Pali-english Dictionary

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Kaya, Kāya

From the definition kaya.

Kaya (derivative)

1) Kaya, (fr. kri) purchase, buying A. III, 226 (+vi°).

Kāya (derivative)

2) Kāya, (der. probably fr. ci, cinoti to heap up, cp. nikāya heaping up, accumulation or collection; Sk. kāya) group, heap, collection, aggregate, body.—Definitions and synonyms.—SnA 31 gives the foll. synonyms and similes of kāya: kuṭī, guhā (Sn. 772), deha, sandeha (Dh. 148=Th. 1, 20), nāvā (Dh. 369), ratha (S. IV, 292), dhaja, vammīka (M. I, 144), kuṭikā (Th. 1, 1); and at KhA 38 the foll. def. : kāye ti sarīre, sarīraṃ hi asucisañcayato kucchitānaṃ vā kesādīnaṃ āyabhūtato kāyo ti vuccati... . It is equivalent to deha: S. I, 27; PvA. 10; to sarīra KhA 38; PvA. 63, to nikāya (deva°) D. III, 264; and cp. formula of jāti: sattānaṃ tamhi tamhi sattanikāye jāti ... Nd2 257.

Kāya (applied meaning)

3.a) (Applied meaning) Kāya under the physical aspect is an aggregate of a multiplicity of elements which finally can be reduced to the four “great” elements, viz. earth, water, fire, and air (D. I, 55). This “heap, ” in the valuation of the Wise (muni), shares with all other objects the qualities of such elements, and is therefore regarded as contemptible, as something which one has to get rid of, as a source of impurity. It is subject to time and change, it is built up and kept alive by cravings, and with death it is disintegrated into the elements. But the kamma which determined the appearance of this physical body has naturally been renewed and assumes a new form.

3.b) Kāya under the psychological aspect is the seat of sensation (Dhs. §§ 613‹-› 16), and represents the fundamental organ of touch which underlies all other sensation. Developed only in later thought DhsA. 311 cf. Mrs. Rhys Davids, Bud. Psy. Ethics lvi. ff.; Bud. Psy. 143, 185 f.

Kāya (physical meaning)

4.a) (Physical meaning) Understanding of the body is attained through introspection (sati). In the group of the four sati-paṭṭhānas, the foundations of introspection, the recognition of the true character of “body” comes first (see Vbh. 193). The standing formula of this recognition is kāye kāyânupassī ... contemplating body as an accumulation, on which follows the description of this aggregate: “he sees that the body is clothed in skin, full of all kinds of dirty matter, and that in this body there are hair, nails, teeth, ” etc. (the enumeration of the 32 ākāras, as given Kh III, ). The conclusions drawn from this meditation give a man the right attitude. The formula occurs frequently, both in full and abridged, e.g. D. II, 293, 294; III, 104, 141; A. III, 323=V. 109; S. IV, 111=V. 278; Vbh. 193, 194; Nett 83, 123; with slight variation: kāye asubhânupassī ... A. III, 142 sq.; V, 109 (under asubhasaññā); It. 81; cp. kāye aniccânupassī S. IV, 211; and kāyagatā sati.—

This accumulation is described in another formula with: ayaṃ ... kāyo rūpī cātum(m)ahābhūtiko mātā-pettika-sambhavo odana-kummās’upacayo, etc. “this body has form (i.e. is material, visible), is born from mother and father, is a heap of gruel and sour milk, is subject to constant dressing and tending, to breaking up and decay, ” etc., with inferences D. I, 55=S. III, 207; S. II, 94; IV, 194; V, 282, 370; D. I, 76, 209; M. I, 144, 500; II, 17; A. IV, 386=S. IV, 83.

4.b) Various qualities and functions of the material body. As trunk of the body (opposed to pakkhā and sīsa) S. II, 231; also at Pv. I, 83; as depending on nourishment (āhāra-ṭṭhitika, etc.) Sv. 64; A. II, 145 (with taṇhā, māna, methuna); as needing attention: see °parihārika. As saviññāṇaka, having consciousness A. IV, 53= S. II, 252=S. III, 80, 103, 136, 169; cp. āyu usmā ca viññānaṃ yadā kāyaṃ jahant’imaṃ S. III, 143. As in need of breathing assāsa-passāsa S. V, 330, 336; as tired, fatigued (kilanta-kāya) kilanta-kāyā kilanta-cittā te devā tamhā kāyā cavanti “tired in body, tired in mind these gods fall out of this assembly” (D. I, 20; III, 32≈); in other connection PvA. 43; see also kilanta. kāyo kilanto D. III, 255 sq.; =A. IV, 332; S. V, 317; M. I, 116; jiṇṇassa me ... kāyo na paleti Sn. 1144; ātura-kāyo S. III, 1 (cittaṃ anāturaṃ); paripuṇṇa-k° suruci sujāto, etc., with a perfect body (of the Buddha) Sn. 548= Th. 1, 818; cp. mahā-k° (of Brahmins) Sn. 298. The body of a Buddha is said to be endowed with the 32 signs of a great man: Bhagavato kāye dvattiṃsa mahāpurisa-lakkhaṇāni ... Sn. p. 107, cp. 549. The Tathāgata is said to be dhamma-kāyo “author and speaker of Doctrine, ” in the same sense Brahma-kāyo “the best body” (i.e. of Doctrine) D. III, 84 (Dial. iii, 81).

4.c) Valuation of physical body. From the contemplating of its true character (kāyânupassī) follows its estimation as a transient, decaying, and repulsive object.—kāye anicc’ânupassī S. IV, 211 (and vay’ânupassī, nirodh’ânupassī), so also asubhânupassī It. 81; kāyañ ca bhindantaṃ ñatvā It. 69; evaṃdhammo (i.e. a heap of changing elements) A. III, 324; aciraṃ vat’ayaṃ kāyo paṭhaviṃ adhisessati chuddho apetaviññāṇo niratthaṃ va kaliṅgaraṃ Dh. 41. pittaṃ semhañ ca vamati kāyamhā Sn. 198. As bahu-dukkho bahuādīnavo A. V, 109; as anicca dukkha, etc. M. I, 500; II, 17; kāyena aṭṭiyamānā harayamānā S. IV, 62; V, 320; dissati imassa kāyassa ācayo pi apacayo pi ādānam pi nikkhepanam pi S. II, 94.—

This body is eaten by crows and vultures after its death: S. V, 370. Represented as pūti° foul S. I, 131; III, 120.—Bdhgh. at Vism. 240 defines kāya as “catu-mahābhūtika pūti-kāya” (cp. similar passages on p. 367: patthaddho bhavati kāyo, pūtiko bhavati kāyo).

4.d) Similes.—Out of the great number of epithets (adhivacanāni) and comparisons only a few can be mentioned (cp. above under def. & syn.): The body is compared to an abscess (gaṇḍa) S. IV, 83=A. IV, 386; a city (nagara) S. IV, 194; a cart (ratha) S. IV, 292; an anthill (vammīka) M. I, 144; all in reference to its consisting of the four fundamental elements, cp. also: pheṇ’ûpamaṃ kāyaṃ imaṃ viditvā “knowing that the body is like froth” Dh. 46; kumbh’ûpamaṃ kāyaṃ imaṃ viditvā nagar’ûpamaṃ cittaṃ idaṃ ṭhapetvā Dh. 40: the body is as fragile as a water-pot.

4.e) Dissolution of the body is expressed in the standard phrase: kāyassa bhedā param maraṇā ... , i.e. after death ... upon which usually follows the mention of one of the gatis, the destinies which the new kāya has to experience, e.g. D. I, 82, 107, 143, 162, 245, 247, 252; III, 96, 97, 146, 181, 235; M. I, 22; S. I, 94; III, 241; Dh. 140; It. 12, 14; J. I, 152; PvA. 27, etc., etc. Cp. also IV.

Kāya (psychological)

5) (Psychological).—As the seat of feeling, kāya is the fifth in the enumeration of the senses (āyatanāni). It is ajjhattika as sense (i.e. subjective) and its object is the tangible (phoṭṭhabba). The contact between subject and object consists either in touching (phusitvā) or in sensing (viññeyya). The formulas vary, but are in essence the same all through, e.g. kāya-viññeyyā phoṭṭhabbā D. I, 245; kāyena phoṭṭhabbaṃ phusitvā D. III, 226, 250, 269; M. I, 33; II, 42; S. IV, 104, 112; kāyena phusitvā A. V, 11; kāyo c’eva phoṭṭhabbā ca D. III, 102. Best to be grouped here is an application of kāya in the sense of the self as experiencing a great joy; the whole being, the “inner sense, ” or heart. This realization of intense happiness (such as it is while it lasts), pīti-sukha, is the result of the four stages of meditation, and as such it is always mentioned after the jhānas in the formula: so imaṃ eva kāyaṃ vivekajena pīti-sukhena abhisandeti ... “His very body does he so pervade with the joy and ease born of detachment from worldliness” D. I, 73 sq. =M. I, 277; A. II, 41, etc.—

A similar context is that in which kāya is represented as passaddha, calmed down, i.e. in a state which is free from worldly attachment (vivekaja). This “peace” of the body (may be translated as “my senses, my spirits” in this connection) flows out of the peace of the mind and this is born out of the joy accompanying complete satisfaction (pamuditā) in attaining the desired end. The formula is pamuditassa pīti jāyati pītimanassa kāyo passambhati, passaddhakāyo sukhaṃ vedeti, sukhino cittaṃ samādhiyati D. III, 241, 288; S. IV, 351; M. I, 37; A. III, 21, 285; IV, 176; V, 3, 333; Vbh. 227. ‹-› Similarly: pamuditāya pīti jāyati, pītimanāya kāyo p°, passadhakāyā sukhaṃ ved° Vin. I, 294 (c̣p. Vin. Texts II. 224: “all my frame will be at peace, ” or “individuality”; see note) passaddhakāya-saṅkhāra mentioned at A. V, 29 sq. is one of the ten ariya-vāsā, the noblest conditions. A quasi-analogy between kāya and kāma is apparent from a number of other passages: kāya-chando —°sneho —°anvayatā pahīyati M. I, 500; ajjhattañ ca bahiddha ca kāye chandaṃ virājaye Sn. 203; kāye avigata-rāgo hoti (kāme, rūpe) D. III, 238=A. III, 249; madhurakajāto viya kāyo S. III, 106; A. III, 69.

Kāya (ethical)

6) (Ethical).—Kāya is one of the three channels by which a man’s personality is connected with his environment & by which his character is judged, viz. action, the three being kāya, vacī (vāca) and manas. These three kammantas, activities or agents, form the three subdivisions of the sīla, the rules of conduct. Kāya is the first and most conspicuous agent, or the principle of action kat) e)coxήn, character in its pregnant sense.

Kāya (triad)

Kāya as one of a triad.—Its usual combination is in the formula mentioned, and as such found in the whole of the Pāli Canon. But there is also another combination, found only in the older texts, viz. kayenā vācāya uda cetasā: yañ ca karoti kāyena vācāya uda cetasā taṃ hi tassa sakaṃ hoti tañ ca ādāya gacchati S. I, 93 yo dhammacārī kāyena vācāya uda cetasā idh eva nam pasaṃsanti pacca sagge pamodati S. I, 102.—

So also at A. I, 63; Sn. 232. Besides in formula arakkhitena kāyena a° vācāya a° cittena S. II, 231=271; IV, 112. ‹-› With su- and duccarita the combn is extremely frequent, e.g. S. I, 71, 72; M. I, 22, etc., etc. In other comb. we have kāya- (v°. , m. °) kamma, moneyya, soceyya, etc.—k°. v°. m°. hiṃsati S. I, 165; saṃsappati A. V, 289 sq.; kāye (v°. m°.) sati kāya-sañcetanā-hetu uppajjati S. II, 39 sq.; The variations of k- in the ethics of the Dhamma under this view of k°. v°. m°. are manifold, all based on the fundamental distinctions between good and bad, all being the raison d’être of kamma: yaṃ ... etarahi kammaṃ karoti kāyena v. m. idaṃ vuccati navakammaṃ S. IV, 132.—Passages with reference to good works are e.g. D. III, 245; A. I, 151; V, 302 sq.; (see also Kamma II. 2 b. c.).—With reference to evil: S. III, 241, 247; A. I, 201; kin nu kāyena vācāya manasā dukkaṭaṃ kataṃ Pv. II, 13 and passim. Assutavā puthujjano tīhi ṭhānehi micchā paṭipajjati kāyena v. m. S. II, 151; pāpaṃ na kayirā vacasā manasā kāyena vā kiñcana sabbaloke S. I, 12=31; yassa kāyena vācāya manasā n’atthi dukkaṭaṃ saṃvutaṃ tīhi ṭhānehi, tam ahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ Dh. 391=Nett 183. Kāyena saṃvaro sādhu sādhu vācāya saṃvaro manasā saṃvaro sādhu sādhu sabbattha saṃvaro Dh. 361=S. I, 73= Miln. 399; ye ca kāyena v. m. ca susaṃvutā na te Māravasânugā, na te Mārassa paccagū S. I, 104; vācānurakkhī manasā susaṃvuto kāyena ca akusalaṃ na kayirā Dh. 281=Nett 183.

Kāya (dyad)

7) Kāya as one of a dyad: vācā and kāya: S. I, 172 (°gutta) M. I, 461 (rakkhita and a°); Pv. I, 22 (°saññatā and opp.); Vism. 28 (k°-vacī-kamma); PvA. 98.

Kāya (collective expression)

8) Kāya alone as a collective expression for the three: A. I, 54; Dh. 259, 391; Sn. 206, 407; kāye avītarāgo M. I, 101; A. III, 249; IV, 461 sq.; °-samācāra S. V, 354; kāyaṃ paṇidhāya Ps. I, 175; Vbh. 244=252; bhāvita° and a° M. I, 239; A. I, 250; III, 106 sq. , cp. : kāya-ppakopaṃ rakkheyya, kāyena saṃvuto siyā kāyaduccaritaṃ hitvā, kāyena sucaritaṃ care Dh. 231. Ahiṃsakā ye munayo niccaṃ kāyena saṃvutā Dh. 225.

Kāya and citta

9) Kāya in combn with citta: ṭhito va kāyo hoti ṭhitaṃ cittaṃ ... S. V, 74; anikaṭṭha-kāyo nikaṭṭha-citto A. II, 137; sāraddha-kāyo saṅkiliṭṭha-citto A. V, 93=95= 97; bhāvita-kāyo, °sīlo, °citto, °pañño S. IV, 111; A. IV, 111; V, 42 sq. Apakassa kāyaṃ apakassa cittaṃ S. II, 198. Kāya-citta-passaddhi, etc. Dhs. §§ 29—51. In these six couples (or yugalas) later Abhidhamma distinguished kāya as=the cetasikas (mental properties, or the vedanā, saññā and saṅkhārā khandhas), body being excluded. Cpd. 96. See also combn kilantakāya, kilanta-citta under kilamati.

Kāya (various)

10) (Various).—Kāyena (i.e. “visibly”) aññamaññaṃ passituṃ A. II, 61; as nānatta° and ekatta° at A. IV, 39 =Nd2 570. The relation between rūpa-kāya (=cātumahābhūtika), and nāma-kāya, the mental compound (=vedanā saññā, etc.) is discussed at Nett 77, 78, and Ps. I, 183 sq. , see also S. II, 24. K. is anattā, i.e. k. has no soul A. V, 109; S. IV, 166. n’âyaṃ kāyo tumhākaṃ n’āpi paresaṃ, purāṇaṃ idaṃ kammaṃ ... “neither is this body yours, nor anyone else’s: it is (the appearance of) former karma” S. II, 64, 65=Nd2 680. Dissamānena kāyena and upaḍḍha-dissamānena S. I, 156. ‹-› Manomaya-kāya a body made by the mind (cp. VvA. 10 and DA. I, 110, 120, 222) according to Bdhgh only at the time of jhāna S. V, 282 sq.; manomaya pīti-bhakkha sayaṃpabha D. I, 17=VvA. 10; manomayaṃ kāyaṃ abhinimmināya ... D. I, 77; m° sabbaṅga-paccaṅgī D. I, 34, 77, 186, 195.—Under the control of psychic powers (iddhi): kāyena va saṃvatteti he does as he likes with his body, i.e. he walks on water, is ubiquitous, etc. (yāva brahmalokā pi: even up to heaven) S. V, 265= D. I, 78=A. I, 170: see also S. V, 283, 284.—In the various stages of Saṃsāra; kāyaṃ nikkhipati he lays down his (old) body S. IV, 60, 400; cp. S. III, 241 (ossaṭṭha-kāya); referring to continuous change of body during day and night (of a Petī) Pv. II, 1211.

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