Abhi, Abhī: 15 definitions
Abhi means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Buddhist Information: A Survey of Paramattha Dhammas
The term "abhi" can mean great, mighty.
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Abhi-, (prefix, Vedic abhi, which represents both Idg *m̊bhi, as in Gr. a)mfi/ around, Lat. ambi, amb round about, Oir. imb, Gall. ambi, Ohg. umbi, Ags. ymb, cp. also Vedic (Pāli) abhitaḥ on both sides; and Idg. *obhi, as in Lat. ob towards, against (cp. obsess, obstruct), Goth. bi, Ohg. Ags. bī = E. be-.
I. Meaning. — 1. The primary meaning of abhi is that of taking possession and mastering, as contained in E. coming by and over-coming, thus literally having the function of (a) facing and aggressing = towards, against, on to, at (see II. 1, a); and (b) mastering = over, along over, out over, on top of (see II. 1, b). 2. Out of this is developed the fig. meaning of increasing, i. e., an intensifying of the action implied in the verb (see III, 1). Next to saṃ- it is the most frequent modification preflx in the meaning of “very much, greatly” as the first part of a double-prefix cpd. (see III, 2), and therefore often seemingly superfluous, i. e., weakened in meaning, where the second part already denotes intensity as in abhi-vi-ji (side by side with vi-ji), abhi-ā-kkhā (side by side with ā-kkhā), abhi-anu-mud (side by side with anu-mud). In these latter cases abhi shows a purely deictic character corresponding to Ger. her-bei-kommen (for bei-kommen), E. fill up (for fill); e. g., abbhatikkanta (= ati ° C.), abbhatīta (“vorbei gegaṅgen”), abbhantara (“with-in”, b-innen or “in here”), abbhudāharati, abhipūreti (“fill up”), etc. (see also II. 1, c).
II. Lit. Meaning. — 1. As single pref.: (a) against, to, on to, at-, viz., abbhatthaṅgata gone towards home, abhighāta striking at, °jjhā think at, °mana thinking on, °mukha facing, turned towards, °yāti at-tack, °rūhati ascend, °lāsa long for, °vadati ad-dress, °sapati ac-curse, °hata hit at. (b) out, over, all around: abbhudeti go out over, °kamati exceed, °jāti off-spring, °jānāti know all over, °bhavati overcome, °vaḍḍhati increase, °vuṭṭha poured out or over, °sandeti make over-flow, °siñcati sprinkle over. (c) abhi has the function of transitivising intrs. verbs after the manner of E. be- (con-) and Ger. er-, thus resembling in meaning a simple Caus. formation, like the foll.: abhigajjati thunder on, °jānāti “er-kennen” °jāyati be-get, °tthaneti = °gajjati, °nadati “er tönen”, °nandati approve of (cp. anerkennen), °passati con-template, °ramati indulge in, °ropeti honour, °vuḍḍha increased, °saddahati believe in. — 2. As base in compn. (2nd part of cpd.) abhi occurs only in combn. sam-abhi (which is, however, of late occurrence and a peeuliarity of later texts, and is still more frequent in BSk.: see under sam-).
III, Fig. Meaning (intensifying). — 1. A single pref.: abhikiṇṇa strewn all over, °jalati shine forth, °jighacchati be very hungry, °tatta much exhausted, °tāpa very hot, °toseti pleuse greatly, °nava quite fresh, °nipuṇa very clever, °nīla of a deep black, °manāpa very pleasant, °mangaly very lucky, °yobbana full youth, °rati great liking, °ratta deep red, °ruci intense satisfaction, °rūpa very handsome (= adhika-rūpa C.), °sambuddha wide and fully-awake, cp. abbhuddhunāti to shake greatly (= adhikaṃuddh° C.). — As 1st part of a prep.-cpd. (as modification-pref.) in foll. combinations: abhi-ud (abbhud-) °ati, °anu, °ava, °ā, °ni, °ppa, °vi, °saṃ. See all these s. v. and note that the contraction (assimilation before vowel) form of abhi is abbh°. — On its relation to pari, see pari°, to ava see ava°.
IV. Dialectical Variation. — There are dial. variations in the use and meanings of abhi. Vedic abhi besides corresponding to abhi in P. is represented also by ati°, adhi° and anu°, since all are similar in meaning, and psychologically easily fused and confused (cp. meanings: abhi = on to, towards; ati = up to and beyond; adhi = up to, towards, over; anu = along towards). For all the foll. verbs we find in Pāli one or other of these three prefixes. So ati in °jāti, °pīḷita, °brūheti, °vassati, °vāyati, °veṭheti; also as vv. ll. with abhi-kīrati, °pavassati, °roceti, cp. atikkanta-abhi° (Sk. abhikrānta); adhi in °patthita, °pāteti, °ppāya, °ppeta, °bādheti, °bhū, °vāha (vice versa P. abhi-ropeti compared with Sk. adhiropayati); anu in °gijjhati, °brūheti, °sandahati. (Page 61)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
abhi (अभि).—ind S A preposition and particle implying 1 Similarity (so, thus). 2 Presence (before). 3 Separation (severally). 4 Conjunction, particularization (to, with respect to).Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
abhi (अभि).—ind A preposition and particle im- plying similarity; presence; separa- tion; conjunction.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) (As a prefix to verbs and nouns) It means (a) 'to', 'towards', 'in the direction of'; अभिगम् (abhigam) to go towards; अभिया, °गमनम्, °यानम् (abhiyā, °gamanam, °yānam) &c.; (b) 'for' 'against'; °लष्, °पत् (laṣ, °pat) &c.; (c) 'on', 'upon'; °सिञ्च् (siñc) to sprinkle on &c.; (d) 'over', 'above', 'across'; °भू (bhū) to overpower, °तन् (tan); (e) 'greatly'; 'excessively'; °कम्प् (kamp).
2) (As a prefix to nouns not derived from verbs, and to adjectives) It expresses (a) intensity or superiority; °धर्मः (dharmaḥ) 'supreme duty'; °ताम्र (tāmra) 'very red'; R.15.49; °नव (nava) 'very new'; (b) 'towards', 'in the direction of', forming adv. compounds; °चैद्यम्, °मुखम्, °दूति (caidyam, °mukham, °dūti) &c.
3) (As a separable adverb) It means towards, in the direction or vicinity of (opp. apa); in, above, aloft, on the top, (mostly Ved.)
4) (As a preposition with acc.) (a) To, towards, in the direction of, aginst; (with acc. or in comp. in this sense); अभ्यग्नि (abhyagni) or अग्निमभि शलभाः पतन्ति (agnimabhi śalabhāḥ patanti); वृक्षमभि द्योतते विद्युत् (vṛkṣamabhi dyotate vidyut) Sk.; Śiśupālavadha 9.56,4; अभ्यर्कबिम्बं स्थितः (abhyarkabimbaṃ sthitaḥ) Ś.7.11. (b) Near, before, in front or presence of; प्रियमभि कुसुमोद्यतस्य बाहोः (priyamabhi kusumodyatasya bāhoḥ) Śiśupālavadha 7.32;15.58. (c) On, upon, with regard or reference to; सायमण्डलमभि त्वरयन्त्यः (sāyamaṇḍalamabhi tvarayantyaḥ) Kirātārjunīya 9.6; साधुर्देवदत्तो मातरमभि (sādhurdevadatto mātaramabhi) Sk. (d) Severally, one after another (in a distributive sense); वृक्षं वृक्षमभि सिञ्चति (vṛkṣaṃ vṛkṣamabhi siñcati) Sk.; भूतभूतमभि प्रभुः (bhūtabhūtamabhi prabhuḥ) Bop. By अभिरभाग (abhirabhāga) P.I.4.91. अभि (abhi) has all the senses of अनु (anu) given in I. P.4.9 except that of भाग (bhāga); e. g. (lakṣaṇe) हरिमभि वर्तते (harimabhi vartate); (inthaṃbhūtākhyāne) भक्तो हरिमभि (bhakto harimabhi); (vīpsāyām), देवं देवमभि सिञ्चति (devaṃ devamabhi siñcati); but यदत्र ममाभिष्यात् तद्दीयताम् (yadatra mamābhiṣyāt taddīyatām); प्राज्ञो गोविन्द- मभितिष्ठति (prājño govinda- mabhitiṣṭhati) Bop. (e) In, into, to; Śiśupālavadha 8.6. (f.) For, for the sake of, on account of (Ved.). According to G. M. अभि (abhi) has these senses :अभि पूजाभृशार्थेच्छासौम्याभि- मुख्यसौरूप्यवचनाहारस्वाध्यायेषु (abhi pūjābhṛśārthecchāsaumyābhi- mukhyasaurūpyavacanāhārasvādhyāyeṣu); e. g. पूजायाम्, अभिवन्दते (pūjāyām, abhivandate); भृशे, अभिनिवेशः (bhṛśe, abhiniveśaḥ); इच्छायाम् (icchāyām); अभिलाषः, अभिकः (abhilāṣaḥ, abhikaḥ); सौम्ये (saumye) or माधुर्ये, अभिजातः (mādhurye, abhijātaḥ); आभिमुख्ये, अभिमुखम्, अभ्यग्नि (ābhimukhye, abhimukham, abhyagni); सौरूप्ये, अभिरूपम् (saurūpye, abhirūpam); वचने, अभिधत्ते (vacane, abhidhatte); आहारे, अभ्यवहरति (āhāre, abhyavaharati); स्वाध्याये, अभ्यस्यति (svādhyāye, abhyasyati). [cf. L. ob; Gr. amphi; Zend aibi or aiwi, Goth. bi; also umbi um].
--- OR ---
Abhī (अभी).—[abhi-i] 2 P.
1) To approach, come or draw near, go up to (with acc.) अस्मानत्तुमितोऽभ्येति (asmānattumito'bhyeti) Bhaṭṭikāvya 7.84.; Kirātārjunīya 2.54.
2) To go along or after, follow, serve.
3) (a) To go into, enter; Bhaṭṭikāvya 5.67; अवाङ्नरकमभ्येति (avāṅnarakamabhyeti) Manusmṛti 8.75. (b) To go over to, reach, arrive at; Me. 36 v. l. (e) To fall to one's share, come to; नाऽविविदिषु- मभ्येति सम्पद् रुरुदिषुं नरम् (nā'vividiṣu- mabhyeti sampad rurudiṣuṃ naram) Bhaṭṭikāvya 7.99.
4) To get, meet with, fall into, suffer, undergo (said of good or bad things); कार्यं संसिद्धिमभ्येति (kāryaṃ saṃsiddhimabhyeti) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.
--- OR ---
Abhī (अभी).—a. Without fear; व्याघ्रानभीरभिमुखोत्पतितान् (vyāghrānabhīrabhimukhotpatitān) R. 9.63;15.8.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Abhi (अभि).—ind. A preposition and particle implying. 1. Superiority in place, rank, or power, (over, upon, against, above:) 2. Proximity, (near:) 3. Separation, (severally:) 4. Wish, desire: 5. Conjunction, particularizing, (to, with respect to.) Thus abhikramituṃ to overpower; abhigantuṃ to approach; abhikhyātuṃ to speak to; abhibhava disgrace; abhilāṣa desire; abhyagniṃ on the fire, &c. E. a neg. bhā to shine, and ki aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Abhi (अभि).— (Towards, to). I. adv. On,
— Cf. [Gothic.] bī. The original form of this indeclinable was probably ambhi = Gr. [Latin] amb in amb-ire; [Old High German.] umbi.
--- OR ---
Abhī is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms a and bhī (भी).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Abhi (अभि).—[adverb] to, unto, near ([comparative] abhitaram or rām nearer); towards, against; as [preposition] the same + into, for, for the sake of, over, above, concerning, about ([accusative]); without, except ([ablative]).
--- OR ---
Abhī (अभी).—come up to, approach, appear; go against or along, enter ([accusative]); reach, meet, attain, get; betide, befall.
Abhī is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms abhi and i (इ).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Abhi (अभि):—[=a-bhi] 1. a-bhi mfn. fearless, [Mahābhārata]
2) 2. abhi ind. (a prefix to verbs and nouns, expressing) to, towards, into, over, upon. (As a prefix to verbs of motion) it expresses the notion or going towards, approaching, etc. (As a prefix to nouns not derived from verbs) it expresses superiority, intensity, etc.
3) e.g. abhi-tāmra, abhi-nava q.v. (As a separate adverb or preposition) it expresses (with [accusative]) to, towards, in the direction of, against
4) into, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] and, [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra]
5) for, for the sake of
6) on account of
7) on, upon, with regard to, by, before, in front of
8) over. It may even express one after the other, severally, [Pāṇini 1-4, 91] e.g. vṛkṣaṃ vṛkṣam abhi, tree after tree
9) cf. [Greek] ἀμφί; [Latin] ob; Zend aibi, aiwi; [Gothic] bi; Old High [German] bī.
10) Abhī (अभी):—[=a-bhī] 1. a-bhī mfn. fearless, [Rāmāyaṇa; Raghuvaṃśa]
11) 2. abhī (√i), abhy-eti (Imper. 2. sg. abhīhi; [imperfect tense] 3. [plural] -āyan, 3. sg. [Ātmanepada] -āyata; [indeclinable participle] abhītya)
—to come near, approach, go up to or towards ([accusative]), [Ṛg-veda] etc.;—(with sakāśam or samīpam or pārśve) idem, [Pañcatantra];
—to go along or after ([accusative]), [Ṛg-veda] etc.;
—to enter, join, go over to, [Manu-smṛti; Bhaṭṭi-kāvya];
— (with a [present participle]) to begin to, (perf. 3. [plural] abhīyuḥ), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa];
—to reach, obtain, [Ṛg-veda] etc.;
—to get or fall into ([accusative]), [Mahābhārata] etc.;
—to come to, fall to one’s share (with [accusative]), [Bhaṭṭi-kāvya];
— (said of the sun) to rise (as if he came nearer; also with abhitarām q.v. instead of abhi), [Aitareya-brāhmaṇa,] (with astam) to set, [Mahābhārata i, 1797] (cf. abhy-aya) :
—[Passive voice] abhīyate to be perceived, known, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa] :—[Intensive] (1. [plural] -īmahe) to ask, request, [Ṛg-veda i, 24, 3.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Goldstücker Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Abhi (अभि):—ind. (see nipāta, upasarga, gati, karmapravacanīya) A particle implying the notion of proximity, hence of conjunction, relation, superiority, excess, in their literal and metaphorical acceptations (and thus becoming in many instances synonymous as well with ā, anu as with adhi, api, ati); it is used either as a prefix to verbs, and as such, in the Vedas and archaic passages of the classical literature, also detached from the verb (very much in the same manner as German prepositions when connected with verbs): or as a separable preposition: or, in the Vedas and archaic passages of the classical literature, as an adverb. With nouns it may form [tatpurusha compound], [bahuvrihi compound] and Avyayībh. compounds. It appears, too, in the protracted form abhī; e. g. (ved.) abhī ṣu ṇaḥ, and comp. abhīka, abhīghāta, abhīṣaṅga &c. 1. (as a prefix to verbs it means)
1) Towards, to (implying proximity); e. g. gam or i or yā, with abhi, ‘to go towards, to approach’; kram or dhāv, with abhi, ‘to attack’; vah with abhi, ‘to carry towards’; vad with abhi, ‘to salute’; in many instances where the radical itself implies this notion, it increases merely the power of the verbal meaning and becomes often untranslateable in English; e. g. pīḍ ‘to squeeze, to vex’ has the same meaning, but in an increased degree, with abhi, grah with abhi means, like grah, ‘to receive’; bharts ‘to reproach, to threaten’ has the same sense with abhi; han with abhi means the same as han &c.
2) Towards, for, against (implying relation, when the same remark applies as before); e. g. laṣ with abhi, ‘to desire, to wish for’, rādh with abhi, ‘to be favourable towards’, druh with abhi, ‘to have animosity against’; yuj with abhi (esp. pass.), ‘to bring an action against, to accuse’.
3) On, upon (implying contiguity and answering frequently the cognate English be-); e. g. su with abhi, ‘to pour the juice of the Soma upon’, sic with abhi, ‘to sprinkle upon, to be-sprinkle, jan with abhi, ‘to be be-got’.
4) On, above, over (implying superiority or mastership); e. g. bhū or as (cl. 2.) with abhi, ‘to overpower’; as (cl. 1. or cl. 4.) with abhi, ‘to study’ (comp. gam, i &c. with adhi). 2. (as a separable preposition) with a noun following or preceding in the accusative;
1) Towards, to, in the direction of; e. g. Vājas.: suprajāḥ prajāḥ prajanayanparīhyabhi rāyaspoṣeṇa yajamānam; or Manu: taṃ cedabhyudiyātsūryaḥ &c.; (comp. s. v. abhinirmukta); or comm. on Pāṇ.: vṛkṣamabhi vidyotate vidyut.
2) Towards, with regard to (implying relation); e. g. Ṛgv. or Vājas.: tripādūrdhva udaitpuruṣaḥ pādo’syehābhavatpunaḥ . tato viṣvaṅvyakrāmatsāśanānaśane abhi; or Siddh. K.: bhakto harimabhi.
3) For the sake of, on behalf of, on account of; e. g. Sāmav.: yatra na pūrve pitaraḥ padajñā svarvido abhi gā adrimiṣṇan; or Bhaṭṭik.: abhi dyotiṣyate rāmo bhavantamacirādiha.
4) In, on; e. g. Ṛgv.: sadhrīcīnena manasā tamindra ojiṣṭhena hanmanāhannabhi dyūn ‘…on certain days’; or yatte gātrādagninā pacyamānādabhi śūlaṃ (on the spit) nihatasyāvadhāvati &c.
5) Over (implying dominion, mastership); e. g. Ṛgv.: sa tu śrudhi śrutyā yo duvoyurdyaurna bhūmābhi rāyo aryaḥ.
6) By (implying distribution), severally; e. g. comm. on Pāṇ.: vṛkṣaṃ vṛkṣamabhi siñcati or devaṃ devamabhi siñcati. 3.
(as adverb) 1) Before, in front of, towards; e. g. Ṛgv.: or Atharv.: gā na vrāṇā avanīramucadabhi śravo dāvane sacetāḥ (scil. indraḥ), where Sāyaṇa explains abhi with the ellipsis dadāti (abhyābhimukhyena dadātīti śeṣaḥ).
2) All round, everywhere, entirely (comp. abhitas); e. g. Ṛgv: abhi tvā deva savitarīśānaṃ vāryāṇām . sadāvanbhāgamīmahe (where tvā is not to be connected with abhi, but with īmahe; Sāyaṇa: tvāṃ prati bhāgaṃ bhajanīyaṃ dhanamabhi sarvata īmahe); or Sāmav. or Vājas.: abhi tyaṃ devaṃ savitāramoṇyoḥ kavikratumarcāmi satyasavaṃ ratnadhāmabhi priyaṃ matim; or Śāntip. of the Mahābh.: dhanāddharmaḥ prabhavati śailādabhi nadī yathā. 4. (in composition with nouns) [a.]) [tatpurusha compound]
1) if it is upapada, it retains the meaning which it has as prefix to the radical; e. g. in abhikrama, abhighāta, abhiṣeka &c.;
2) if it is not upapada, it implies superiority or excess: excellently, very, very much; e. g. abhidharma, abhinīta, abhyadhika. [b.]) [bahuvrihi compound]
1) Towards, in the direction of; e. g. abhimanas, abhimukha, abhidyu,
2) Excellently, very, very much; e. g. abhirūpa, abhyaṅka, abhikratu. [c.]) Avyayībh. Towards, in the direction of; e. g. abhyagni, abhidakṣiṇam, abhivātam. E. doubtful; the native E. a neg. and bhi (bhā, uṇ. aff. ki) is not very plausible. See bhi and the Preface.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Abhi (अभि):—prep. Towards, to.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
1) Abhi (अभि):——a Sanskrit prefix denoting towards, near, over, above, repeated, excessive, etc.
2) Abhī (अभी):—(adv) just now, this moment; —[dama meṃ dama hai] to show fight, has fight (in him) yet.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+3127): Abhia, Abhiana, Abhiavanna, Abhibadh, Abhibadhitar, Abhibadhitri, Abhibala, Abhibha, Abhibhabhibhubhabhu, Abhibhakkhayati, Abhibhakshana, Abhibhana, Abhibhanga, Abhibhanj, Abhibhanja, Abhibhanjat, Abhibhara, Abhibhartri, Abhibharts, Abhibhartsita.
Ends with (+142): Accanabhi, Adavi nabhi, Adavinabhi, Adhastanabhi, Adhonabhi, Ajanmasurabhi, Akrittanabhi, Amshunabhi, Anabhi, Animnanabhi, Anupurvanabhi, Anyanabhi, Apabhi, Apanabhi, Apetabhi, Apramanabhi, Apupanabhi, Arabhi, Aravindanabhi, Arshabhi.
Full-text (+2730): Abhicara, Abhinaya, Abhisayam, Abhidroha, Abhimati, Abhivrita, Abhighata, Udabhi, Abhikanksha, Abhimara, Abhisapa, Abhilapa, Abhipada, Abhinanda, Abhivrit, Abhimana, Samabhi, Abhivyapti, Abhitapa, Abhivahya.
Search found 69 books and stories containing Abhi, Abhī, A-bhi, A-bhī, Abhi-i; (plurals include: Abhis, Abhīs, bhis, bhīs, is). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Rig Veda (translation and commentary) (by H. H. Wilson)
Rig Veda 9.97.51 < [Sukta 97]
Rig Veda 1.54.10 < [Sukta 54]
Rig Veda 9.97.49 < [Sukta 97]
The history of Andhra country (1000 AD - 1500 AD) (by Yashoda Devi)
Part 13 - The Chalukyas of Elamanchili (A.D. 1150-1530) < [Chapter XI - The Chalukyas]
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 4: Ara’s birth < [Chapter II - Śrī Aranāthacaritra]
Part 2: Youth of Ajita and Sagara < [Chapter III - The initiation and omniscience of Ajita]
Part 10: Sermon on the four gatis (introduction) < [Chapter IV - Padmaprabhacaritra]
Vasudevavijaya of Vasudeva (Study) (by Sajitha. A)
Kāraka (i): Karmapravacanīya < [Chapter 3 - Vāsudevavijaya—A Grammatical Study]
Parasmaipada (in Sanskrit grammar) < [Chapter 3 - Vāsudevavijaya—A Grammatical Study]
Kāraka (c): Karman < [Chapter 3 - Vāsudevavijaya—A Grammatical Study]
The Buddhist Path to Enlightenment (study) (by Dr Kala Acharya)
4.1. The Meaning of Indriya (Faculties) < [Chapter 2 - Five Groups of Factor]
1.3.1. Kāyanupassanā—Contemplation of the Body < [Chapter 2 - Five Groups of Factor]
Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi (by Ganganatha Jha)