A Dictionary Of Chinese Buddhist Terms

With Sanskrit And English Equivalents And A Sanskrit-pali Index

by William Edward Soothill | 1937 | 324,264 words

For about a thousand years, Buddhism dominated the thought of China and her thinkers were occupied with Buddhist philosophy. This dictionary serves as a resource to the interpretation of Chinese culture, as well as an important reference for the comparative study of Sanskrit and Pali originals. The author provides a key for the students which to u...

Part 17 - Seventeen Strokes

To repay, compensate; cf, 商.

Abundant, excessive; exceptional, extra; at ease; an actor; chiefly translit. u sounds, cf. 鬱, 憂, 烏, etc.

優塡 Udayana, king of Kauśāmbī and contemporary of Śākyamuni, who is reputed to have made the first image of the Buddha; also 優陀延; 于闐; 鄔陀衍那; 嗢陀演那伐蹉 Udayana Vatsa. Cf. 巨, 倶, 拘, and 弗沙王.

優多羅 uttarā. Upper, superior, higher, further.

優婆 cf. 優波.

優婆塞 upāsaka, 優婆娑柯; 優波娑迦; 鄔波塞 (鄔波塞伽); 鄔波索迦 (or 鄔波素迦); 伊蒲塞. Originally meaning a servant, one of low caste, it became the name for a Buddhist layman who engages to observe the first five commandments, a follower, disciple, devotee.

優婆夷 upāsikā. 優波夷; 優婆斯; 優婆私柯; 優波賜迦; 鄔婆斯迦 (or 鄔波斯迦) Female lay disciples who engage to observe the first five commandments.

優婆尼沙陀 (or 優婆尼沙曇) Upaniṣad, v. 優波.

優婆掘多 v. Upagupta, infra.

優婆提舍 upadeśa; 優婆題舍; 優波提舍 (or 優波替舍); 鄔波題鑠 (or 鄔波弟鑠). Discourses and discussions by question and answer; one of the twelve divisions of the Canon; a synonym for the Abhidharma, also for the Tantras.

優婆毱多 Upagupta, 優婆鞠多 (or 優婆掘多); 優波笈多 (or 優波毱多); 鄔波毱多 (or 鄔波級多 or 鄔波屈多); 烏波毱多. A 'śūdra by birth, who entered upon monastic life when 17 years old'. Eitel. He was renowned as almost a Buddha, lived under King Aśoka, and is reputed as the fifth patriarch, 200 years after the Nirvāṇa.

優婆至沙 (or 優婆室沙) Upatiṣya, i.e. Śāriputra, v. 舍.

優婆離 Upāli 優婆利; 優波利 (or 優波離); 鄔波離 A barber of śūdra caste, who became a disciple of Śākyamuni, was one of the three sthaviras of the first Synod, and reputed as the principal compiler of the Vinaya, hence his title 持戒 Keeper of the Laws. There was another Upāli, a Nirgrantha ascetic.

優婆馱耶 upādhyāya, 'a sub-teacher'; 'a spiritual teacher.' M.W. A general term for monk. There are various names, etc., beginning with 優; 憂; 鄔; 塢; 郁, etc.

優曇 (優曇鉢) The udumbara tree; supposed to produce fruit without flowers; once in 3,000 years it is said to flower, hence is a symbol of the rare appearance of a Buddha. The Ficus glomerata. Also 優曇婆羅; 烏曇跋羅; 鄔曇婆羅.

優樓 (優樓迦) Ulūka, the owl; a ṛṣi '800 years' before Śākyamuni, reputed as founder of the Vaiśeṣika philosophy. Also 優婁佉; 憂流迦; 嘔盧伽; 漚樓; 嗢露迦.

優樓頻螺 Uruvilvā, papaya tree; name of the forest near Gayā where Śākyamuni practised austere asceticism before his enlightenment. Also 優樓頻蠡 (or 優樓毘蠡); 烏盧頻螺 (or 烏盧頻羅); 漚樓頻螺, 優樓頻螺迦葉 and other forms; Uruvilvā Kāśyapa; 'one of the principal disciples of Śākyamuni, so called because he practised asceticism in the Uruvilvā forest,' or 'because he had on his breast a mark resembling the fruit of the' papaya. He 'is to reappear as Buddha Samantaprabhāsa'. Eitel.

優檀那 ? uddāna, fasten, bind, seal.

優波 v. 優婆.

優波娑迦 v. 優婆塞 upāsaka.

優波婆娑 upavāsa, to dwell in, or by; fasting, abstinence; to keep eight of the ten prohibitions.

優波尼沙土 (or 優波尼沙陀) Upaniṣad, also (婆波尼曇; certain philosophical or mystical writings by various authors at various periods 'attached to the Brāhmaṇas, the aim of which is the ascertainment of the secret of the Veda (they are more than a hundred in number, and are said to have been the source of the six darśanas, or systems of philosophy)'. M.W. The best known is the Bṛhad-āraṇyaka.

優波憍舍羅 upāyakauśalya, the seventh pāramitā, cf. 波.

優波替 (優波舍) v. 舍 Upatiṣya (son of Tiṣya), i.e. Śāriputra.

優波羅懺 優婆羅叉 upalakṣana, a mark or property, tr. as 律 the law, or the monastic rules.

優波陀 v. 優鉢羅 Utpala.

優波那訶 v. 優婆馱耶 Upādhyāya.

優波難陀 Upananda, a disciple of Śākyamuni; also a nāga king.

優波離 Upāli, v. 優婆.

優流漫陀 Urumuṇḍa, name of a mountain in the Aśoka sūtra.

優畢捨 (or 優畢叉) upekṣā. The state of mental equilibrium in which the mind has no bent or attachment and neither meditates nor acts, a state of indifference. Explained by 捨 abandonment.

優襌尼 Ujjayanī, Oujein, v. 烏闍.

優鉢羅 utpala, the blue lotus, to the shape of whose leaves the Buddha's eyes are likened; also applied to other water lilies. Name of a dragon king; also of one of the cold hells, and one of the hot hells. Also 優鉢剌; 鄔鉢羅; 漚鉢羅.

優陀夷 udāyin, to rise, shine forth; a disciple of Śākyamuni, to appear as Buddha Samantaprabhāsa.

優陀延 v. 優陀夷 and 鄔 Udayana.

優陀那 udāna (udānaya), voluntary discourses, a section of the canon.

To press, squeeze, crush; repress.

壓沙油 To press oil out of sand, impossible.

壓油 To crush seed for oil.

壓油輪罪 The sin of the oil-presser, i.e. the killing of insects among the seeds crushed.

Infant, baby.

嬰童 A child.

To shoot, reach everywhere, pervade; complete, universal; prevent, stop; more; long.

彌伽 Megha, a cloud; name of one of the bodhisattvas renowned as a healer, or as a cloud-controller for producing rain.

彌勒 Maitreya, friendly, benevolent. The Buddhist Messiah, or next Buddha, now in the Tuṣita heaven, who is to come 5,000 years after the nirvāṇa of Śākyamuni, or according to other reckoning after 4,000 heavenly years, i.e. 5,670,000,000 human years. According to tradition he was born in Southern India of a Brahman family. His two epithets are 慈氏 Benevolent, and Ajita 阿逸多 'Invincible'. He presides over the spread of the church, protects its members and will usher in ultimate victory for Buddhism. His image is usually in the hall of the four guardians facing outward, where he is represented as the fat laughing Buddha, but in some places his image is tall, e.g. in Peking in the Yung Ho Kung. Other forms are彌帝M075962; 迷諦隸; 梅低梨; 梅怛麗 (梅怛藥 or 梅怛邪); 每怛哩; 昧怛 M067070曳; 彌羅. There are numerous Maitreya sūtras.

彌底 miti, measure, accurate knowledge, evidential.

三彌底 三蜜 The Sammatīya school.

彌戾車 mleccha, barbarian, foreigner, wicked; defined as 'ill-looking', a term for a non-Buddhist tribe or people. Also 彌離車; cf. 蜜.

彌樓 Meru, 'the Olympus of Hindu mythology.' M.W. Sumeru, cf. 須; but there is dispute as to the identity of the two. Meru also refers to the mountains represented by the Himālayas, in this not differing from Sumeru. It also has the general meaning of 'lofty'.

彌沙塞 (彌沙塞部) Mahāśāsakāḥ . One of the divisions of the Sarvāstivādāḥ school; cf. 磨. Also name of the 五分律 tr. by Buddhajīva A.D. 423-4. Also 彌喜捨娑阿.

彌蘭 King Milinda, v. 那先.

彌迦 Mekā, said to be the name of the girl who gave milk congee to Śākyamuni immediately after his enlightenment; seemingly the same as Sujātā, Senā, or Nandā.

彌迦羅 (or 彌呵羅) Mekhalā, a girdle, name of an elder.

彌遮迦 Miccaka or Mikkaka. 'A native of Central India, the sixth patriarch, who having laboured in Northern India transported himself to Ferghana where he chose Vasumitra as his successor. He died 'by the fire of samādhi'.' Eitel.

彌陀 Amitābha, v. 阿.

彌陀三尊 (or 彌陀三聖) The three Amitābha honoured ones; Amitābha, whose mercy and wisdom are perfect; Guanyin, Avalokiteśvara, on his left, who is the embodiment of mercy; Dashizhi, Mahāsthāmaprāpta, on his right, the embodiment of wisdom.

彌陀山 Mitraśānta, a monk from Tukhara.

Respond, correspond, answer, reply; ought, should, proper, deserving, worthy of.

應人 arhat, arhan; deserving (worship), an old tr. of arhat.

應佛 idem 應身 q.v.

應作 Responsive appearance, revelation, idem 應現.

應伽 aṅga, a limb, member, body.

應供 Worth, of worship, a tr. of the term arhat; one of the ten titles of a Tathāgata.

應儀 Deserving of respect, or corresponding to the correct, an old tr. of arhat.

應化 nirmāṇa means formation, with Buddhists transformation, or incarnation. Responsive incarnation, or manifestation, in accordance with the nature or needs of different beings.

應化利生 Revelation or incarnation for the benefit of the living.

應化法身 Responsive manifestation of the dharmakāya, or Absolute Buddha, in infinite forms.

應化聲聞 Buddhas or bodhisattvas incarnate as śrāvakas, or disciples.

應化身 應身; 化身 nirmāṇakāya, the Buddha incarnate, the transformation body, capable of assuming any form (for the propagation of Buddha-truth).

應器 The pātra, or begging-bowl, the utensil corresponding to the dharma; the utensil which responds to the respectful gifts of others; the vessel which corresponds with one's needs; also 應量器.

應土 Any land or realm suited to the needs of its occupants; also called 化土.

應報 Corresponding retribution; rewards and punishments in accordance with previous moral action.

應形 The form of manifestation, the nirmāṇakāya, idem 應身.

應感 The response of Buddhas and spirits (to the needs of men).

應應 nirmāṇakāya response, its response to the needs of all; that of the dharmakāya is called 法應.

應文 Yingwen; the grandson of the founder of the Ming dynasty, Taizu, to whom he succeeded, but was dethroned by Yung Lo and escaped disguised as a monk; he remained hidden as a monk till his 64th year, afterwards he was provided for by the reigning ruler. His name is also given as 應能 Yingneng; 應賢 Yingxian; and posthumously as 允炆 Yunwen.

應果 arhat-fruit, the reward of arhatship.

應正遍知 The arhat of perfect knowledge, a title of a Buddha.

應法 In harmony with dharma or law.

應法妙服 The mystic (or beautiful) garment of accordance with Buddha-truth, i.e, the monk's robe.

應法沙彌 A novice, preparing for the monkhood, between 14 and 19 years of age.

應現 Responsive manifestation, revelation through a suitable medium.

應理宗 (應理圓實宗) A name of the Dharmalakṣana school, 法相宗 q.v.

應用無邊 Omnipresent response to need; universal ability to aid.

應病與藥 To give medicine suited to the disease, the Buddha's mode of teaching.

應眞 A worthy true one, an old tr. of the term arhat. Also, one who is in harmony with truth.

應護 The response and protection of Buddhas and bodhisattvas according to the desires of all beings.

應身 nirmāṇakāya, one of the 三身 q.v. Any incarnation of Buddha. The Buddha-incarnation of the 眞如q.v. Also occasionally used for the saṃbhogakāya. There are various interpretation (a) The 同性經 says the Buddha as revealed supernaturally in glory to bodhisattvas is應身, in contrast with 化身, which latter is the revelation on earth to his disciples. (b) The 起信論 makes no difference between the two, the 應身 being the Buddha of the thirty-two marks who revealed himself to the earthly disciples. The 金光明經 makes all revelations of Buddha as Buddha to be 應身; while all incarnations not as Buddha, but in the form of any of the five paths of existence, are Buddha's 化身. Tiantai has the distinction of 勝應身 and 劣應身, i.e. superior and inferior nirmāṇakāya, or supernatural and natural.

應身土 Any realm in which a Buddha is incarnate.

應迹 Evidential nirmāṇakāya, manifestations or indications of incarnation.

應頌 geya, corresponding verses, i.e. a prose address repeated in verse, idem 重頌; the verse section of the canon.

khelā, krīḍā. Play, sport, take one's pleasure; theatricals, which are forbidden to a monk or nun.

戲忘天 (戲忘念天) One of the six devalokas of the desire-heavens, where amusement and laughter cause forgetfulness of the true and right.

戲論 prapañca. Sophistry; meaningless argument; frivolous or unreal discourse.

To rub, wipe.

擦汗 To wipe off sweat.

To compare, estimate, guess, adjudge, decide, intend.

擬罪 To judge a case.

To expel.

擯治 The punishment of expulsion, which is of three orders: (1) 擯出 expulsion from a particular monastery or nunnery, to which there may be a return on repentance; (2) 默擯 prohibition of any intercourse; (3) 滅擯 entire expulsion and deletion from the order.

A case; rule; to collate; compose; pick up.

檢校 To check, compare.

Eaves, v. 贍 20.

A hard wood, translit. da, dan. dāna, a giver; donation, charity, almsgiving, bestowing.

檀主 dānapati, lord of charity, a patron.

檀中 Among the patrons.

檀信 The faith of an almsgiver; almsgiving and faith.

檀嚫 Dakṣiṇā, cf. 達, the Deccan.

檀家 A patron, patrons.

檀度 cf. 六度. The pāramitā of charity, or almsgiving.

檀捨 檀施 Almsgiving, bestowing, charity.

檀拏 檀陀 daṇḍa, also 但荼 a staff, club.

檀林 旃檀之林 Forest of sandal-wood, or incense, a monastery.

檀波羅蜜 v. 六度 dānapāramitā .

檀特 檀陀; 彈多落迦 Dantaloka, a mountain 'near Varucha', with a cavern (now called Kashmiri-Ghār) where Sudāna (cf. 須) lived, or as some say the place where Śākyamuni, when Siddhārtha, underwent his ascetic sufferings.

檀耳 v. 旃檀耳 Candana.

檀越 dānapati, an almsgiver, patron; various definitions are given, e.g. one who escapes the karma of poverty by giving.

檀那 陀那 dāna to give, donate, bestow, charity, alms.

檀那鉢底 dānapatipati, v. 檀主; 檀越.

檀陁迦阿蘭若 ? daṇḍaka-āranyaka, daṇḍaka forest hermits, one of the three classes of hermits, intp. as those who live on rocks by the seashore.

To cross a stream; aid; cause, bring about.

濟家 濟下 The school, or disciples of 臨濟 Linji.

濟度 To ferry the living across the sea of reincarnation to the shore of nirvāṇa.

To dip, wet, soak; damp; glossy; forbearing.

濡佛 An image of Vairocana in the open.

濡首 A faulty tr. of Mañjuśrī, cf. 文.

Overflowing, excess.

濫波 Lampā (Lampāka); the district of Lamghan.

Wet, humid, moist.

濕生 Moisture-born; born in damp or wet places spawn, etc., one of the four forms of birth, v. 四生.

To catch, seize, obtain, recover. 獲得.

To heal, cure, 療病.

Grey, white.

皤利 bali, the offering of a portion of a meal to all creatures; also royal revenue, a sacrifice, etc.

皤雌子部 v. 犢.

A glance.

瞥地 Instant, quickly.

To level a place for an altar, to sacrifice to the hills and fountains; to abdicate. Adopted by Buddhists for dhyāna, 禪 or 禪那, i.e. meditation, abstraction, trance. dhyāna is 'meditation, thought, reflection, especially profound and abstract religious contemplation'. M.W. It was intp. as 'getting rid of evil', etc., later as 靜慮 quiet meditation. It is a form of 定, but that word is more closely allied with samādhi, cf. 禪定. The term also connotes Buddhism and Buddhist things in general, but has special application to the 禪宗 q.v. It is one of the six pāramitās, cf. 波. There are numerous methods and subjects of meditation. The eighteen brahmalokas are divided into four dhyāna regions 'corresponding to certain frames of mind where individuals might be reborn in strict accordance with their spiritual state'. The first three are the first dhyāna, the second three the second dhyāna, the third three the third dhyāna, and the remaining nine the fourth dhyāna. See Eitel. According to Childers' Pali Dictionary, 'The four jhānas are four stages of mystic meditation, whereby the believer's mind is purged from all earthly emotions, and detached as it were from his body, which remains plunged in a profound trance.' Seated cross-legged, the practiser 'concentrates his mind upon a single thought. Gradually his soul becomes filled with a supernatural ecstasy and serenity', his mind still reasoning: this is the first jhāna. Concentrating his mind on the same subject, he frees it from reasoning, the ecstasy and serenity remaining, which is the second jhāna. Then he divests himself of ecstasy, reaching the third stage of serenity. Lastly, in the fourth stage the mind becomes indifferent to all emotions, being exalted above them and purified. There are differences in the Mahāyāna methods, but similarity of aim.

禪三昧 dhyāna and samādhi, dhyāna considered as 思惟 meditating, samādhi as 定 abstraction; or meditation in the realms of 色 the visible, or known, and concentration on 無色 the invisible, or supramundane; v. 禪定.

禪人 A member of the Chan (Jap. Zen), i.e. the Intuitional or Meditative sect.

禪侶 Fellow-meditators; fellow-monks.

禪僧 A monk of the Chan sect; a monk in meditation.

禪化 The transforming character of Chan.

禪卷 The meditation fist (muṣti), the sign of meditation shown by the left fist, the right indicating wisdom.

禪味 Meditation-flavour the mysterious taste or sensation experienced by one who enters abstract meditation.

禪和 Meditation-associates, fellow-monks; also 禪和子; 禪和者.

禪坐 To sit cross-legged in meditation.

禪堂 Meditation-hall of the Chan sect. A common name for the monastic hall.

禪天 dhyāna heavens, four in number, where those who practise meditation may be reborn, v. 禪.

禪定 chan is dhyāna, probably a transliteration; ding is an interpretation of samādhi. chan is an element in ding, or samādhi, which covers the whole ground of meditation, concentration, abstraction, reaching to the ultimate beyond emotion or thinking; cf. 禪, for which the two words chan-ding are loosely used.

禪宗 The Chan, meditative or intuitional, sect usually said to have been established in China by Bodhidharma, v. 達, the twenty-eighth patriarch, who brought the tradition of the Buddha-mind from India. Cf. 楞 13 Laṅkāvatāra sūtra. This sect, believing in direct enlightenment, disregarded ritual and sūtras and depended upon the inner light and personal influence for the propagation of its tenets, founding itself on the esoteric tradition supposed to have been imparted to Kāśyapa by the Buddha, who indicated his meaning by plucking a flower without further explanation. Kāśyapa smiled in apprehension and is supposed to have passed on this mystic method to the patriarchs. The successor of Bodhidharma was 慧可 Huike, and he was succeeded by 僧璨 Sengcan; 道信 Daoxin; 弘忍 Hongren; 慧能 Huineng, and 神秀 Shenxiu, the sect dividing under the two latter into the southern and northern schools: the southern school became prominent, producing 南嶽 Nanyue and 靑原 Qingyuan, the former succeeded by 馬祖 Mazu, the latter by 石頭 Shitou. From Mazu's school arose the five later schools, v. 禪門.

禪室 Meditation hall or room; other similar terms are 禪屋; 禪房; 禪院; 禪堂; 禪居.

禪家 The Chan sect, v. 禪宗; 禪門.

禪尼 A nun.

禪居 A meditation abode; to dwell in meditation; a hermitage; a hermit monk.

禪師 A master, or teacher, of meditation, or of the Chan school.

禪律 The Chan and Lu (Vinaya) sects: i.e. the Meditative and Disciplinary schools.

禪思 Meditation thoughts; the mystic trance.

禪悅 Joy of the mystic trance. 禪悅食 Its mystic nourishing powers.

禪慧 The mystic trance and wisdom.

禪房 Meditation abode, a room for meditation, a cell, a hermitage, general name for a monastery.

禪教 The teaching of the Chan sect. Also, 禪 the esoteric tradition and 教 the teaching of the scriptures.

禪智 Meditation and wisdom, of. 禪卷.

禪杖 A staff or pole for touching those who fall asleep while assembled in meditation.

禪林 Grove of meditation, i.e. a monastery. Monasteries as numerous as trees in a forest. Also 禪苑.

禪梵天 The three brahmaloka heavens of the first dhyāna; cf. 禪.

禪樂 The joy of abstract meditation.

禪毬 A ball of hair used to throw at and awaken those who fell asleep during meditation.

禪波 Disturbing waves, or thoughts, during meditation.

禪波羅密 The sixth or dhyānapāramitā, the attainment of perfection in the mystic trance.

禪法 Methods of mysticism as found in (1) the dhyānas recorded in the sūtras, called 如來禪 tathāgata-dhyānas; (2) traditional dhyāna, or the intuitional method brought to China by Bodhidharma, called 祖師禪, which also includes dhyāna ideas represented by some external act having an occult indication.

禪河 The dhyāna river, i.e. the mystic trance like a river extinguishes the fires of the mind. The 尼連禪 river Nairaṅjanā (Niladyan), which flows past Gayā.

禪病 The ills of meditation, i.e. wandering thoughts, illusions. The illusions and nervous troubles of the mystic.

禪窟 A cell, or cave, for meditation, or retirement from the world.

禪習 The practice of religion through the mystic trance.

禪行 The methods employed in meditation; the practices, or discipline, of the Chan school.

禪觀 dhyāna-contemplation.

禪那 dhyāna, abstract contemplation. There are four degrees through which the mind frees itself from all subjective and objective hindrances and reaches a state of absolute indifference and annihilation of thought, perception, and will; v. 禪. The River Jumna.

禪錄 The records of the Chan sect.

禪鎭 The meditation-warden, a piece of wood so hung as to strike the monk's head when he nodded in sleep.

禪門 The meditative method in general. The dhyāna pāramitā, v. 六度. The intuitional school established in China according to tradition by Bodhidharma, personally propagated from mind to mind as an esoteric school.

禪門五宗 Five Chan schools, viz. 臨濟宗; 潙仰宗; 雲門宗; 法眼宗, and 曹洞宗; the fourth was removed to Korea; the second disappeared; the other three remained, the first being most successful; in the Sung it divided into the two sects of 楊岐 and 黃龍. Cf. 楞 13 Laṅkāvatāra Sutra.

禪靜 dhyāna and its Chinese translation, quieting of thought, or its control, or suppression, silent meditation.

禪髓 The marrow of meditation-a term for the Laṅkāvatāra Sutra.

禪齋 idem 禪室.

Bamboo splints, or strips.

蔑隸車 mlecchas, v. 蔑 15.

Ordure, sweepings, garbage.

糞掃 Sweepings, garbage.

糞掃衣 衲衣 The monk's garment of cast-off rags.

糞果 The āmraka fruit in the midden, or a pearl in the mud, cf. Nirvana Sutra 12.

糞除 To get rid of garbage, scavenge; cf. Lotus Sutra 4.

糟糠 Dregs and chaff, said of a proud monk, or of inferior teaching.

sādhāraṇa. Altogether, all, whole, general; certainly.

總供 A general offering to all spirits in contrast with specific worship.

總別 General and particular.

總報業 General karma determining the species, race, and country into which one is born; 別報 is the particular karma relating to one's condition in that species, e.g. rich, poor, well, ill, etc.

總持 dhāraṇī, cf. 陀, entire control, a tr. of the Sanskrit word, and associated with the Yogācārya school; absolute control over good and evil passions and influences.

總持門 The esoteric or Tantric sects and methods.

總明論 A name for the Abhidharma-kośa.

總相 Universal characteristics of all phenomena, in contrast with 別相 specific characteristics.

總相戒 The general commandments for all disciples, in contrast with the 別相戒, e.g. the 250 monastic rules.

總願 Universal vows common to all buddhas, in contrast with 別願 specific vows, e.g. the forty-eight of Amitābha.

A fishing net (of hair) translit. k, c, r.

罽利沙盤 cf. 迦 kārṣāpaṇa.

罽羅多 Kirāta. A tribe north-west of the Himalayas, which invaded Kashmir during the Han dynasty.

罽膩吒王 Caṇḍa-Kaniṣka, 吒王; the Scythian king, conqueror of northern India and Central Asia, noted for violence, the seizure of Aśvaghoṣa, and, later, patronage of Buddhism.

罽賓 Kubhā, Kubhāna; the Kōphēn of the Greeks; also a Han name for Kashmir; modern Kabul; cf. Hupian 護苾那.

罽那尸棄佛 v. 尸棄 Ratnaśikhin.

罽鐃夷 Kanyākubja, Kanauj, in Central India, cf. 羯.

A film; screen; fan; hide, invisible; translit. e, a.

翳迦 eka, one, once, single, unique.

翳羅鉢呾羅 Elāpattra, a nāga who is said to have consulted Śākyamuni about rebirth in a higher sphere; also, a palm-tree formerly destroyed by that nāga.

翳身藥 A drug for making the body invisible.

Quick at hearing, sharp, clever, astute, wise, 聰明.

śabda. Sound, tone, voice, repute; one of the five physical senses or sensations, i.e. sound, the聲入, 聲根, or聲塵, cf. 六 and 十二入.

聲念誦 Vocal intonation.

聲教 Vocal teaching.

聲杖 The sounding or rattling staff, said to have been ordained by the Buddha to drive away crawling poisonous insects.

聲明 śabdavidyā, one of the 五明 five sciences, the聲明論 Śabdavidyā śāstra being a treatise on words and their meanings.

聲獨 聲緣 śrāvakas and pratyeka-buddhas, cf. next entry and 緣覺.

聲聞 śrāvaka, a hearer, a term applied to the personal disciples of the Buddha, distinguished as mahā-śrāvaka; it is also applied to hearers, or disciples in general; but its general connotation relates it to Hīnayāna disciples who understand the four dogmas, rid themselves of the unreality of the phenomenal, and enter nirvana; it is the initial stage; cf. 舍.

聲聞乘 śrāvakayāna; the śrāvaka vehicle or sect, the initial stage, Hīnayāna, the second stage being that of pratyeka-buddha, v. above.

聲聞僧 A Hīnayāna monk.

聲聞藏 The Hīnayāna canon.

聲論 cf. 聲明, also vyākaraṇam, a treatise on sounds and the structure of Sanskrit.

The end of a Buddhist year; a Buddhist year; v. 臘.


膿血地獄 The hell of pus and blood.

The arm; forearm; translit. pi, cf. 畢, 毘.

臂卑履也 pipīla(ka), an ant.

臂多勢羅 Pitāśīlā, "an ancient kingdom and city in the province of Sindh, 700 li north of Adhyavakīla, 300 li south-west of Avaṇḍa. Exact position unknown." Eitel.

臂奢柘 piśāca, a class of demons.

Rancid, rank; shame; translit. su, in臊陀 intp. as śuka, parrot; more correctly 叔迦.

To regard with kindness: approach, on the brink of, about to; whilst.

臨終 Approach the end, dying.

臨濟 A monastery during the Tang dynasty in 眞定府 Zhending Fu, Zhili, from which the founder of the臨濟school derived his title; his name was 義玄 Yixuan; cf. 禪門.

臨齋 Approaching the midday meal; near noon.


薑羯羅 kaṅkara, "a high number, 100 niyutas." M.W.

Fuel, firewood; wages.

薪盡 (薪盡火滅) Fuel consumed fire extinguished, a term for nirvana, especially the Buddha's death or nirvana.

Wild hemp; translit. p, ve, vai; cf. 毘, 吠, 閉, etc.

薜室羅末拏 v. 毘 Vaiśravaṇa.

薜攞斫羯羅 velācakra, a kind of clock.

薜服 Hemp garments, the coarse monastic dress.

薜舍 (薜舍離) v. 毘, Vaiśālī.

薜茘 (薜茘多) cf. 閉 preta, intp. as an ancestral spirit, but chiefly as a hungry ghost who is also harmful.

薜陀 Veda, cf. 吠.

Thin, poor, shabby: to slight, despise; to reach to; the herb mint.

薄佉羅 Bactria (or Bukhāra), the country of the Yuezhi, described as north-west of the Himālayas.

薄健 v. 濕 Wakhan.

薄地 Poor land, i.e. the world, as full of trouble.

薄拘羅 also 薄矩羅; 薄倶羅; 薄羅婆拘羅; 縛矩羅; 波鳩蠡Vakula, a disciple who, during his eighty years of life, never had a moment's illness or pain.

薄福 Unfortunate; poor condition due to poor karma; ill luck.

薄證 Shallow insight, weak in mystic experience.

薄迦 (薄迦梵); 薄伽 (薄伽梵) bhagavan, bhagavat, 世尊 world-honoured, cf. 婆.

A thistle.

薊利耶 Sūrya, the sun, the sun god, v. 蘇.

A conch, snail, spiral, screw.

螺髻 Tuft of hair on Brahmā's head resembling a conch, hence a name for Brahmā.

螺髻仙人 A former incarnation of the Buddha, when a bird built its nest in his hair during his prolonged meditation.

螺髻梵 (螺髻梵志) A name for Brahmā, and for the Buddha.

螺髮 The curly hair of the Buddha.

A boa, python; a class of demons resembling such, a mahoraga.

To sing; song.

謌舞 To sing and dance.

To thank; return (with thanks), decline; fall; apologize; accept with thanks.

謝戒 To give thanks for being given the commandments, i.e. being ordained.

To slander. 誹謗 To slander, vilify, defame.

謗三寶戒 One of the commandments against speaking falsely of the Three Precious Ones.

謗法 To slander the Truth.

To talk, explain, preach, discourse.

講下 Descend the pulpit, end the discourse.

講堂 The preaching hall, lecture hall.

講宗 The preaching sects, i.e. all except the Chan or intuitional, and the vinaya, or ritual sects.

講師 An expounder, or teacher.

講演 講說 To expound, discourse, preach.

講經 To expound the sutras.

Open, clear; intelligent.

豁旦 Kustana; Khoten; v. 于, 瞿.

Pecuniary aid (for funerals), 賻儀.

Money offerings.

賽錢 (to the buddhas or gods); to compete.

Halt, lame; unfortunate; proud; translit. ka, kha, ska.

蹇尼陀 Kaṇāda, 蹇拏僕Kaṇābhuj, atom-eater, Kaṇāda's nickname, the reputed founder of the Vaiśeṣika school.

蹇荼 khaṇḍa, candy, broken bits.

To trample, tread on.

蹈七寳華 Saptaratna-padmavikrāmin, the name of Rāhula as Buddha, he whose steps are on flowers of the seven precious things.

Avoid, escape, flee.

避死 To avoid death.

避羅 vimbara, idem 頻婆羅.

To return; repay; still, yet.

還年藥 A drug to return the years and restore one's youth.

還俗 To return to lay life, leave the monastic order.

還相 To return to the world, from the Pure Land, to save its people; i.e. one of the forms of 迴向 q.v.

還滅 To return to nirvana and escape from the backward flow to transmigration.

還源 To return to the source. i.e. abandon illusion and turn to enlightenment.

還生 To return to life; to be reborn in this world; to be reborn from the Hīnayāna nirvana in order to be able to attain to Mahāyāna buddhahood; also, restoration to the order, after repentance for sin.

還禮 還拜; 還香 Return of courtesy, of a salute, of incense offered, etc.

還門 One of the six 妙門, i.e. to realize by introspection that the thinker, or introspecting agent, is unreal.

Ugly, shameful, shame, disgraceful.

醜目 醜眼 Virūpākṣa; ugly-eyed, i.e. Śiva with his three eyes; also the name of the mahārāja-protector of the West, v. 毘.

醜陋 Ugly, vile.

A pan.

鍋頭 The one who attends to the cooking-stoves, etc., in a monastery.

The bolt of a lock; to lock; translit. gha.

鍵南 ghana, also 伽謌那, solid, compact, firm, viscid, mass; a fetus of forty-seven days.

鍵鎔 A bowl, small almsbowl; also 鍵鎡; 犍茨; 健支; 建鎡.

A thin metal plate.

鍱腹 The Indian philosopher who is said to have worn a rice-pan over his belly, the seat of wisdom, lest it should be injured and his wisdom be lost.

Broad, wide, spacious; well-off, liberal.

闊悉多 Khusta, "a district of ancient Tukhara, probably the region south of Talikhan, Lat. 36°42 N., Long. 69°25 E." Eitel. But it may be Khost in Afghanistan, south-west of Peshawar.

To shut; dark; retired; translit. am, cf. 暗, 菴.

闇室 A dark room, a place for meditation.

闇密里帝軍荼利 amṛtakuṇḍalī, the vase of ambrosia.

闇心 A dark, ignorant, or doubting mind.

闇林 Tāmasavana, see 答 10.

闇鈍 Ignorant and dull.

闇障 The hindrance of ignorance.

Translit. c, j, k, g, sounds.

闍世 cf. 阿 Ajātaśatru.

闍伊那 Jaina, the Jains, founded by Jñātṛputra, cf. 若, contemporary of Śākyamuni.

闍利 jala, water.

闍嚩囉 jvala, shining; light.

闍多伽 jātaka, stories of previous incarnations of buddhas and bodhisattvas.

闍夜 jaya, conquering, a manual sign of overcoming.

闍夜多 Jayata, twentieth Indian patriarch, teacher of Vasubandhu.

闍婆隸 jvālā, flame(-mouth), a class of hungry demons.

闍崛山 Gṛdhrakūṭa, cf. 耆 Vulture peak.

闍提 jāti, 生 birth, production; genus; name of several plants, e.g. marigold.

闍提闍羅 jātijarā, birth and decrepitude.

闍提首那 Jātisena, an ancient sage mentioned in the Nirvana Sutra.

闍梨 闍黎 ācārya, cf. 阿, a teacher, instructor, exemplar.

闍樓 jarāyu, a placenta, an after-birth.

闍毘 idem 荼毘 jhapita.

闍演帝 (or 闍演底) jayanta, conqueror, name of Śiva and others.

闍爛達羅 Jālandhara, an ancient kingdom and city in the Punjab, the present Jalandar.

闍王 v. 阿 Ajātaśatru.

闍維 A monk's funeral pyre, perhaps jhāpita.

闍耶因陀羅 Jayendra, a monastery of Pravarasenapura, now Srinagar, Kashmir.

闍耶毱多 Jayagupta, a teacher of Xuanzang in Srughna.

闍耶犀那 or 闍耶宰那 Jayasena, a noted Buddhist scholar of the Vedas.

闍耶補羅 Jayapura, "an ancient city in the Punjab, probably the present Hasaurah, 30 miles north-west of Lahore." Eitel.

闍那崛多 Jñānagupta, a native of Gandhāra, tr. forty-three works into Chinese A.D. 561-592.

闍那耶舍 Jñānayaśas, a native of Magadha, teacher of Yaśogupta and Jñānagupta, co-translator of six works, A.D. 564-572.

闍陀伽 idem 闍多伽 jātaka.

闍鼻多 jhāpita, idem 荼毘.

To hide, conceal; obscure, esoteric; retired.

隱密 Esoteric meaning in contrast with 顯了 exoteric, or plain meaning.

隱形 隱身To vanish, become invisible.

隱所 A privy.

隱覆 To hide, conceal; secret.

To control; retainers.

隸車 v. 離.

To nourish, exhaust, address; a ball; translit. ku, gu.

鞠利衍那 Kuryana; Kuvayana; also 鞫和衍那. "An ancient kingdom south-east of Ferghana, north of the upper Oxus, the present Kurrategeen." Eitel.

鞠多 Upagupta, v. 優.

A scabbard; translit. vi, ve, vai, vya, bhi, bhya, be; cf. 毘, 吠, 韋.

鞞世師 鞞崽迦 The Vaiśesika school of philosophy, cf. 衞.

鞞侈遮羅那 (鞞侈遮羅那三般那) or 毘侈遮羅那 (毘侈遮羅那三般那) or鞞多遮羅那 (鞞多遮羅那三般那) or毘多遮羅那 (毘多遮羅那三般那) vidyā-caraṇa-saṃpanna, perfect in knowledge and conduct 明行足, one of the ten epithets of a Buddha.

鞞嚧杜那 v. 毘 Vairocana.

鞞奢隸夜 v. 毘 Vaiśālī.

鞞婆尸 or 鞞婆沙 v. 毘 vibhāṣā.

鞞婆訶羅 (Eka)vyavahārika, tr. 一說部, a branch of the Māhāsaṅghika.

鞞室羅懣囊 v. 毘 Vaiśravaṇa.

鞞尼 v. 毘 vinaya.

鞞恕婆附 v. 毘 Viśvabhū.

鞞殺社 v. 藥 bhaiṣajya, healing, medical, remedial.

鞞沙門 v. 毘 Vaiśravaṇa.

鞞稠利夜 鞞頭梨 v. 毘, 吠 Vaiḍūrya.

鞞索迦 Vaiśākha, the second month of spring, i.e. Chinese second month 16th to the 3rd month 15th day; name of a wealthy patroness of Śākyamuni and his disciples.

鞞紐婆那 Veṇuvana, 竹林, a park near Rājagṛha, the Karaṇḍaveṇuvana, a favourite resort of Śākyamuni.

鞞舍 (鞞舍隸夜 or 鞞舍隸離) v. 毘 Vaiśālī.

鞞舍羅婆拏 v. 毘 Vaiśravaṇa.

鞞跋致 vaivartika; intp. by 退 to recede, fall back, backslide.

鞞陀 v. 韋 The Vedas.

鞞陀路婆 v. 毘 Vetāla.

ulūka, an owl.

鵂鶹 Ulūka, i.e. Kaṇāda, a celebrated philosopher, said to have lived "800 years" before Śākyamuni.

鴿 pārāvata; kapotaka; a dove, pigeon.

鴿園 A famous monastery said to be in Kashmir, the Kapotakasaṃghārāma, v. 迦布德迦.

To dot, touch, punctuate, light, nod; the stroke of a clock; to check off; a speck, dot, drop, etc.

點化 Touched into activity, or conversion.

點心 A snack, slight repast, not a proper meal.

點燈 To light a lamp.

點石 The stones nodded in approval (when 道生 Daosheng read the Nirvana Sutra).

To reverence: abstinence; to purify as by fasting, or abstaining, e.g. from flesh food; religious or abstinential duties, or times; upavasatha (uposatha), a fast; the ritual period for food, i.e. before noon; a room for meditation, a study, a building, etc., devoted to abstinence, chastity, or the Buddhist religion; mourning (for parents).

齋七 The seven periods of masses for the dead, during the seven sevens or forty-nine days after death.

齋主 The donor of monastic food.

齋僧 To provide a meal for monks.

齋堂 Abstinence hall, i.e. monastic dining-hall.

齋場 Similarly a dining-place.

齋席 A table of food for monks, or nuns.

齋戒 Purification, or abstinential rules, e. g. the eight prohibitions.

齋持 To observe the law of abstinence, i.e. food at the regulation times.

齋日 Days of offerings to the dead, ceremonial days.

齋時 The regulation hours for monastic meals, especially the midday meal, after which no food should be eaten.

齋月 The three special months of abstinence and care, the first, fifth, and ninth months.

齋會 An assembly of monks for chanting, with food provided.

齋法 The rule of not eating after noon; also the discipline of the order, or the establishment.

齋筵 Offerings of food to the triratna.

齋粥 The midday and morning meals, breakfast of rice or millet congee, dinner of vegetarian foods.

齋罷 齋退 Afternoon, i.e. after the midday meal.

齋鐘 齋鼓 The bell, or drum, calling to the midday meal.

齋食 The midday meal; not eating after noon; abstinential food, i.e. vegetarian food, excluding vegetables of strong odour, as garlic, or onions.

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