A Dictionary Of Chinese Buddhist Terms

With Sanskrit And English Equivalents And A Sanskrit-pali Index

by William Edward Soothill | 1937 | 324,264 words

For about a thousand years, Buddhism dominated the thought of China and her thinkers were occupied with Buddhist philosophy. This dictionary serves as a resource to the interpretation of Chinese culture, as well as an important reference for the comparative study of Sanskrit and Pali originals. The author provides a key for the students which to u...

Part 16 - Sixteen Strokes

A scholar; learned. Confucian.

儒童菩薩 Learned-youth Bodhisattva, i.e. Confucius, he having been sent from India by the Buddha to instruct China! Also a name of Śākyamuni in a previous existence.

To congeal, consolidate, form.

凝然常 Solid, unchanging, immutable.

A sword, a two-edged sword.

劍摩舍帝 A spirit or demon, ? Aniruddha, the unobstructed, the ungovernable, son of Kāma (Love, Lust).

劍林地獄 Asipattra, (or劍樹地獄) the hell of the forest of swords, or sword-leaf trees.

劍波 Kampa, Bhūkampa; deva of earthquakes.

劍輪法 A system of revolving swords for subduing demons.

噱叉 Vakṣu, the Oxus, v. 縛.

A vessel, utensil, tool.

器世間 器世界; 器界 The world as a vessel containing countries and peoples; the material world, a realm of things.

器界說 The supernatural power of the Buddha to make the material realm (trees and the like) proclaim his truth.

器量 Capacity.

A wall, partition-wall, screen.

壁定 Wall-meditation, i.e. steady, not restless, meditation.

壁觀 The wall-gazer, applied to Bodhidharma, who is said to have gazed at a wall for nine years. Also a name for the meditation of the Chan school.

An altar; an open altar. In the esoteric cult it also means a maṇḍala, objects of worship grouped together.

To rouse, excite, exert; impetuous, energetic.

奮迅 Speedy, immediate (samādhi), cf. 師.

śikṣ; to study, learn, the process of acquiring knowledge; learning.

學侶 Fellow-students, the company of monks who are studying.

學悔 Studying to repent, as when a monk having committed sin seeks to repent.

學教成迷 To study the Buddha's teaching yet interpret it misleadingly, or falsely.

學法女 v. 式 śikṣamāṇa .

學無學 One who is still learning, and one who has attained; 學 is to study religion order to get rid of illusion; 無學 begins when illusion is cast off. In Hīnayāna the first three stages, v. 四果, belong to the period of 學; the arhat to the 無學. In the Mahāyāna, the ten stages of the bodhisattva belong to 學; the stage of Buddha to 無學.

學生 學人; 學匠; 學徒 A student, a neophyte.

學者 śaikṣa; one still under instruction, who has not yet reached to the arhat position; a student.

To lead, indicate, educe, induce.

導化 To lead and convert, or transform.

導引 To lead.

導師 nāyaka; a leader, guide, one who guides men to Buddha's teaching; applied also to Buddhas and bodhisattvas, and to the leaders of the ritual in Buddhist services; v. 天人道師.

An official building; a monastic granary; 廨院主 the head of it.

Strong, violent; to force; idem 強.

Vexed, distressed; regret.

懊惱 Harassed, uneasy, distressed.

Idle, lazy, negligent.

懈怠 kausīdya, indolent, lazy or remiss (in discipline).

懈怠賊 The robber indolence, robber of religious progress.

懈慢國 懈慢界 A country that lies between this world and the Western Paradise, in which those who are reborn become slothful and proud, and have no desire to be reborn in Paradise.

To recall, reflect on.

憶念 To keep in mind.

憶持 To keep in mind, to remember and maintain.

Tranquil, content.

憺怕 Tranquil and inactive, retired.

War, hostilities, battle; alarm, anxiety, terrified; translit. can.

戰勝林 The grove of victory, v. 逝 Jetavana, Jetṛvana.

戰達羅 (or 戰捺羅) candra, shining; the moon, especially as the moon-deity.

戰達羅鉢喇婆 Candraprabha, moonlight, name of Śākyamuni when a king in a former incarnation, who cut off his head as a gift to others.

To check, revise, gather.

撿挍 To check, tally.

To lay hold of, tangible, evidential, according to.

據事 According to fact.

To crowd, press; embrace, hug.

擁護 To hug in the bosom and guard.

To carry, undertake; a load; also 担.

擔歩羅 耽餔羅 tāmbūla, betel, Piper Betel. Eitel says Djambalā, citrus acida.

To select, pick, choose; used for pravicāra, the second of the seven bodhyaṅga, cf. 覺分; dharmapravicaya, discrimination, the faculty of discerning the true from the false.

擇乳眼 The power to choose and drink the milk out of watered milk, leaving the water, as Hansarāja, the 'king of geese', is said to do.

擇力 The power of discrimination.

擇地 To select a site.

擇法眼 擇法覺支 The bodhyaṅga of discrimination, v. 擇.

擇滅 pratisaṃkhyānirodha. nirvāṇa as a result of 擇 discrimination, the elimination of desire by means of mind and will.

Dawn, shining, clear; to know, to make known.

曉了 To make clear.

曉公, i.e. 元曉 Yuanxiao, the author-monk.

曉鼓 The reveille drum at dawn.

Clouds covering the sun, spreading clouds; translit. dh in dharma 曇摩, 曇磨, 曇無; v. 達 and 法. Dharma is also the initial character for a number of names of noted Indian monks, e.g. 曇磨毱多; 達摩瞿諦; 曇無德 Dharmagupta, founder of a school, the 曇無德部 which flourished in Ceylon A.D 400. Also Dharmajātayaśas, Dharmakāla, Dharmākara, Dharmamitra, Dharmanandi, Dharmapriya, Dharmarakṣa, Dharmaruci, Dharmasatva, Dharmayaśas, etc.

曇花 The udumbara tree, v. 優.

A bridge; cross-beam; curved; lofty.

橋梁 A bridge, trampled on by all but patiently bearing them, a synonym for patience, endurance.

A crossbar, crosswise, athwart, across, perverse, arrogant; unexpected, i.e. lucky or unlucky.

橫出 By discipline to attain to temporary nirvāṇa in contrast with 橫超 happy salvation to Amitābha's paradise through trust in him.

橫截 To thwart, intercept, cut off, e.g. to end reincarnation and enter Paradise.

橫竪 Crosswise and upright, to lay across or to stand upright.

橫縱 Across and direct, crosswise and lengthwise.

vṛkṣa, a tree; to stand, erect, establish.

樹提 (樹提伽); 殊底色迦 jyotiṣka, 'a luminary, a heavenly body' (M.W.); tr. asterisms, shining, fire, or fate. A wealthy man of Rājagṛha, who gave all his goods to the poor; there is a sūtra called after him.

樹林 A grove, a forest.

樹經 Scriptures written on tree-leaves or bark, chiefly on palm-leaves.

The spring, or motive principle, machine, contrivance, artifice, occasion, opportunity; basis, root or germ; natural bent, fundamental quality.

機宜 Opportune and suitable; natural qualification (for receiving the truth).

機性 機根 Natural or fundamental quality, original endowment and nature, suitability, capacity.

機感 Potentiality and response, the potentiality of all to respond to the Buddha; the response of the Buddha to the good in all the living.

機應 Potentiality and response, similar to 機感.

機教 Potentiality and teaching, opportune teaching, suited to the occasion.

機緣 Potentiality and condition; favourable circumstances; opportunity.

機要 Opportunity, strategical possibility, or point.

機見 Vision according to natural capacity, seeing the Buddha according to natural endowment.

機語 Opportune words; fundamental words.

機關 Spring, motive force, cause, opportunity, etc.

To pass through, over or to; successive; separated; calendar, astronomical calculations.

歷劫 To pass through a kalpa; in the course of a kalpa.

歷然 Separate(ly).

歷緣對境 Passing circumstances and the objects of the senses.

The south-west corner of a hall where the lares were kept; secluded, deep, profound, mysterious.

澳那 Kustana, Khotan, v. 于.

To bathe, wash, cleanse.

澡甁 澡罐 kuṇḍikā, a water-pot.

澡甁天子 Śuddhāvasadeva, 作甁天子 who appeared to Śākyamuni when a prince, leading him to leave home.

Turbid, muddy, impure, opposite of 淸. An intp. of kaṣāya, especially in reference to the 五濁 five stages of a world's existence.

濁亂 Impure and lawless, the reign of evil.

濁世 An impure world in its five stages, v. 五濁.

濁劫 An impure kalpa, the kalpa of impurity, degenerate, corrupt; an age of disease, famine, and war.

濁惡世 A world of impurity or degeneration, i.e. of the 五濁 and 十惡.

濁惡處 The present contaminated evil world.

濁業 Contaminated karma, that produced by 貪 desire.

Blaze, flame, burn, effulgent.

熾盛光佛 Name of a Buddha noted for effulgence, light streaming from every pore.

To set fire to, light, burn; idem 然 12 q.v.

To burn.

燒灸地獄 The burning, blistering hell.

燒香 To burn incense.

dīpa, a lamp, lantern; cf. 然燈 12.

燈光 The light of a lamp; lantern light.

燈明 The lamp hung before a Buddha, etc., as symbol of his wisdom.

燈明佛 日月燈明佛 A Buddha mentioned in the Lotus Sūtra.

燈滅 The extinction of a lamp.

燈火 dīpapradīpa, lamp-light.

燈籠 燈爐 A lantern.

Flame, blaze; idem 焰; 爓 q.v.

燄口 UIkā-mukha. Flaming mouth, a hungry ghost or preta, that is represented as appearing to Ānanda in the 救拔燄ロ餓鬼陀羅尼經 (B.N. 984).

Only, alone, solitary.

獨一法界 The one and only universal dharma-realm, or reality, behind all phenomena.

獨園 v. 給 and 阿 Anāthapiṇḍika.

獨孤洛加 dukūla is a fine cloth, and may be the origin of this Chinese term, which is intp. as 紵 a kind of linen.

獨尊 The alone honoured one, Buddha.

獨居 Dwelling alone, e.g. as a hermit.

獨影境 Imaginary or illusory conditions, ideal and unsubstantial.

獨柯多 v. 突 duṣkṛta, offence.

獨生獨死獨去獨來 Alone we are born and die, go and come.

獨空 The one immaterial reality behind all phenomena.

獨股杵 獨鈷 (獨鈷杵) The single-arm vajra.

獨覺 pratyekabuddha, v. 緣 one who seeks his own enlightenment.

獨角仙人 Ekaśṛṅga, or Unicorn ṛṣi, cf. 一角, the ascetic who fell through the wiles of a woman.

獨頭無明 idem 不共無明 q.v.

A rice-vessel; a fire-pan; dram-shop; black; translit. lo, ro, ru; cf. 樓; 路; 流.

盧倶多婆拖部 Lokottaravādinaḥ, superior to the world, an important sect of the Mahāsāṅghikāḥ.

盧?胝訶目多 lohitamuktā or rohitamuktā (rohitakamuktā), rubies or red pearls, one of the seven treasures.

盧脂那 Rocana, illuminating, bright; name of a flower; perhaps also spots before the eyes; identified with 盧遮那 v. 毘 Vairocana.

盧至佛 盧遮佛 v. 樓 Rucika.

盧舍 v. 倶 krośa.

盧舍那 Rocana, illuminating, also v. 毘 Vairocana.

盧行者 Surname and title of 慧能 Huineng.

盧迦委斯諦 Lokeśvara-rāja, lord of the world, an epithet of Guanyin and others.

盧醯呾迦 (or 盧醯多迦) rohita, rohitaka; lohita, lohitaka; red.

盧陀羅耶 Rudrā, roaring, terrible, a name of Śiva, the Rudras or Maruts, storm-gods, etc.

timira, an affection of the eye, eye-film, cataract, dim sight, blindness.

A piece of flat stone or metal, used as a gong, or for musical percussion.

To grind, rub, polish; a mill for grinding; translit. ma; cf. 摩.

磨多 mātā, matṛ, a mother.

磨下 磨司; 磨院 The place in a monastery for grinding corn.

磨灑 摩沙 māṣa, a bean, also a weight of gold valued at 80 Chinese cash; the stealing of goods to the value of 5 māṣa involved expulsion from the monkhood, as also in India it is said to have involved exile.

磨牛 The ox turning the millstone, a formalist, i.e. a disciple who performs the bodily motions, but without heart in his religion.

磨磚 To grind a brick to make a mirror, useless labour.

磨磨迦羅 mamakāra, feeling of 'mine', of interest to oneself.

磨納 A monk's robe, a Korean term.

磨訶 mahā, 磨醯 mahi; v. 摩訶.

磨頭 The monk who looks after the mill.

Accumulate, pile up; many, long.

積功累德 積累 To accumulate or lay up merit.

積石山 Aśmakūṭa, stone-heap mountains, the eastern border of the Gobi desert.

Rustic, poor; translit. ku, gu; v. 求, 瞿, 屈.

To peep, spy; furtive.

Sincere; serious; consolidate.

篤進 Toksun, 'a city in Mongolia.' Eitel.

bandha. Tie, attachment, bind, bond, another name for kleśa-afflictions, the passions, etc., which bind men; the 'three bonds' are 貪瞋痴 desire, resentment, stupidity; translit. pa, ba, va; cf. 跋, 婆, 飯.

縛伽浪 Baghelān, 'the country west of the Bunghee river between Koondooz and Ghoree (about Lat. 36°N., Long. 78°E. ).' Eitel.

縛利沙鍵拏 v. 伐里 Vārṣagaṇya.

縛喝 (縛喝羅) Baktra, the present Balkh, once a nursery of Buddhism and in A.D. 600 still famous for relics and monuments. Eitel.

縛尼 vana, v. 飯 a grove.

縛底 patnī, a mistress, wife, female.

縛摩 vāma, the left, contrary, crooked.

縛斯仙 Vasiṣṭha, 'a very celebrated Vedic ṛishi or inspired sage,' owner of the cow of plenty and able therefore to grant all desires. M.W. One of the six fire-devas in the maṇḍala.

縛日羅 vajra, 嚩日囉 (or 嚩馹囉); 跋日囉 (or 跋折囉, or 跋闍囉); 跋折囉; 波闍羅; 伐折羅 (or 伐闍羅); intp. as 金剛 (金剛杵), a diamond (club). Adamantine, hard. The sceptre of Indra as god of thunder and lightning with which he slays the enemies of Buddhism. Used by monks to indicate spiritual authority, and the all-subduing power of Buddha.

縛脫 Bonds and freedom, escape from entanglement.

縛臾 Vāyu, air, wind, the god of the wind; he controls the 縛臾方 or north-west.

縛芻 Vakṣu; Vaṅkṣu; 婆芻 (or 婆槎 or婆輸); 薄叉; 博叉; the Oxus 靑河 or Blue River, one of the 'four great rivers of Jambudvīpa', rising in the west of the Anavatapta lake (Tibet) and flowing into the north-west sea, the Caspian; cf. 西城記 1.

縛薩怛羅 vastra, cloth, clothes.

縛迦 vākya, speech, saying, sentence, word.

縛野吠 Vāyavī, the deva of the north-west, v. Vāyu 縛臾.

縛馬答 An argument or reply in a 'vicious circle', like a horse tethered to a pig.

abhyudaya. Rise, begin; prosper; elated.

興世 The raising, or beginning of the salvation, of the world, i.e. the birth of Buddha.

興渠 興舊; 興宜; 刑具 hiṅgu. asafoetida, 阿魏; there are other interpretations.

興盛 Prosper, successful.

興行 Prospering and progressing.

蕭寺 A name for monasteries in the Liang dynasty, A.D. 502-557, because Liang Wu Di built so many that they were called after his surname 蕭 Xiao.

蔽尸 peśī, the embryo in the third of its five stages, a thirty-seven days' foetus, lit. a lump of flesh. 閉尸; 箄尸, 蜱羅尸.

Blending, combining; melting, thawing; clear intelligent.

融通 To blend, combine, mix, unite, assemble.

融識 Perspicacity, insight into both the phenomenal and noumenal.

A cross-bar, crosswise; a balance; to weigh, balance, compare adjust, adjudge, judgment.

衡山 The Heng mountains in Hunan, where was the 南嶽 Southern Peak monastery, from which came 慧思 Huisi, second patriarch of Tiantai.

衡量 Balancing and measuring, judging.

To look at, see.

覩史多天 The Tuṣita heaven, v. 兜.

覩貨羅 Tukhāra, 'the present Badakchan which Arab geographers still call Tokharestan'; the country of the Indo-Scythians, the Tocharoi of the Greeks, idem 月支.

Personally related, own, intimate; family; a wife, marriage.

父親 母親 Father; mother.

親友 An intimate friend.

親戚 親眷 Relatives.

親愛 To love, beloved.

親教 (親教師) One's own teacher, a tr. of upādhyāya, v. 鄔.

To admonish.

諫王 To admonish a king.

To intone; to satirize.

諷經 To intone a scripture, especially one suited to the occasion.

諷誦 To intone, sing.

諷頌 A gāthā, or hymn, v. 伽.

To answer; promise; yes; translit. na, nya.

諾健那 荼健那; 諾伽那 Nagna; naked, a naked mendicant; a name of Śiva; a vajra-king.

諾詎羅 諾矩 Nakula, one of the sixteen arhats.

諾瞿陀 nyagrodha. The Indian fig-tree, ficus indica, cf. 尼.

To judge, examine into, investigate, used in Buddhism for satya, a truth, a dogma, an axiom; applied to the āryasatyāni, the four dogmas, or noble truths, of 苦, 集, 滅, and 道 suffering, (the cause of its) assembly, the ( possibility of its cure, or) extinction, and the way (to extinction), i.e. the eightfold noble path, v. 四諦 and 八聖道. There are other categories of 諦, e.g. (2) 眞 and 俗 Reality in contrast with ordinary ideas of things; (3) 空, 假 and 中 q.v. (6) by the 勝論宗; and(8) by the 法相宗.

諦婆達兜 v. 提 Devadatta.

諦殊羅施 Tejorāṣi, the flame-god, one of the five 佛頂 crowned Buddhas.

The diverse kinds, many, the many, all, every; on, at, in regard to; a final interrogative particle, also a rhythmic ending; used for sarva.

諸仙 All the hermits, mystics, ṛṣi; a term also applied to the Brahmans.

諸佛家 The home of all Buddhas, i.e. the Pure Land.

諸佛母菩薩 v. 盧空眼 The mother of all Buddhas.

諸冥 All darkness, i.e. all ignorance.

諸塵 All the atoms, or active principles of form, sound, smell, taste, touch.

諸天 All the devas.

諸尊 All the honoured ones.

諸惡無作 'To do no evil, to do only good, to purify the will, is the doctrine of all Buddhas,' i.e. 諸惡無作, 諸善奉行, 自淨其意, 是諸佛教. These four sentences are said to include all the Buddha-teaching: cf. 阿含經 1.

諸數 All the variety of things, all phenomena.

諸有 All the exists; all beings.

諸根 All roots, powers, or organs, e.g. (1) faith, energy, memory, meditation, wisdom; (2) eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and body.

諸法 sarvadharma; sarvabhāva; all things; every dharma, law, thing, method, etc.

諸法五位 v. 五位 The five orders of things.

諸法寂滅相 All things in their nirvāṇa aspect, inscrutable.

諸法實相 All things in their real aspect, i.e. the reality beneath all things, the bhūtatathatā, or dharmakāya, or Ultimate; the term also connotes 空 śūnya, nirvāṇa, Amitābha, the eight negations of the Mādhyamika school, etc.

諸法無我 Nothing has an ego, or is independent of the law of causation.

諸法皆空 All things being produced by causes and accessory conditions have no reality, a doctrine differently interpreted in different schools of Buddhism.

諸相 All the differentiating characteristics of things.

諸緣 All the accessory conditions, or environmental causes which influence life.

諸著 All attachments: the ordinary man is attached to life, the arhat to nirvāṇa, the bodhisattva to his saving work.

諸色 All kinds of things.

諸行 All phenomenal changes; all conduct or action.

諸行無常 Whatever is phenomenal is impermanent.

諸見 All the diverse views; all heterodox opinions, sixty-two in number.

諸趣 All paths or destinies of sentient existence, i.e. devas, men, asuras, beings in purgatory, pretas, and animals.

諸通 All spiritual or magical powers.

諸釋法王 The dharma-king of all the Śākyas, a title of Buddha.

諸閑不閑 All in happy and unhappy conditions of metempsychosis.

At ease; beforehand; prepared, v. 預 13.

To rely upon, depend on; throw the burden on, repudiate.

賴吒 (賴吒啝羅) rāṣṭrapāla, protector of a kingdom, king.

賴耶 ālaya, v. 賴阿.

Ochre, brown; translit. cha.

赭時 'Tchadj or Tchāsch'; Kingdom of stone or stones. An ancient place 'in Turkestan on the Sir; the modern Tashkend'. Eitel.

赭羯 'Tchakas. A race of people near Samarkand who furnished excellent soldiers.' Eitel.

To pass over, or by; exceed; beyond; translit. yo, yu.

踰健達羅 踰乾陀羅; v. 瑜 Yugaṅdhara.

踰繕那 踰闍那 v. 由 yojana.

踰闍 v. 阿 Ayudhyā.

Soft, yielding, pliant, supple.

輭賊 Treacherous thieves, i.e. fame and gain, which injure the aspiration of the religious man.

To pay one's dues, to lose, be beaten, ruined: translit. su, śu; cf. 首; 室; 蘇.

輸拘盧那 Śuklodana, a prince of Kapilavastu, younger brother of Śuddhodana, and father of Tiṣya, Devadatta, and Nandika.

輸波迦羅 (or 輸婆迦羅) Subhakarāṣimha, name of 善無畏三藏 a famous Indian monk.

輸羅 輸那 śūla, a lance, dart, etc.; also Śūra, hero, heroic.

輸盧迦 (輸盧迦波) v. 首 śloka.

輸達羅 śūdra, the fourth caste, i.e. of slaves, servants, labourers, farmers, etc.

To transact, carry out; prepare; punish.

辦事 To transact affairs, attend to, arrange.

辦道 To carry out religious duty or discipline.

Discriminate, distinguish; v. 辯21.

辨才天 One of the devas, of the gandharva order.

To move, remove, improve, promote, dismiss.

遷化 To be taken away, i.e. die.

To comply with, accord with, obey; accordingly.

遵守 To obey and keep, e.g. the rules.

To choose; a myriad.

選友 Śākyamuni's schoolmaster, usually named Viśvāmitra, or Kauśika.

選擇 To choose, select.

To leave behind, bequeath, bestow, residue.

遺弟 The disciples left behind by a deceased master.

遺形 Relics of the Buddha.

遺教 遺化; 遺法; 遺訓 Doctrine, or transforming teaching, handed down or bequeathed (by a Buddha).

遺跡 Traces, tracks, evidences, examples left behind.

To go round, revolve around, encompass; to pay respect by walking around the object of regard.

遶佛 遶塔 To circumambulate an image of the Buddha, or a pagoda.

Oil of butter.

醍醐 A rich liquor skimmed from boiled butter; clarified butter; ghee; used for the perfect Buddha-truth as found, according to Tiantai, in the Nirvāṇa and Lotus Sūtras.

醍鞞沙 dveṣa, hatred, dislike.

Pewter, tin; to bestow; a monk's staff.

錫丈 khakkara, a monk's staff partly of metal, especially with metal rings for shaking to make announcement of one's presence, and also used for demon expulsion, etc.

錫崙 Ceylon.

To obstruct, stop; hoodwink.

閼伽 arghya, v. 阿伽 scented water, or flowers in water as an offering, the word arghya meaning primarily something valuable, or presentable; hence 閼伽杯, a golden or metal vessel to hold such water; 閼伽花 the flower which float on its surface, etc.

A gate, border-gate, hamlet, lane; translit. ya, ja; cf. 夜; 炎; 焰; 燄; 剡; 琰.

閻婆度 A bird in purgatory as large as an elephant, who picks up the wicked, flies with and drops them, when they are broken to pieces.

閻摩 Yama; v. infra 閻王.

閻摩那洲國 Yavana, Yamana, the island nation of Java, visited by Faxian and Xuanzang.

閻曼德迦 Yamāntaka, the destroyer; Śiva, Yama's destroyer; one of the 明王 represented with six legs, guardian of the West.

閻浮 瞻部 Jambu (at present the rose-apple, the Eugenia Jambolana), described as a lofty tree giving its name to 閻浮提 Jambudvīpa, 'one of the seven continents or rather large islands surrounding the mountain Meru; it is so named either from the Jambu trees abounding in it, or from an enormous Jambu tree on Mount Meru visible like a standard to the whole continent'; 'the central division of the world.' M.W. With Buddhists it is the southern of the four continents, shaped like a triangle resembling the triangular leaves of the Jambu tree, and called after a forest of such trees on Meru.

閻浮檀金 閻浮那提金 jambūnada-suvarṇa, Jambu-river gold, the golden sand of the Jambu.

閻牟那 Yamunā, the modern river Jamna.

閻魔 閻王 閻羅; (閻魔王); 閻摩羅; 閻老 Yama, also v. 夜; 閻羅王 Yama. (1) In the Vedas the god of the dead, with whom the spirits of the departed dwell. He was son of the Sun and had a twin sister Yamī or Yamuna. By some they were looked upon as the first human pair. (2) In later Brahmanic mythology, one of the eight Lokapālas, guardian of the South and ruler of the Yamadevaloka and judge of the dead. (3) In Buddhist mythology, the regent of the Nārakas, residing south of Jambudvīpa, outside of the Cakravālas, in a palace of copper and iron. Originally he is described as a king of Vaiśālī, who, when engaged in a bloody war, wished he were master of hell, and was accordingly reborn as Yama in hell together with his eighteen generals and his army of 80,000 men, who now serve him in purgatory. His sister Yamī deals with female culprits. Three times in every twenty-four hours demon pours into Yama's mouth boiling copper (by way of punishment), his subordinates receiving the same dose at the same time, until their sins are expiated, when he will be reborn as Samantarāja 普王. In China he rules the fifth court of purgatory. In some sources he is spoken of as ruling the eighteen judges of purgatory.

Follow, comply with; sequent, consequent, after, according to, as; often used for the prefix anu.

隨信行 The religious life which is evolved from faith in the teaching of others; it is that of the 鈍根 unintellectual type.

隨分 According to the part assigned or expected; according to lot, or duty.

隨分覺 Partial enlightenment, the third of the 四覺 in the Awakening of Faith 起信論.

隨喜 To rejoice in the welfare of others. To do that which one enjoys, to follow one's inclination.

隨宜 As suitable, proper, or needed.

隨形好 Excellent in every detail; the individual excellences of others united in the Buddha.

隨心 According to mind, or wish.

隨情 Compliant, yielding to other people's wishes.

隨意 At will, following one's own wishes.

隨方 According to place; suitable to the place; in whatever place; wherever.

隨方毘尼 Vinaya, or rules, suitable to local conditions; or to conditions everywhere.

隨機 According to capacity, capability, or opportunity, e.g. the teaching of the Buddha according with the capacity of everyone.

隨求 According to prayer. Name of a deva who was formerly a wicked monk who died and went to hell, but when dying repented, prayed, and was reborn the deva 隨求天子 or 隨求卽得天子. Also, a bodhisattva in the Guanyin group of the Garbhadhātu, a metamorphosis of Guanyin, who sees that all prayers are answered, 隨求菩薩.

隨法行 Those who follow the truth by reason of intellectual ability, in contrast with the non- intellectual, who put their trust in others. v. 隨信行.

隨煩惱 Sequent, or associated kleśa-trials, or evils, either all of them as always dogging the footsteps; or, especially those which follow the six 隨眠 q.v. Also called 隨惑.

隨相 The secondary states, i.e. of birth, stay, change, and death, in all phenomena.

隨相戒 To follow the forms and discipline of the Buddha, i.e. become a monk.

隨眠 Yielding to sleep, sleepiness, drowsiness, comatose, one of the kleśa, or temptations; also used by the Sarvāstivādins as an equivalent for kleśa, the passions and delusions; by the 唯識 school as the seed of kleśa; there are categories of 6, 7, 10, 12, and 98 kinds of 隨眠.

隨經律 According to the discipline as described in the sūtras, i.e. the various regulations for conduct in the Sūtra-piṭaka; the phrase 隨律經 means according to the wisdom and insight as described in the Vinaya-piṭaka.

隨緣 According with, or resulting from conditioning causes, or circumstances, as waves result from wind; also, according to circumstances.

隨緣化物 To convert or transform people according to their conditions, or to circumstances in general.

隨緣不變 Ever changing in conditions yet immutable in essence; i.e. the 眞如, in its two aspects of隨緣眞如 the absolute in its phenomenal relativity; and considered as immutable, the 不變眞如, which is likened to the water as opposite to the waves.

隨義 According to intention, to meaning, or to the right.

隨自 At one's own will; voluntary.

隨自意語 Voluntary addresses, or remarks volunteered by the Buddha.

隨舍利 ? Vaiśālī; the Licchavis were the people of 'the ancient republic of Vaiśālī who were among the earliest followers of Śākyamuni'. Also 隨邪利 and v. 梨.

隨色摩尼 A precious stone that takes on the colour of its surroundings.

隨轉 (隨轉理門) The sects or teaching of adaptable philosophies not revealed by the Buddhas and bodhisattvas, in contrast with the 眞實 (眞實隨轉) the truth as revealed by them.

隨逐 To attach oneself to and follow, e.g. Buddha.

隨順 To follow, accord with, obey; to believe and follow the teaching of another.

隨類 According to class, or type.

隨類應同 Buddhas and bodhisattvas reveal themselves in varying forms according to the need or nature of the beings whom they desire to save. 隨類生 They are also born into the conditions of those they seek to save.

Quickly, suddenly.

霍罕 怖捍 Ferghana, 'a mountainous province and city in Turkestan on the upper Jaxartes.' Eitel.

Cessation of strife, peace, calm, quietness, stillness.

靜主 The elder presiding over a company of monks in mediation.

靜力 The power of abstract meditation.

靜室 Abode of peace, the quiet heart.

靜思 Calm thought; meditation, a meditator, i.e. a monk.

靜息 A tr. of Yama, he who restrains, curbs, controls, keep in check.

靜慧 Calm wisdom, insight into the void, or immaterial, removed from the transient.

靜慮 A tr. of dhyāna, calm thought, unperturbed abstraction.

靜智 Calm wisdom, the wisdom derived from quietness, or mystic trance.

Cheeks, jaws.

頰車 The cheeks rounded—one of the characteristics of a Buddha.

Urgent, pressing; repeated; translit. bim, vi, vim, vin.

頻伽 kalaviṅka, v. 迦.

頻伽缾 The kalaviṅka pitcher, an illustration in the 楞嚴 sūtra of emptiness or non-existence.

頻伽陀 毘笈摩 vigata; vigama; gone away, disappearance, a medicine which causes diseases to disappear.

頻來果 Once more to be reborn, v. 斯 sakṛdāgāmin.

頻婆 vimba; bimba; a bright red gourd, Momordica monadephia; a tree with red fruit; fruit of the Binba-tree.

頻婆 (頻婆羅) vimbara, differently stated as ten millions, and 100,000 billions, a 大頻婆羅 as a trillion; it is also intp, as a king of fragrance, or incense.

頻婆娑羅 Bimbisāra, or Bimbasāra頻毘娑羅; 洴沙 (or 甁沙 or 萍沙). A king of Magadha, residing at Rājagṛha, converted by Śākyamuni, to whom he gave the Veṇuvana park; imprisoned by his son Ajātaśatru, and died.

頻那夜迦 Vināyaka (Gaṇeśa), name of a demon or spirit, cf. 毘.

The head; chief, first.

頭光 A halo or nimbus round the head (of an image).

頭北面西 Head north face west, the proper, attitude in which to sleep, the position of the dying Buddha.

頭袖 Head-sleeve, name for a cap.

頭陀 dhūta, also 杜多; 杜荼 shaken, shaken off, cleansed. To get rid of the trials of life; discipline to remove them and attain nirvāṇa. There are twelve relating to release from ties to clothing, food, and dwelling: (1) garments of cast-off rags; (2) only the three garments; (3) eat only food begged; (4) only breakfast and the noon meal; (5) no food between them; (6) limited amount; (7) dwelling as a hermit; (8) among tombs; (9) under a tree; (10) under the open sky; (11) anywhere; (12) sitting and not lying down. There are other groups.

頭面作禮 To bow the head and face in worship or reverence, to fall prostrate in reverence.

頭首 The chief monks in a monastery, known as the western band, in contrast with the eastern band of subordinates.

頭鳩羅 dukūla, a species of plant, fine cloth made of the inner bark of this plant, silken cloth.

Hungry, famished, starving.

餓鬼 pretas, hungry spirits, one of the three lower destinies. They are of varied classes, numbering nine or thirty-six, and are in differing degrees and kinds of suffering, some wealthy and of light torment, others possessing nothing and in perpetual torment; some are jailers and executioners of Yama in the hells, others wander to and fro amongst men, especially at night. Their city or region is called 餓鬼城; 餓鬼界. Their destination or path is the 餓鬼趣 or 餓鬼道.

餓鬼愛 Desire as eager as that of a hungry ghost.

Remains, remainder, the rest, the other; surplus.

餘宗 餘乘 Other schools; other vehicles, i.e. other than one's own.

餘念 Divided thoughts, inattentive.

餘甘子 āmraphala, v. 菴.

餘習 The remnants of habit which persist after passion has been subdued; also called 餘氣; 習氣; 殘習.

Topknot, tuft, the hair coiled on top.

髻珠 髻寶 The precious stone worn in the 髻 topknot; a king's most prized possession in the Lotus Sūtra parable.

髻利吉羅 計利 (or 計里) 枳 (or 計) 攞 (or 羅) Kelikila, the attendant of a deva; one of the Vajrapāṇis.

Drake of mandarin duck; v. 鴛班.

鴛班 Paired bands, i.e. to stand facing each other when reciting sūtras.

Hen of mandarin duck, symbolizing conjugal fidelity; translit. aṅg.

鴦伽 鴦掘多羅 ? Aṅga, described as a country north of Magadha.

鴦伽社哆 aṅgajāta, 'produced from or on the body,' a son, but intp. as the membrum virile.

鴦倶舍 aṅgūṣa, an arrow, a barbed weapon.

鴦哦囉迦 Aṅgāraka, charcoal; intp. fire star, the planet Mars.

鴦崛摩羅 (鴦崛利摩羅) Aṅgulimālya, chaplet of finger-bones; the Śivaitic sect that wore such chaplets; also 鴦堀摩羅; 鴦掘摩羅; 鴦窶利摩羅 v. 央. One converted by the Buddha is known by this name.

鴦輸伐摩 Aṃśuvarman, a king of ancient Nepal, descendant of the Licchavis, author of the 聲明論.

A great deer, whose tail is used as a fly-whip; the use of which is forbidden to monks.

Dark, secret, silent, profound.

默傳 Silent teaching or propagation, i.e. from mind to mind, without words or writing.

默擯 梵壇 brahmanaṇḍa; to 'send to Coventry' an obnoxious monk, all intercourse with him being forbidden.

默然 Silent, without words.

默理 The principle of silence, that the absolute is indefinable, the doctrine of Vimalakīrti.

默置記 Answering a foolish or improper question by silence.

A dragon, dragon-like, imperial; tr. for nāga, which means snake, serpent; also elephant, elephantine, serpent-like, etc., cf. 那.

龍天 Dragon kings and devas; also Nāgārjuna and Vasubandhu.

龍天八部 nāgas, devas, rākṣasas, gandharvas, asuras, garuḍas, kinnaras, and mahoragas.

龍奮迅三昧 A samādhi powerful like the dragon; abstract meditation which results in great spiritual power.

龍女 Nāgakanyā, a nāga maiden. Daughter of Sāgara-nāgarāja, the dragon king at the bottom of the ocean; she is presented in the Lotus Sūtra, becoming a Buddha, under the tuition of Mañjuśrī.

龍宮 Dragon palace; palaces of the dragon kings; also 龍戶.

龍彌你 Lumbinī, v. 嵐.

龍方 The dragon-quarter, i.e. the north.

龍樹 Nāgārjuna, v. 那.

龍河 Another name for the river Nairaṅjanā, cf. 尼.

龍湯 Dragon soup, a purgative concocted of human and animal urine and excrement; also called 黃龍湯.

龍猛 Nāgārjuna, v. 那.

龍王 nāgarāja, dragon king, a title for the tutelary deity of a lake, river, sea, and other places; there are lists of 5, 7, 8, 81, and 185 dragon kings.

龍珠 Dragon-pearl; pearl below the dragon's jaws; the sun or moon associated with the dragon and spring.

龍神 A dragon-god, or spirit.

龍種尊 (龍種上尊王佛) The Buddha of the race of honourable dragon kings, a title of Mañjuśrī.

龍章 Dragon books, i.e. the sūtras, so called because the Sanskrit writing seemed to the Chinese to resemble the forms of snakes and dragons.

龍華樹 nāga-puṣpa; 奔那伽 puṣpanāga, the dragon-flower tree, which will be the bodhi-tree of Maitreya, the Buddhist Messiah, when he comes to earth.

龍華會 Maitreya's assembly under the 龍華樹 dragon-flower tree for preaching the Buddha-truth. The eight of the fourth moon has been so called, an occasion when the images are washed with fragrant water, in connection with the expected Messiah.

龍藏 The Dragon Treasury or library, formerly in the 龍興 Longxing monastery at Chang-an.

龍象 Dragon elephant, or dragon and elephant, i.e. great saints, Buddhas, bodhisattvas. A large elephant is called a dragon elephant. The term is also one of respect applied to a monk.

龍軍 A tr. of Nāgasena, v. 那先; 那伽犀那; and the 那先比丘經 Milindapaṅha sūtra.

龍鉢 A begging-bowl formerly used by a certain monk for obtaining rain, the dragon descending into his bowl.

龍龕 Dragon coffins, i.e. those for monks.

Tortoise, turtle. The rareness of meeting a Buddha is compared with the difficulty of a blind sea-turtle finding a log to float on, or a one-eyed tortoise finding a log with a spy-hole through it.

龜毛 The hair on a tortoise, i.e. the non-existent.

龜玆 Kuchā, also 庫車; 屈支 (or屈茨); 丘玆; 倶支 An ancient kingdom and city in Eastern Turkestan, 41°45' N., 83°E. It is recorded as the native place of Kumārajīva.

龜藏六 The parable of the tortoise and the jackal, the tortoise hiding its six vulnerable parts, symbolizing the six senses, the jackal wailing and starving to death.

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