriate mantras (juhāva pāvakaṃ dhīmānvidhimantrapuraskṛtam). Upon this Kṛṣṇa took his venerated conch and sprinkled (with its contents) Yudhiṣṭhira, the son of Kuntī, (inaugurating him thus) as lord of the earth, and after him Dhṛtarāṣṭra, the royal Ṛṣi (sprinkled the king) and then all his subjects’.—The present made at this occasion by Yudhiṣṭhira consisted of a thousand Nishkas he gave to the Brāhmaṇas (somewhat in conformity with the injunction of the Aitar. Br.); but the liberality of Rāma was more remarkable: he gave the Brāhmaṇas a million milch cows, ten thousand bulls and three hundred millions Nishkas, besides carts, ornaments, cloths, beds and seats, and numerous villages; he made liberal presents, too, to the monkey chiefs and the monkeys, his allies.—It is, worthy of note, that a custom is met with, in the epic poems, the origin of which cannot with certainty be traced to the injunctions of the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, viz. a king’s having a son or relative of his inaugurated as yuvarāja (also yuvarājan) or ‘junior king’. For, although Sāyaṇa's commentary speaks of ‘a father, brother &c.’ who eulogize the king before the priest sprinkles him with the sacred liquid, and although the presence of the father at the ceremony might countenance the inference that the vaidik text implies also the inauguration of a Yuvarāja, it must be observed that the text of the Brāhmaṇa does not contain the quoted words but in their stead the term rājakartāraḥ ‘king-makers’, which may or may not comprise the paternal relationship. On the other hand it must be admitted that the vaidik injunction is not at variance with this ceremony, which, once performed, seems to hold good for the inauguration of the prince at his accession to the throne, after the father’s death, since no mention is made, in the epic poems, of a repetition of the ceremony. The object of the inauguration of a prince as Yuvarāja is to secure to him the right of succession, and, besides, the advantages supposed to arise from the religious ceremony, as mentioned before, a share in the government, or perhaps all the privileges of a reigning king. For when Daśaratha intends to make his son Rāma a Yuvarāja, he addresses him with these words (in the Āyodhyākāṇḍa): ‘Rāma, I am old; I have lived long and enjoyed every pleasure I desired; hundreds of sacrifices I have performed when I distributed food and liberal presents; thou wast born the son of my desire, for no one is equal to thee on earth; thus I have paid my debt to the gods, the Ṛṣis, my deceased ancestors, the Brāhmaṇas and my own self; nothing remains for me to be done save inaugurating thee; therefore what I am about to tell thee, thou must do. To day all my subjects want thee for their king; therefore, my son, I shall inaugurate thee as junior king’; and Rāma reports to his mother: ‘mother, I am ordered by my father to undertake the government of the country; to-morrow my inauguration will take place, for such is the behest of my father’. Another instance of the installation as Yuvarāja is that of Yudhiṣṭhira by Dhṛtarāṣṭra (Ādip. v. 5517), or of Bhīmasena by his brother Yudhiṣṭhira (Śāntip. v. 1475); one of a simultaneous inauguration of a king and of his son, is that of Dyumatsena as king and of his son as Yuvarāja; (Vanap.: tatobhiṣiṣicuḥ prītyā dyumatsenaṃ purohitāḥ . putraṃ cāsya mahātmānaṃ yauvarājyebhiṣecayan). The inauguration ceremony at the Paurāṇic period has but little affinity with the vaidik rite; it is a series of proceedings which are founded on late superstitions and reflect scarcely any of the ideas which are the groundwork of the ceremony of the Aitar. Br. A description—though a loose and desultory one—of the Paurāṇic Abhisheka occurs in the 209[th]) chapter of the Agni-Purāṇa. It commences with the injunction that a king should before his inauguration choose his astrologer (sāṃvatsara), his family-priest (purohita), his officiating-priest (ṛtvij), his ministers (mantrin) and his queen (mahiṣī). [Comp. Manu 7. 77 &c.] The astrologer fixes the proper time for the inauguration (comp. page 284b, line 51 ff.); the king takes a bath prepared with Sesamum and white mustard seeds (tilaiḥ siddhārthakaiḥ snānam); the astrologer and the family-priest hail the king with the cry of ‘victory’, and he being seated on a throneseat (bhadrāsana) makes a proclamation of peace or public safety and grants freedom to his prisoners. Then before his inauguration by the family-priest takes place, he addresses a propitiatory prayer to Indra, and fasting on the day of the inauguration makes libations to the Manus &c. (?) and pays respect to a sacrificial jar which is placed on the right or southern side of the sacrificial fire, with perfumes and flowers. [The text of this passage in the two Mss. of the Agni-P. at London, that alone contain a description of the ceremony and could be consulted by me, is very corrupt; the Ms. of the Royal As. Soc. in Devan. char. reads: purodhasābhiṣekastu kāryeṃdrīśāṃtiriva ca . upavāsyābhiṣekāhe vaidyāgnū juhuyānmanūn . vaiṣṇavāneṃdramaṃtrāstu sāvitryānvaiśvadevatān . saumyāṃsvastyayanaṃ dharma āyuṣyābhayadānmanūn . aparājitāṃ ca kalaśaṃ vahnerdakṣiṇapārśvage . śamyā ca vaṃtuṃ haimaṃ ca pūjayedgaṃdhapuṣpakaiḥ; the Ms. of the Royal S. in Bengali char.: purodhasyābhiṣeka prākkāryendrīśāntireva ca . upadhāsyabhiṣekādvetyagnau juhuyādamūn . vaiṣṇavamaitramantrāstu sāvitrānvaiśvadevatān . saumyāvasvāyanaṃ śarma carmāyuṣyābhayānmanūn . aparājitaṃ ca kalasaṃ vahnerdakṣiṇapārśvagaṃ . sadābharaṇahaimañca pūjayedgandhapuṣpakaiḥ.—This extract may serve at the same time, as a specimen of the indifferent state of both Mss.—that of the R. S. being however the better of the two—which made it necessary to renounce a literal translation of the whole chapter.] The flame of this fire should go rightwards, it should be bright like melted gold, crackle like carts or thunder(?), be clear (or smokeless), scent the air, be like the sign Swastika, have an uninterrupted, large flame and be free from sparks; no cats, wild beasts or birds should pass over the sacrificial ground [Mss.: pradakṣiṇāvartaśikhastu taptajāmbunadaprabhaḥ . rathaughaghoṣanirghoṣo (R. A. S. rathauṣameghanirghoṣo) vidhūmaśca hutāśanaḥ . anulomaḥ sugandhiśca svastikākārasaṃnibhaḥ . prasannākṣirmahājvālaḥ (R. A. S. prasaktārcirmaºº) sphuliṅgarahito hitaḥ (R. A. S. rcitaḥ) . na vrajeyuśca madhyena mārjāramṛgapakṣiṇaḥ].— The king, to prepare himself for the inauguration, purifies his head with soil taken from the top of a mountain, his ears with soil from the top of an ant-hill (valmīkāgramṛdā), his mouth with soil from a temple of Viṣṇu, his neck with soil from a temple of Indra, his breast with soil from a royal court yard (nṛpājirāt), his right arm with soil thrown up by the horns of a bull (vṛṣaśṛṅgoddhṛtamṛdā), his back with soil from a lake, his belly with soil from the two banks of a river, his hips with soil taken from the door of a brothel (veśyādvāramṛdā rājñaḥ kaṭiśaucaṃ vidhīyate), his thighs with soil from a sacrificial spot (yajñasthānāt; but Ms. R. A. S. from a cowpen: gosthānāt, which word however occurs immediately again), his knees with soil from a cowpen, his legs with soil from a horse-stable, his feet with soil from a cart-wheel; and the soil itself he washes off with Panchagavya (a compound of five articles derived from the cow: milk, curd, clarified butter, cow’s urine and cow-dung). After this purification four ministers sprinkle the king who is seated on the throne: first the Brāhmaṇa minister with clarified butter out of a golden jar which stands east of the throne, then the Kshatriya minister with milk out of a silver jar which stands south, next the Vaiśya minister with curds out of a copper jar which stands west, and lastly the Śūdra minister with water out of an earthen jar which stands north of the throne […bhadrāsanagataṃ nṛpam . abhiṣiñcedamātyānāṃ catuṣṭayamatho ghaṭaiḥ . pūrvato hemakumbhena ghṛtapūrṇena brāhmaṇaḥ . rūpyakumbhena yāmyena kṣīrapūrṇena kṣatriyaḥ . dadhnā ca tāmrakumbhena vaiśyaḥ paścimagena ca . mṛnmayena jalenodakśūdrāmātyobhiṣecayet]. After them a Brāhmaṇa versed in the Ṛgveda sprinkles him with honey and one who knows how to chant the Sāmaveda with Kuśagrass-water. Then the family-priest goes to the golden jar (mentioned above page 282b, line 2) and commits the sacrificial fire in the prescribed manner and with the appropriate hymns to the care of the Brāhmaṇas who assist him. [Ms. R. S.: saṃpītavantaṃ kalasaṃ tathāgatya purohitaḥ . vidhāya vahnirakṣāṃ tu sadasyeṣu yathāvidhi .. rājastriyābhiṣeke ca ye ca mantrāḥ prakīrtitāḥ . taistu dadyānmahābhāgabrāhmaṇānāṃ śanaistathā; sic.—R. A. S.: śamyātavaṃtaṃ kalaśaṃ tathā gatvā purohitaḥ . saṃvidhāyāṃgarakṣāṃ tu sadasyeṣu yathāvidhi . rājraśriyābhiṣekāya ye maṃtrāḥ parikīrtitāḥ . taistu dadyanmahābhāgabrāhmaṇānāṃ stutaistathā; sic.] Having done so, he repairs to the part of the sacrificial ground where the throne stands (?, liter. to the vedimūlam, root of the sacrificial ground), and sprinkles the head of the king with the liquid out of a golden vase perforated with hundreds of holes while reciting verses referring to the substances which together with water, constitute the liquid, viz. herbs, perfumes, flowers, seeds, jewels (or pearls, probably reduced to powder) and Kuśagrass; and his throat (Ms. R. A. S.: his hip) with water taken from various places of pilgrimage and mixed with Rochanā; the Brāhmaṇas holding before the king, while the music plays, the jar which contains the annuals, together with the chowrie, the fan and the other emblems of royalty. [The greater portion of the passage describing this rite is again so corrupt in both Mss. that the meaning of some words and the exact nature of the verses alluded to by the quotation of their beginning words: yā oṣadhīḥ,…puṣpavatī, brāhmaṇaº, āśu śiśānaḥ, ye devāḥ &c., is open to doubt; Mss.: tato purohito gacchedvedimūlaṃ tadaiva tu (R. A. S.: ºmūlaṃ tu devituṃ) . śatacchidreṇa sauvarṇenābhiṣiñcennṛpottamam (R. A. S.: ataḥ chadreṇa pātreṇa sauvarṇenābhiṣecayet) . yā oṣadhīścoṣadhībhirathe cādyena gandhakaiḥ (R. A. S.: oṃ yā oṣadhīdyoṣadhībhirathe akṣeti gaṃdhakaiḥ) . rathaiḥ (R. A. S.: puṣpaiḥ) puṣpavatītyeva brāhmaṇeti ca vījakaiḥ . ratnairāśu (R. A. S.: ratnairāyuḥ) śiśānaśca ye devāśca kuśodakaiḥ . yajurvedatharvavedī (R. A. S.: yajurvedyatha cakrādī) gandhadvāreti saṃspṛśet . śiraḥ kaṇṭhaṃ (R. A. S.: kaṭiṃ) rocanāyā (sic in both Mss.) sarvatīrthodakairdvijāḥ . gītavādyādinirghoṣaiścāmaravyajanādibhiḥ . sarvauṣadhīmayaṃ kumbhaṃ dhārayeyurnṛpāgrataḥ; sic.] Then the king having looked on clarified butter and other auspicious objects placed before a looking glass (? comp. page 286a, line 29), his family-priest, after a prayer to Viṣṇu, Brahman and other divinities and having prepared dishes of curds, clarified butter, honey &c., binds the head of the king with a fillet and fastens on it the tiara, while the king is seated on a couch covered over with a tiger-skin. He then orders a (white?) bull, a white horse (?) and an elephant to be led in, caparisoned severally with a panther- (?), a lion-and a tiger-skin. [Mss.: taṃ paśyeddarpaṇaṃ rājā ghṛtaṃ vai maṅgalādikam . abhyarcya viṣṇuṃ brahmāṇaṃ mantrādīṃścaṃ graśakane (R. A. S.: abhyarcya viṣṇumiṃdrādaṃ brāhmaṇāṃśca grahāṃstathā) . vyāghracarmottarāṃ śavyāmupaviṣṭaṃ purohitaḥ . madhuparkādikaṃ kṛtvā paṭṭabandhaṃ prakārayet . rājño mukuṭabandhaṃ ca pañcacarmottaraṃ chade (R. A. S.: ttarachade) . pravādyāviti ca viśedvṛṣabhaṃ viṣadaṃ gajam (R. A. S.: dhruvādyā iti ca viśet vṛṣadaṃ vṛṣadaṃ śajraṃ) . dvīpijaṃ siṃhajaṃ vyāghrajātaṃ carma tadāsane; sic.] Presently the door-keeper ushers in the ministers, counsellors &c.; the king presents the astrologer and the familypriest with cows, goats, sheep and similar gifts, offers to the other Brāhmaṇas gold and such like presents, circumambulates the fire in keeping his right side towards it and makes a bow before his Guru. He further salutes respectfully the bull, in patting it on the back, also the elephant, which he does not mount; but the horse he mounts, and having rode on it round his city (in keeping his right side towards it), while the royal passage is lined with soldiers, he enters it and dismisses gracefully all the people with marks of his favour. [The Ms. of the R. S. however condenses the latter passage thus: ‘the door-keeper ushers in the ministers, counsellors &c. and he dismisses gracefully all the people with gifts of cows, goats, sheep &c.’; amātyasacivādīṃśca pratīhāraḥ pradarśayet . gojāvigrahadānādyaiḥ prārcya sarvānvisarjayet; Ms. R. A. S.: amātyasacivādistu pratihāra pradarśaye (sic) . gojāvigrahadānādyaiḥ sāṃvatsarapurohitau pūjayitvā dvijānprārthya (ºnprārcya?) hyanyānbhṛṃgotūmukhyakaiḥ (sic) . vahniṃ pradakṣiṇīkṛtya guruṃ natvātha pṛṣṭataḥ . vṛṣamālabhya gāṃ maṃtraṃ pūjayitvātha maṃtritaṃ (sic) . aśvamāruhya nāgaṃ tu pūjayettu (pūjayenna?) samāruhet . paribhramrājāmargaṃ (sic) balayuktaṃ pradakṣiṇaḥ . puraṃ viśecca dānādyaiḥ prārthya (prārcya?) sarvānvisarjayet.]—The following, 210[th]) chapter of the Agni-Purāṇa contains the invocations or, as the text calls them, mantras which are to be recited at the inauguration (rājadevādyabhiṣekamantrānvakṣye ghamardanān . kumbhātkuśodakaiḥ)—R. A. S.: kumbhāṃkumbhodakaiḥ— siñcettena saṃrvaṃ hi sidhyati). These mantras have nothing in common with those recited at the vaidik ceremony; they contain merely an enumeration of gods, demons, saints, mountains, rivers &c. even of literary works, which are asked to sprinkle the king, to grant him victory and to protect him; the order in which all these beings and objects are paraded, is of the same senseless kind, and the nomenclature of the same tedious description as they not uncomconly occur in those works which exhibit a caricature of the ancient Hindu religion,—in the Purāṇas. It will suffice to give as a specimen the following verses of the forty and some Ślokas which form the subject of this chapter: ‘may the gods sprinkle thee, and Brahman, Viṣṇu, Śiva, Vāsudeva, Saṅkarṣaṇa, Pradyumna, Aniruddha; may the ten elephants of the regions give thee victory, and Rudra, Dharma, Daksha, the Sun, religious Belief (śraddhā), Bhṛgu, Atri, Vaśiṣṭha &c. &c…; may the sons of Kṛśāśva protect thee, and the wives of Ariṣṭanemin, of Chandra and of Pulastya, Bhūtā (a female goblin), Kapidaṃṣṭrī …Syeṇī (a female hawk), Bhāśi (a water-fowl), Krauñchī (a curlew), Dhṛtarāṣṭrī (a goose); Śukī (a female parrot; this and the preceding being probably names of female imps);…the Gandharvas Hāhā, Hūhū, Nārada, Viśvāvasu, Tumburu;…the Apsarasas Anavadyā, Sukeśī, Menakā, Sahajanyā, Kratusthalā, Ghṛtāchī, Viśvāchī Puñjikasthalā, Pramlochā, Urvaśī, Rambhā, Pañchachūḍā, Tilottamā, Chitralekhā, Lakṣmaṇā, Puṇḍarīkā and Vāruṇī;…the Ṛ4ṣis Bālakhilyas, Vyāsa, Valmīki &c., the kings Prithu, Dilīpa, Bharata, Dushyanta (written Ms. R. A. S. tūṣmaṃtaḥ and ducchantaḥ);…the mountains Himavat, Hemakūtā, Nishadha, Nīla, Sweta, Śṛṅgavat, Meru, Mālyavat, Gandhamādana, Mahendra, Malaya, Sahya, Śuktimat (v. l. Śaktimat), Ṛkṣavat (v. l. Vṛkṣavat), Śivi (?), Vindhya and Pāripātra;…the four oceans; the following sacred places of pilgrimage (tīrtha): Pushkara, Prayāga, Prabhāsa, Naimisha, Gayāśīrṣa, Brahmaśiras, Uttaramānasa (v. l. Uttamamānasa), Kālodaka, Nandikuṇḍa, Panchanada (the Panjab), Bhṛgutīrtha, Prabhāsa, Amarakāṇṭaka, Jambumārga, Vimala, the hermitage of Kapila (kapilasyāśramaḥ), Gaṅgādvāra, Kuśāvarta, Vinduka (v. l. Vilwaka), the mountain Nīla (nīlaparvataḥ), the mountain Varāha, Kanakhala (v. l. Kanashala), Kālañjara, Kedāra, Rudrakoṭi, Vārāṇasi (Benares), Badaryāśrama (v. l. Padaryāśrama), Dvārakā, Śrīgiri, Purushottama, Śāligrāma (v. l. Śalagr.), Vārāha, the mouth of the Indus (sindhusāgarasaṃgamaḥ), Phalgutīrtha, the lake Vindu, the hermitage of Karavīra; the rivers Gaṅgā, Saraswati, Śatadru, Gaṇḍakī, Achchhodā, Vipāsā, Vitastā, Devikā, Kāverī, Varadā, Niśchīrā, Gomatī, Pārā, Charmanvatī, Rūpā, Mandākinī, Tāpī (v. l. Nīpā), Payoṣṇi, Veṇā, Gaurī, Vaitaraṇī, Godāvarī, Bhīmarathī, Tuṅgabhadrā, Raṇī (? v. l. Praṇī), Chandrabhāgā, Śivā and Gaurī, may they sprinkle thee.’ The Saṃskṛt works which are invoked to protect the king stand, in the text, between the mountains and the oceans, in the following order and selection: the Ṛg-and the other Vedas, the six Angas, Itihāsas and Purāṇas, the Upavedas, viz. Āyurveda, Gandharvaveda, and Dhanurveda, the Angas, viz. Śikṣā, Kalpa, Vyākaraṇa, Nirukta, the science of the luminous bodies (jyotiṣāṃ gatiḥ) and Chhandas [see s. v. aṅga], the Vedas [here mentioned again, like the Angas], the Mīmāṃsā-and Nyāya-systems (mīmāṃsānyāyavistaraḥ), and the old Dharmaśāstra (dharmaśāstraṃ purāṇaṃ ca); for these are the fourteen sciences [i. e. the four Vedas, the six Angas, the Purāṇas as eleventh, the Mīmāṃsā, Nyāya and law]; the Sāṅkhya-and Yoga-systems, the system of the Pāsupatas, the Vedānta and the system of the Pāñcharātras (pāśupataṃ vedāśca—sic—pāñcarātrakam), for these are the five doctrines; the auspicious verse Gāyatrī (q. v.), the Durgā-science and the science of music[?]; (kṛtāntapañcakaṃ hyetadgāyatrī ca śivā tathā . durgāvidyā ca gāndhārī pāntu tvāṃ śāntidāśca te).— Another account of a royal inauguration, which is similar to that of the Agni-Purāṇa and perhaps belongs to a still more recent period than the latter, is that of the Mānasāra, a work on Architecture and reputedly the completest of its kind. [The high antiquity which is ascribed by the Hindus to this work will become more than doubtful, from a comparison, for instance, of this portion of it with the 209[th]) ch. of the Agni-P. The only Ms. of this work, I could consult, is hopelessly incorrect and does not permit to make a reliable translation of it; it is a copy of an ancient Ms. in Tamul characters which was discovered at Trichinopoly, is imperfect at the beginning and at the end, was written out under the direction of Mr. Ch. P. Brown and is now in possession of the E. I. H.; its extreme rareness in India as well as in Europe makes it adviseable to draw attention to some particulars of its description of a royal inauguration which may be rendered in a safe manner.] The Mānasāra puts forward two personages in the inauguration ceremony who do not make their appearance in the foregoing accounts: the Sthapati or the architect, and the Sthāpaka or (probably) the master of the ceremonies. According to this work, the throne is placed in a handsome sacrificial building where the inauguration takes place (yāgamaṇḍape saumye tu siṃhāsanasya copari . nṛpālaṃ tatra saṃsthāpya abhiṣekaṃ samārabhet; some such building seems to be implied also by the description of the Agni-Purāṇa, since a ‘door-keeper’ is mentioned, but it is not expressedly named); the inauguration liquid, which consists of river and sea-water is consecrated by chanting hymns from the Atharvaveda, Sāmaveda and other sacred works; (saritsamudrasalilakumbhaiḥ pūrṇavimādhavaiḥ (sic) . atharvasāmagītaiśca cānyaiścāgamamantrakaiḥ); the king marks his forehead with the sign Tripuṇḍra (q. v.: paścāttu homaniṣṭhāṃ ca darbhaṃ dattvā tripuṇḍrakam . lalāṭasāraṇaṃ kuryādbhūpatistu yathāvidhi), anoints his body with sandal and saffron, and the Sthapati purifies him with the compound called Panchagavya (see above page 282b, line 45); them the family-priest places on his head the tiara, and this toilet being completed, the Sthapati and the Sthāpaka invite the king to take place, with his queen, on the throne when the sacred liquid is sprinkled on his forehead while he bears the jewelled tiara (ratnasaṃtuṣṭamukuṭamūrdhvaṃ rājopadhārayet). This ceremony having been performed under ‘benedictions and all manner of auspicious noises’ (sarvamaṅgalaghoṣaiśca svastivācanapūrvavat) the king mounts on an elephant and, under the sounds of a similar music, rides round his city, keeping his right side towards it, and distributes gifts amongst the spectators (kuryādārohaṇaṃ paścādrājā tvairāvatopari . nagarīpradakṣiṇaṃ kuryātsarvamaṅgalaghoṣakaiḥ). These gifts which consist in corn and the like, cow’s and other milk, weapons, and generally in any thing whether auspicious or not, the king should throw before himself and touch with his own hand, for in doing so he will not merely acquire strength, victory and glory but abundance of food &c. [A modern treatise on the royal inauguration, called Rājyābhiṣekapaddhati,—without either date or name of the author—is very prolix in the enumeration of the mantras; it quotes the Śatapathabr. and, among the Purāṇas, chiefly the Agni-P.; but it is rather an uncritical compilation from various books, than an authoritative source of information.] The time of the inauguration must be an auspicious one. Rāma was inaugurated when the moon entered the asterism Pushya, in the hour Abhijit; (Yuddhak.: tataḥ prabhāte vimale muhūrtebhijiti prabhuḥ . vasiṣṭhaḥ puṣyayogena brāhmaṇaiḥ parivāritaḥ . rāmaṃ ratnamaye pīṭhe…upaveśya &c.).—The Agni-P. merely forbids the inauguration to take place at night time, but makes no further restriction (sāṃvatsaro nṛpaṃ kāle sasaṃbhārobhiṣecanam . kuryādṛte rātrikālaṃ kālasya niyamaḥ smṛtaḥ).—According to the astrological work Jyotisharatnamālā, the inauguration of a king may take place when the moon enters either of the following asterisms: Anurādhā (17[th]) ), Hasta (13[th]) ), Pushya (8[th]) ), Rohiṇi (4[th]) ), Śravaṇa (23[d]) ) and the three next to it (viz. Dhaniṣṭhā, Śatabhiṣā, Pūrvabhādrapadā), Revatī (28[th]) ), Mṛgaśiras (5[th]) ) or Aśvinī (1[st]) ); (maitraśākrakarapuṣyarohiṇīvaiṣṇaveṣu tisṛṣūttarāsu ca . revatīmṛgaśirośvinīṣvapi kṣmābhujāṃ samabhiṣeka iṣyate).— Another astrological work, the Muhūrtachintāmaṇī, lays down the following rules: ‘the inauguration of a king is auspicious, if it takes place at the period of the sun’s progress to the north of the equator, when Jupiter, the Moon and Venus have risen or those powerful planets: Mars, the Sun, the predominant or the minor planet which rule the (king’s) nativity; but not on the fourth, ninth or fourteenth day of the month Chaitra, on a Tuesday, during the night or in an intercalary month. If it is performed at the conjunction of ill-omened planets with the first asterism (reckoned from that under which the king is born) their influence brings him illness; with the eighth, death; with the fifth, affliction of his sons; with the twelfth, poverty; with the tenth, it deprives him of energy; with the seventh or fourth, it destroys his sovereign power. All is auspicious, however, if an auspicious planet enters into the circle. If Jupiter enters into conjunction with the ninth or fifth asterism (reckoned from that under which the king is born) or Mars with the sixth, or Venus with the tenth, the king will always enjoy royal happiness; if Saturn enters into conjunction with the third, the Sun with the eleventh or Jupiter with the tenth or fourth asterism (and the inauguration then takes place), his empire will remain firm’; [rājābhiṣekaḥ śubha uttarāyaṇe gurvinduśukrairuditairbalānvitaiḥ . bhaumārkalagneśadaśeśajanmapairno caitrariktāraniśāmalimlucaiḥ .. 9 .. pāpaistanau rugnidhane mṛtiḥ sute putrārttirarthavyayagairdaridratā . syātkhelaso bhraṣṭapado dyunāmbugaiḥ sarvaṃ śubhaṃ kendragataiḥ śubhagrahaiḥ .. 2 .. gururlagnakoṇe kujorau sitaḥ khe sa rājā modate rājalakṣmyā . tṛtīyāyagau saurisūryau khabamdhvorguruśceddharitrī sthirā syānnṛpasya .. 3 .. iti rājābhiṣekaprakaraṇam ..; the technical terms are rendered, in the given translation, according to the comment of the author, Daivajnarāma]. B. Inauguration Of A Military Commander. This ceremony, the object of which is to ensure to the chief of an army victory over his enemies, does not appear to have been performed before the period of the Mahābhārata, where the inauguration of Kārtikeya as commander of the divine hosts is mentioned as the type of such a rite; comp. e. g. the words addressed by Duryodhana to Śalya, the king of Madra, when he chose him for his military chief: saināpatyena varaye tvāmahaṃ mātulātulam . so’smānpāhi yudhāṃ śreṣṭha skando devānihāhave . abhiṣicyasva rājendra devānāmiva pāvakiḥ . jahi śatrūnraṇe vīra mahendro dānavāniva.—The proceedings at such an inauguration are not fully detailed in the description given in the Śalyaparvan of the Mahābh. (ch. 46), of the inauguration of Kārtikeya; but from the rites which are mentioned, it may be inferred, that they were substantially the same as those which took place at the inauguration of a king; (comp. e. g.: tatobhiṣekasaṃbhārāṃsarvāṃsaṃbhṛtya śāstrataḥ . vṛhaspatiḥ samiddhegnau juhāvāgniṃ yathāvidhi . tato himavatā datte maṇiprabaraśobhite . divyaratnācite puṇye niṣaṇṇaṃ paramāsane . sarvamaṅgalasaṃbhārairvidhimantrapuraskṛtam . ābhiṣecanikaṃ dravyaṃ gṛhītvā devatāgaṇāḥ &c. …. bahulatvācca noktā ye vividhā devatāgaṇāḥ . te kumārābhiṣekārthaṃ samājagmustatastataḥ . jagṛhuste tadā rājaṃsarva eva divaukasaḥ . ābhiṣecanikaṃ bhāṇḍaṃ maṅgalāni ca sarvaśaḥ . divyasaṃbhārasaṃyuktaiḥ kalasaiḥ kāñcanairnṛpa . sarasvatībhiḥ puṇyābhirdivyatoyābhireva tu . abhyaṣiñcaṃkumāraṃ vai saṃprahṛṣṭā divaukasaḥ . senāpatiṃ mahātmānamasurāṇāṃ bhayaṃkaram . purā yathā mahārāja varuṇaṃ vai jaleśvaram . tathābhyaṣiñcadbhagavānbrahmā lokapitāmahaḥ &c.); the text (as results from the last quotation) professes at least that they are analogous to those at the inauguration of Varuṇa as king of the waters, and at the latter ceremony (mentioned Śalyap. chap. 48) reference is made to the inauguration of Indra, which is the type of a royal inauguration; (varuṇaṃ devatāḥ sarvāḥ sametyedamathābruvan . yathāsmāṃsurarāṭśakro bhayebhyaḥ pāti sarvadā . tathā tvamapi sarvāsāṃ saritāṃ vai patirbhava .…abhiṣiktastato devairvaruṇopi mahāyaśāḥ . saritaḥ sāgarāṃścaiva nadāṃścāpi sarāṃsi ca . pālayāmāsa vidhinā yathā devāñchatakratuḥ .). There seems to have been that difference, however, that the military commander, his installation having been performed, did not give but receive presents, for the Mahābh. exhibits a long list of presents that were offered to Kārtikeya by the gods who assisted at his consecration.—The time deemed auspicious or inauspicious is the same for the inauguration of a military chief as for that of a king, except that Tuesday is considered also amongst the lucky days of the former, Mars being himself a military chief; (according to Daivajnarāma in his comm. on the quoted first verse of the Muhūrtachintāmaṇi: kutracidbhaumavāropyuktaḥ . sa senāpatyabhiṣekaparo jñeyaḥ . bhaumasya senāpatitvāt). 2. The water or liquid used at the ceremony of inauguration; e. g. Kātyāy. Śrautas.: kaṇḍuyanyābhiṣekeṇa pralimpate (Śrīdeva: abhiṣekeṇa = abhiṣekodakena); or Ādip. Mahābh.: karṇobhiṣekārdraśirāḥ śirasā samavandata. 3. The name of the sacrificial building where the inauguration of a king takes place; (Mānasāra: sarvālaṃkārasaṃyuktamabhiṣekākhyamaṇḍapam &c.). 4. Bathing, washing; e. g. Sāṅkhya Prav.: duḥkhāduḥkhaṃ jalābhiṣekavanna jāḍyavimokṣaḥ (Vijnānāch.: yathā jāḍyārttasya jalābhiṣekādduḥkhānivṛttireva bhavati na tu jāḍyavimokṣa ityarthaḥ); esp. for religious purposes, ablution; e. g. Śatātapa: surāpaḥ…śarkarāyāstulā sapta dadyātpāpaviśuddhaye . japitvā tu mahārudraṃ daśāṃśaṃ juhuyāttilaiḥ . tatobhiṣekaḥ kartavyo mantrairvaruṇadevataiḥ &c.; or Vanap. Mahābh.: plakṣā devī smṛtā rājanpuṇyā devī sarasvatī . tatrābhiṣekaṃ kurvīta valmīkānniḥsṛte jale . arcayitvā pitṝndevānaśvamedhaphalaṃ labhet; or Anuśāsanap. Mahābh.: skanda uvāca . mamāpyanumato dharmastaṃ śṛṇudhvaṃ samāhitāḥ . nīlaṣaṇḍasya śṛṅgābhyāṃ gṛhītvā mṛttikāṃ tu yaḥ . abhiṣekaṃ tryahaṃ kuryāttasya dharmaṃ nibodhata &c. 5. Washing the image of a divinity, purifying it with ablutions. This ceremony takes place either at a festival held in honour of a divinity or at the installation of an idol as a domestic and tutelary divinity; it consists in rubbing it over with ointments and washing it with liquids prepared of different substances under the recital of appropriate mantras. (According to the given quotation from the Agni-Pur., the invocations mentioned in the latter, are the same for the consecration of an idol as for that of a king.) At the Dola festival held in honour of the juvenile Kṛṣṇa the following materiels are used, according to the Utkalakhaṇḍa (as quoted by Rādhākāntadeva): cold water, cow-dung, cow’s urine, cow’s milk, curds, clarified butter (i. e. the five substances of the Panchagavya), infusions of Kuśa-grass (kuśodakam), of Śaṅkha (a perfume, apparently a dried shell-fish; śaṅkhodakam), of sandal (candanodakam), of saffron (kuṅkumodakam), of fruits and flowers (phalodakam and puṣpodakam), an unguent prepared of the powder of sandal wood and of emblic myrobalan (candanapiṣṭāmalakyudvartanam); scented water (sugandhijalam) with which the idol is washed eight times, milk, clarified butter and honey being added severally at the second, seventh and eighth ablution; an infusion of perfumes (gandhodakam) with which five ablutions are made; water taken from places of pilgrimage (tīrthajalam), Ganges-water, water proceeding from an ant-hill, infusion of small annuals (sarvauṣadhijalam), Sahasradhārā-water (sahasradhārājalam), various kinds of water in jars (according to some, in 108 jars).—At the Durgā festival, according to the Vṛhannandikeśvara-Purāṇa (also quoted by Rādhāk.) the image of the goddess is rubbed over before a looking glass (darpaṇapratibimbe) with an ointment prepared of turmeric and powder of emblic myrobalan and then washed with the following things one after the other, under the recital of mantras, with: pure water, an infusion of Śaṅkha, Ganges-water, an infusion of perfumes, each article of the Panchagavya (successively, as mentioned before), an infusion of Kuśa-grass, Pañchāmṛta (a mixture of milk, curds, sugar, clarified butter and honey), ice-water, honey, an infusion of flowers, sea-water mixed with the juice of the sugar-cane (ikṣurasasāgarodake), an infusion of small and large annuals mixed together (sarvauṣadhimahauṣadhijalam), water containing five kinds of extracts (pañcakaṣāyodakam), eight sorts of earth (aṣṭamṛttikāḥ? probably aṣṭau mṛº), infusion of fruits, hot water, Sahasradhārā-water, various kinds of water in eight jars, viz. atmospheric water in one jar (vyomagaṅgāmbupūrṇādyakalasaḥ), cloud-water in a second (meghatoyapūrṇaº), water of the Sarasvatī in a third (sārasvatatoyapūrṇaº), sea-water in a fourth (sāgarodakapūrṇaº), water mixed with lotus-pollen (padmareṇumiśritajalapūrṇaº) in a fifth, cascade-water in a sixth (nirjjharodakapūrṇaº), water from various places of pilgrimage in a seventh (sarvatīrthāmbupūrṇaº) and pure water in an eighth jar śuddhajalapūrṇāṣṭamakalasaḥ). Besides these substances, other ritual works mention: river-water, infusions of cocoa-nuts and of (pounded) pearls, rain-water, infusions of camphor and of sandal, aloe, gold, silver, Gorochanā, saffron, Śrīphala, corn, Dūb-grass, sugar, lake-water, Ganges-and sea-water mixed together, an infusion of five kinds of grain (pañcaśasyajalam), of sesamum, tank-, lotus-pond-, and wellwater, infusions of fruits and roots, Arghya (q. v.) -water, other kinds of water in four jars, and cold water; sesamumoil and fragrant-oil; earth from river-banks, earth stirred up by the teeth of a boar (varāhadantamṛttikā), earth from the door of a brothel (veśyādvāramṛttikā), from the gate of a palace (rājadvāramṛttikā), earth stirred up by the horns of a bull, earth from an ant-hill, from a quadrivium, from the near and opposite banks of a stream (pārāvāramṛttikā), from the door of a temple and from the Ganges; and according to some, earth stirred up by the teeth of an elephant, earth from a river, from its two banks, from a town-gate (nāgaramṛttikā), from a cowpen and a trivium; others name infusions of the five acticles of Pañchāmṛta severally, of the small and the large annuals severally (savauṣadhimahauṣadhī pṛthak), of the five kinds of extracts severally, or infusions only of two articles of the Pañchāmṛta (viz. honey, butter and milk excepted); again some name an ointment made of turmeric only, some one prepared of sesamum-oil and turmeric, and others add an aromatic powder and one made of five kinds of grain. In the ritual works founded on the Kālī- and Devī-Purāṇas there are mentioned, besides, infusions of (pounded) corals, emeralds, rubies, pearls, lapis lazuli, several varieties of lotusses (padma, kahlāra, kumuda), of sugar-cane, lac (alaktaka), red sandal, turmeric, flour, rice and white mustard, as well as poolwater and water from various places of pilgrimage; earth from five such places; oil made of the Viṣṇu plant, an ointment made of emblic myrobalan together with sesamumoil and turmeric.—The ritual works founded on the Purāṇas mention moreover eight melodies which are severally played when the idol is washed with the eight kinds of water in the eight jars (see above col. a, line 43), as well as the instruments with which they are played. At the washing with the atmospheric water the melody is (acc. to the ritual of the Vṛhannandikeśvara-Pur.) Mālasī, played with the instrument Mangalotsava, or (acc. to the ritual of the Devī-Pur.) Vārāḍī, played with the instrument Indravijaya, or (acc. to the ritual of the Kālī-Pur.) Mālava, played with the instrument Vijaya; at the washing with the cloud-water, the m. is Devakīrī, p. w. the instr. Bhuvanavijaya (Vṛh.-Pur.), or Mālavagauḍa, p. w. the instr. Mangalavijaya (D.-Pur.), or Lalitā, played with the large kettle drum Dundubhī (K.-Pur.); at the washing with the water of the Sarasvatī, the m. is Vārāḍī, p. w. the instr. Vijaya (Vṛh.-Pur.), or Mālava, p. w. the instr. Devotsava (D.-Pur.), or Vibhāṣā, p. w. the drum Dundubhi (K.-Pur.); at the washing with the sea-water, the m. is Deśāla, p. w. the instr. Rājābhiṣeka (Vṛh.-Pur.), or Deśāla, p. w. the instr. Ghanatāla (D.-Pur.), or Bhairavī, p. w. the flute Vaṃśī (K.-Pur.); at the washing with the lotus pollen-water, the m. is Dhānuṣī, p. the instr. Madhurī (Vṛh.-Pur.), or Mālavī, p. w. the instr. Madhukara (D.-Pur.), or Koḍā, p. w. the instr. Indrābhiṣeka (K.-Pur.); at the washing with the cascade-water, the m. is Bhairavī, p. w. the cymbal Karatāla (Vṛh.-Pur.), or Bhairavī; p. w. the double drum Ḍhakkā (D.-Pur.), or Vārāḍī, p. w. the conch Śaṅkha (K.-P.); at the washing with the Tīrtha-water, the m. is Gujjarī, p. w. the flute Vaṃśī (Vṛh.-Pur.), or Vasanta, p. w. the conch Śaṅkha (D.-Pur.), or Vasanta, p. w. the instr. Pañchaśabda (K.-Pur.); at the washing with the pure water the melody is Vasanta, p. w. the instr. Pañchaśabda (Vṛh.-Pur.), or Koḍā, p. w. the drum Mṛdaṅga (D.-Pur.), or Dhānuṣī, p. w. the instr. Vijaya (K.-Pur.). See Rādhāk. s. v. abhiṣeka.—At the installation of a domestic idol (devapratiṣṭhā) the following articles are recommended for the ablution by the Devapratiṣṭhatattva (as quoted by Rādhāk.): river-, torrent-, sea-, cascadeand cloud-water, a mixture of milk, curds, sugar, clarified butter and honey, Panchagavya mixed with an infusion of Kuśa-grass; earth stirred up by the hoofs of a horse and the teeth of an elephant, earth from a mountain, from Kuśa-grass and an ant-hill, sesamum-oil, clarified butter, an infusion of five extracts (pañcakaṣāyodakam), flowers of the mango-tree, of the Champaka (Michelia champaca), of the Acacia suma, lotusses and Oleander; leaves of holy basil, jasmin and Śṛphala (Ægle marmelos.), a cleansing powder prepared either of the refuse of Sesamum (tilakalka), or of rice (śālitaṇḍula), or of Vilwa (Ægle marmelos.) -leaves, or of emblic myrobalan (āmalaka); hot water, water from places of pilgrimage. To prepare the liquid either a hundred and eight, or fifty four, or twenty jars are required, or one jar may suffice; the water is taken in the proportion of a hundred and eight Pala-weight—such is the vaidik (!) quantity—or, commonly, in the proportion of three hundred and sixty Tola-weight, and the substances named are mixed and shaken with it in each jar separately.— If a person, however, cannot afford to provide all these articles, he may take merely earth from an ant-hill, new cowdung, dry cowdung, some water mixed with ashes and scented water. (Comp. Rādhāk., Śabdak. s. v.).—E. sic with abhi, kṛt aff. ghañ. Comp. also abhiṣecanīya.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Abhiṣeka (अभिषेक):—[abhi-ṣeka] (kaḥ) m. Sprinkling, bathing, anointing, inaugurating.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Abhiṣeka (अभिषेक) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Abhiseṇa, Abhisega, Abhisegā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Abhisheka in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Abhisheka in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Abhiṣeka (अभिषेक) [Also spelled abhishek]:—(nm) inaugurating or consecrating (by sprinkling water); inauguration of a king, royal function.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Abhisheka in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Abhiṣēka (ಅಭಿಷೇಕ):—

1) [noun] the act of bathing the idol of a deity with holy water, milk, etc. religious unction.

2) [noun] a holy bathing of the person at the time of his crowning as the head of the state.

3) [noun] the crowing ceremony.

4) [noun] water and other liquid to be used for the ablution.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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