Abhimukhi, Abhimukhī: 9 definitions

Introduction:

Abhimukhi means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

[ next»] — Abhimukhi in Chandas glossary
Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature

Abhimukhī (अभिमुखी) is the alternative name of a Sanskrit metre (chandas) mentioned by Hemacandra (1088-1173 C.E.) in his auto-commentary on the second chapter of the Chandonuśāsana. Abhimukhī corresponds to Kamalamukhī (according to Bharata) as well as Mṛgacapalā. Hemacandra gives these alternative names for the metres by other authorities (like Bharata), even though the number of gaṇas or letters do not differ.

Chandas book cover
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Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: archive.org: The Indian Buddhist Iconography

Abhimukhī (अभिमुखी) or Abhimukhībhūmi refers to one of twelve Bhūmi Goddesses, as commonly depicted in Buddhist Iconography, and mentioned in the 11th-century Niṣpannayogāvalī of Mahāpaṇḍita Abhayākara.—Her Colour is yellow; her Symbol is a manuscript; she has two arms.

Abhimukhī is described in the Niṣpannayogāvalī (dharmadhātuvāgīśvara-maṇḍala) as follows:—

“Abhimukhī is of the colour of gold and holds on a lotus the prajñāpāramitā manuscript”.

[These twelve bhūmis [viz., Abhimukhī] are two-armed and hold in the right hand the vajra and in the left their own weapons or signs.]

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Abhimukhi in Mahayana glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Abhimukhī (अभिमुखी) or Abhimukhībhūmi refers to the “bhūmi of presence” and represents one of the ten Bodhisattva grounds (bodhisattabhūmi), according to the Daśabhūmikasūtra, or Daśabhūmīśvara, as mentioned in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 52.—Abhimukhī-bhūmi is also known as “mṅon du gyur ba, hien tsai”.—The Bodhisattva-mahāsattva in the sixth ground (abhimukhī-bhūmi) should completely fufill six dharmas. What are these six? They are the six perfections.—Indeed, it is by keeping these six perfections that the blessed Buddha, the Śrāvakas and Pratyekabuddhas have reached the other shore.

Six other dharmas are to be avoided, namely:

  1. The Bodhisattva should avoid thinking like the Śrāvakas and Pratyekabuddhas.
  2. By giving, he must avoid any sadness.
  3. Seeing a beggar, he must avoid any discouragement.
  4. He must abandon all his possessions without distinction.
  5. After having given away all his possessions, he must not feel any regret.
  6. He must not have any doubt about the profound teachings.

These, O Subhūti, are the six dharmas which the Bodhisattva-mahāsattva must fulfill when he is on the sixth ground (abhimukhī-bhūmi), and the other six dharmas that he should avoid.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Buddhist philosophy

Source: Google Books: The Treasury of Knowledge: Book six, parts one and two (philosophy)

Abhimukhī (अभिमुखी) refers to “appraisable objects that are directly evident” representing one of the three types of prameya (“appraisable objects”).—Accordingly, “The terms ‘object’ (viṣaya; yul), ‘knowable’ (jñeya; shes bya), and ‘appraisable’ (prameya; gzhal bya) are all essentially equivalent, [...] it is the defining characteristic of the ‘appraisable’ that it is to be understood through valid cognition”. When objects to be appraised (prameya) are analyzed in terms of the processes of understanding, they are said to include both specifically characterized phenomena and generally characterized phenomena. Alternatively, they fall into three [categories]—[i.e., appraisable objects that are directly evident (abhimukhī; mngon gyur), ...]”.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Abhimukhi in Buddhism glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Abhimukhī (अभिमुखी, “manifest”) or Abhimukhībhūmi refers to the sixth of the “ten stages of the Bodhisattva” (bhūmi) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 64). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., abhimukhī). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D. Arciṣmatī is also included in the “thirteen stages of the Bodhisattva” (trayodaśa-bhūmi).

Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Abhimukhi in Sanskrit glossary
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Abhimukhī (अभिमुखी).—name of the 6th of the 10 Bodhisattva-bhūmi: Mahāvyutpatti 891; Dharmasaṃgraha 64; Bodhisattvabhūmi 346.10; Daśabhūmikasūtra 5.9 etc.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Abhimukhī (अभिमुखी):—[=abhi-mukhī] [from abhi-mukha] a f. one of the ten Bhūmis to be passed by a Bodhisattva, before becoming a Buddha.

2) [from abhi-mukha] b (for abhimukha in [compound] with √1. kṛ and √bhū).

[Sanskrit to German]

Abhimukhi in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Abhimukhi in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Abhimukhi (ಅಭಿಮುಖಿ):—[noun] one who is facing towards.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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