A Dictionary Of Chinese Buddhist Terms

With Sanskrit And English Equivalents And A Sanskrit-pali Index

by William Edward Soothill | 1937 | 324,264 words

For about a thousand years, Buddhism dominated the thought of China and her thinkers were occupied with Buddhist philosophy. This dictionary serves as a resource to the interpretation of Chinese culture, as well as an important reference for the comparative study of Sanskrit and Pali originals. The author provides a key for the students which to u...

Part 14 - Fourteen Strokes

A servant.

僕呼繕那 bahujanya, intp. 衆生 all the living, all who are born.

僕拏 Intp. as a digital sign; the fourth of the twelve ways of placing the hands together.

False, counterfeit, forged. False or forged sūtras which were produced after the Wei dynasty; catalogues of these forged sūtras are given in various books.

pratirūpa; pratirūpaka. Like, similar, resemblance; semblance; image; portrait; form, formal.

像化 The religion of the image or symbol Buddhism. Also the second or formal period of the teaching of Buddhism by symbol, v. 像法.

像始 The beginning of the formal period.

像季 The end of the formal period.

像教 idem 像化.

像末 The two final stages of Buddhism.

像法 saddharma-pratirūpaka; the formal or image period of Buddhism; the three periods are 正像末, those of the real, the formal, and the final; or correct, semblance, and termination. The first period is of 500 years; the second of 1,000 years; the third 3,000 years, when Maitreya is to appear and restore all things. There are varied statements about periods and dates, e.g. there is a division of four periods, that while the Buddha was alive, the early stage after his death, then the formal and the final periods.

像經 Images and sūtras.

像運 The period of formality, or symbolism.

僧伽 saṅgha, an assembly, collection, company, society. The corporate assembly of at least three (formerly four) monks under a chairman, empowered to hear confession, grant absolution, and ordain. The church or monastic order, the third member of the triratna. The term 僧 used alone has come to mean a monk, or monks in general. Also僧佉, 僧加, 僧企耶.

僧伽吒 僧伽多; 僧伽陀 saṅghata, an assemblage; also the final hurricane in the kalpa of destruction.

僧伽婆尸沙 v. 僧殘.

僧伽婆羅 Saṅghapāla; a monk of 扶南國 ? Siam, who tr. ten or eleven works A.D. 506-520.

僧伽梨 or 僧伽黎 v. 僧伽胝 saṅghātī.

僧伽羅 Siṃhala, Ceylon; also name of the Buddha in a previous incarnation when, as a travelling merchant, he, along with 500 others, was driven on to the island; there the rākṣasīs bewitched them; later the Buddha and his companions (like the Argonauts) escaped, and ultimately he destroyed the witches and founded his kingdom there.

僧伽胝 saṅghātī. The patch-robe, one of the three garments of a monk reaching from shoulders to the knees and fastened around the waist, made up of nine to twenty-five pieces and so called 重雜衣; also 大衣 great robe; also 重 in layers and 合 composite; v. 九品.

僧伽藍 (僧伽藍摩) saṅghārāma, a monastery with its garden or grove; also 伽藍.

僧伽補羅 Siṃhapura. Eitel says 'an ancient province and city of Cashmere, probably the modern Simla'.

僧伽跋摩 Saṅghavarman, an Indian monk who arrived in Nanjing A.D. 433, tr. five works in 434, went westward in 442.

僧伽跋陀羅 Saṅghabhadra. 'A learned priest of Cashmere, a follower of the Sarvāstivādaḥ school, the author of many philosophical works.' Eitel.

僧伽難提 Saṅghanandi, a prince of Śrāvastī, lived in a cave, was discovered by Rāhulata, became the sixteenth patriarch.

僧佉 saṅkhyā, 僧企耶; intp. 數 number, reckon, calculate; Saṅkhyā, 'one of the great divisions of Hindu philosophy ascribed to the sage Kapila, and so called as 'reckoning up' or 'enumerating' twenty-five Tattvas or true principles, its object being to effect the final liberation of the twenty-fifth (Purusha, the Soul) from the fetters of the phenomenal creation by conveying the correct knowledge of the twenty-four other Tattvas, and rightly discriminating the soul from them.' M.W. Cf. 迦 and 數.

僧儀 The monastic custom, i.e. shaving head and beard, wearing the robe, etc.

僧侶 Monastic companions, or company.

僧俗 Monks and the laity.

僧伍 The monastic ranks.

僧可 Name of 慧可 Huike, second patriarch of the Intuitive School.

僧吉M075962saṅkleśa, whatever defiles, e.g. the passions.

僧坊 僧房 A vihāra, or saṅghārāma, a monastery; also a nunnery.

僧塞迦羅 saṃskāra, impressions resulting from action, the fourth skandha.

僧官 Director of monks, an official first appointed by the government in the fourth century A.D.; then and later the office was called 僧正; 僧統; 僧錄 (僧錄司).

僧寶 saṅgha, the idealized church, the third member of the triratna.

僧寶果 The perfect arhat who has not to be reborn.

僧尼 Monks and nuns.

僧戒 The ten prohibitions; the complete commands for monks.

僧柯者 idem僧迦舍. sāṅkāśya.

僧柯慄多弭 saṃskṛtam, which means composite, compounded, perfected, but intp. as active, phenomenal, causally produced, characterized by birth, existence, change, and death.

僧次 In order of monastic age, according to years of ordination.

僧自恣日 The 15th of the 7th month; the last day of the summer retreat, on which the monks confessed their sins.

僧殘 saṅghāvaśeṣa; Pali, saṅghādiśeṣa. A sin of an ordained person, requiring open confession before the assembly for absolution, or riddance 殘; failing confession, dismissal from the order. Thirteen of these sins are of sexual thoughts, or their verbal expression, also greed, even for the sake of the order, etc.

僧祇 sāṅghika, relating to a saṅgha; a complete set of land and buildings for a monastery.

僧祇支 saṅkakṣikā or uttarasaṅghāṭī, described as a kind of toga passed over the left shoulder and under the right armpit; also 僧迦; 僧竭支; 僧却崎; 僧脚欹迦; 祇支; 竭支.

僧祇物 Monastic possessions, or things.

僧祇律 Sāṅghikā-vinaya, the rules for monks and nuns.

僧祇部 Sāṅghikāḥ, the Mahāsāṅghikāḥ school, v. 大衆部.

僧若 sañjñā; saṃjñā, the third of the five skandhas, i.e. 想 thought, ideation, consciousness.

僧衆 The body or assembly of monks.

僧訶 siṃha, a lion, also 僧伽.

僧迦舍 Sāṅkāśya, an ancient kingdom and city in Northern India (v. Kapitha 劫). The modern Samkassam, now a village 45 miles north-west of Kanauj. Also 僧伽施.

僧那 (僧那僧涅) sannāha (-sannaddha), girding on armour, intp. as a Buddha's or bodhisattva's great Vow.

Attendant, an attendant, servant; to serve.

Satiated; weary of; disgusted with.

厭世 Weary of the world; to renounce the world.

厭欣 Disgusted with, or rejoicing in.

厭求 Weary of the miseries of earth and seeking deliverance.

厭離 To weary of the world and abandon it.

厭魅 厭禱鬼 Vetāla, a demon appealed to in order to raise a corpse and with it to cause the death of an enemy.

To vomit, spit, disgorge.

嘔侯侯 Ahaha, or Hahava, the fifth of the cold hells, where the condemned neither stir nor speak, but the cold air passing through their throats produces this sound—a hell unknown to Southern Buddhism.

Good, excellent, praiseworthy, to commend.

嘉會 嘉集 Delightful assembly, an excellent meeting.

To praise, extol; to sigh.

嘆佛 To praise Buddha.

嘆德 To praise the virtue of others.

嘆靈 To praise the spirit of the departed.


嗽卑 upāsikā, an old form, see 烏 a female disciple.

A plan, map; seal; to plan, scheme, calculate.

Round; a ball, mass, lump; a group, company, train-band.

團拜 To kneel, or worship altogether as a company.

團食 To roll rice, etc., into a ball in eating, Hindu fashion.

viṣaya; artha; gocara. A region, territory, environment, surroundings, area, field, sphere, e.g. the sphere of mind, the sphere of form for the eye, of sound for the ear, etc.; any objective mental projection regarded as reality.

境智 The objective world and the subjective mind, or knowledge of the objective sphere.

境界 Sphere, region, realm, as 境.

境界相 The external, or phenomenal world, the third aspect referred to in the Awakening of Faith; the three are blind or unintelligent action, the subjective mind, and the objective illusory world.

境界般若 External world prajñā, or wisdom of all things; prajñā is subjective, all things are its objective.

guṇa, in Sanskrit inter alia means 'a secondary element', 'a quality', 'an attribute of the five elements', e.g. 'ether has śabda or sound for its guṇa and the ear for its organ'. In Chinese it means 'dust, small particles; molecules, atoms, exhalations'. It may be intp. as an atom, or matter, which is considered as defilement; or as an active, conditioned principle in nature, minute, subtle, and generally speaking defiling to pure mind; worldly, earthly, the world. The six guṇas or sensation-data are those of sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, and thought.

塵刹 guṇakṣetra, 'field of qualities,' certain sins.

塵勞 The trouble of the world, the passions.

塵境 The environment of the six guṇas or qualities of sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, and thought.

塵塵三昧 The samādhi in which, in a moment of time, entry is made into all samādhis.

塵塵刹土 Numberless lands; also in every grain, or atom, there is a whole realm.

塵妄 Impure and false, as are all temporal things.

塵垢 Material, or phenomenal defilement; the defilement of the passions.

塵欲 The desires connected with the six guṇas.

塵沙 Dust and sand, i.e. numberless as the atoms. Tiantai uses the term as one of the three illusions, i.e. the trial of the bodhisattva in facing the vast amount of detail in knowledge and operation required for his task of saving the world.

塵洲 Worlds as numerous as atoms.

塵劫 (塵點劫) A period of time as impossible of calculation as the atoms of a ground-up world, an attempt to define the infinite, v. Lotus Sūtra 7 and 16.

塵累 The passion-karma which entangles the mind.

塵綱 The net of the six guṇas, i.e. those connected with the six senses.

塵緣 The circumstances or conditions environing the mind created by the six guṇas.

塵表 Outside of the secular, i.e. the doctrine of Buddha.

塵道 The dusty path, the phenomenal world, or worlds.

塵那羅 dīnāra, a coin, a gold coin, from δηναριον.

塵鄕 The native place or home of the six guṇas, i.e that of transmigration.

Long life, longevity, age, v. 耆婆 jīva.

壽像 A portrait, or statue of a man of years while still alive.

壽命 jīvita, life, length of days, age.

壽命無有量 壽命無數劫 The infinite life of Buddha.

壽論 阿由 The Ayurveda, the medical Vedas, v. 韋.

壽量品 The chapter in the Lotus Sūtra where Buddha declares his eternity; v. also the 無量壽經.

A dream, a simile of the things of the world.

夢幻 Dream and illusion, the characteristics of all phenomena.

夢揭釐 Moṅgali, or Maṅgala, ancient capital of Udyāna, the present Manglavor on the left bank of the Swat, a trans-Indus State west of Kashmir.

夢想 To 'dream' a thing, to think of in a dream, to imagine.

夢見 To see in a dream, to imagine one sees, or has seen.

Snatch, carry off, take by force; decide.

奪魂鬼 A demon that carries off the soul.

奪精鬼 One that carries off the vital breath of the dying.

To sleep, rest; stop; a retiring room, resting place.

寢堂 A dormitory.

Repose; settle; better than; rather; how?

寧安 Reposeful at ease.

Real, true, honest, sincere; solid; fixed; full; to fill; fruit, kernel, effects; verily, in fact; it is used for 眞, as in 一實 the supreme fact, or ultimate reality; also for bhūta.

實化 The real or noumenal Buddha as contrasted with 權化 the temporal or phenomenal Buddha; the 實化二身 are his 報身 saṃbhogakāya and his 化身 nirmāṇakāya.

實利 śarīra, relics, see 舍.

實叉難陀 Śikṣānanda. A śramaṇa of Kustana (Khotan) who in A.D. 695 introduced a new alphabet into China and translated nineteen works; the Empress Wu invited him to bring a complete copy of the Huayan sūtra to Luoyang; sixteen works in the present collection are assigned to him. Also 施乞叉難陀.

實唱 Reality-proclamation, i.e. to preach the Tathāgata's law of Reality.

實報土 The land of Buddha-reward in Reality free from all barriers, that of the bodhisattva, the third of the four 'lands' of Tiantai. A Buddha-kṣetra.

實大乘教 The real Mahāyāna, freed from temporal, relative, or expedient ideas; the Tiantai, Huayan, Intuitional, and Shingon schools claim to be such.

實性 Real nature, or essence, i.e. the 眞如 bhūtatathatā.

實我 The true ego, in contrast with the 假我 phenomenal ego.

實教 The teaching of Reality; also, the real or reliable teaching.

實智 The knowledge or wisdom of Reality, in contrast with knowledge of the 權 relative.

實本 Fundamental reality, applied to the teaching of the Lotus Sūtra, as opposed to the previous Buddhist teaching.

實眼 An eye able to discern reality, i.e. the Buddha-eye.

實相 Reality, in contrast with 虛妄; absolute fundamental reality, the ultimate, the absolute; the 法身, i.e. dharmakāya, or 眞如 bhūtatathatā. Other terms are 一實; 一如; 一相; 無相; 法證; 法位; 涅槃; 無爲; 眞諦; 眞性; 眞空; 實性; 實諦; 實際, q.v.

實相三昧 The samādhi of reality, in which the unreality of the phenomenal is realized.

實相印 The seal or witness of reality, which is passed on from Buddha to Buddha.

實相慧 Wisdom in regard to reality.

實相智身 The body of absolute knowledge, or of complete knowledge of Reality, i.e. that of Vairocana.

實相法界 The first half is a Lotus Sūtra term for Reality, the latter half a Huayan term for the same.

實相爲物二身 The dharmakāya or spiritual Buddha, and the nirmāṇakāya, i.e. manifested or phenomenal Buddha.

實相無相 Reality is Nullity, i.e. is devoid of phenomenal characteristics, unconditioned.

實相花 實相風 The flower, or breeze, of Reality, i.e. the truth, or glory, of Buddhist teaching.

實相觀 Insight into, or meditation on Reality.

實空 Absolute śūnya, or vacuity; all things being produced by cause and environment are unreal.

實經 The true sūtras as contrasted to the relative or temporary sūtras, a term of the Lotus school.

實色身 The real Buddha-body, or his saṃbhogakāya in contrast with his nirmāṇakāya.

實語 True, or reliable words; words corresponding to reality; discussions of Reality.

實諦 A truth; the true statement of a fundamental principle.

實道 The true way, the true religion, absolute Buddha-truth.

實際 The region of Reality.

實際理地 The noumenal universe, the bhūtatathatā.

To respond, reply, face, opposite, pair, compare; the opposite of; agreeing with.

對吿衆 The intermediary for the Buddha' s address to the assembly, especially Ānanda.

對揚 One who drew out remarks or sermons from the Buddha.

對機 To respond to the opportunity, or the capacity of hearers.

對法 The corresponding law, the philosophy in the Buddha's teaching, the Abhidharma; comparison of cause and effect.

對法宗 The Abhidharma sect.

對法藏 The third section of the tripiṭaka, the śāstras, or Abhidharma.

對治 To respond or face up to and control.

對觸禮 To worship, or pay respects, face to face.

對首 Face to face (confession).

A streamer, pennant 幖幟.

Wide, spacious, open, vacant.

廓然大悟 Widely to have a great apprehension of the truth.

Variegated, adorned; to display, show, make manifest.

Shame, ashamed; i.e. for one's own faults, cf. 愧.

matsara; lobha; grudging, sparing, stingy, avaricious.

慳心 慳惜 A grudging, mean heart.

慳法 Mean and grudging of the Truth to others, unwillingness to part with it.

慳貪 Grudging and greed.

māna. Pride, arrogance, self-conceit, looking down on others, supercilious, etc.; there are categories of seven and nine kinds of pride.

慢使 The messenger, or lictor, of pride, cf. 五使.

慢坑 The pit, or pitfall of pride.

慢山 Pride as high as a mountain.

慢幢 Pride as a banner rearing itself aloft.

慢惑 One of the ten great delusions, that of pride.

慢想 Proud, arrogant thoughts.

慢結 The bondage of pride.

慢擧 To hold oneself arrogantly.

慢見 Pride, regarding oneself as superior, one of the ten wrong views.

慢過慢 Regarding oneself as superior, to superiors.


慇懃 Zealous, careful.

To cut off, intercept.

截雨呪 Incantations for the cessation of rain.

To feel, grope, e.g. as a blind man.

摸象 The blind man who tried to describe an elephant by feeling it, v. Nirvāṇa Sūtra 32.

To knock, beat, pound, e.g. a drum, gong, or gate.

A handle for turning a wheel, a wheel, to revolve, circulate.

斡資羅 vajra, v. 跋 and 金剛.

To and fro; translit. kha; cf. 竭; 軻.

朅伽 朅誐 khaḍga, a sword, rhinoceros' horn, rhinoceros.

朅伽毘沙拏 朅伽毘沙 khaḍga-viṣāṇa, a rhinoceros' horn.

朅地洛迦 Khadiraka, the Acacia, or Acacia mountain; i.e. 朅達羅 one of the seven concentric mountains around Sumeru.

Hammer, mallet.

槌砧 槌墩 Hammer and block, or anvil.

vitasti, a span; the 32,000th part of a yojana.

Glory, splendour.

榮華 Glory, the glory of life, viewed as transient.

A tray; a hut; to turn; translit. pan, van, va.

槃淡 cf. 和 vandana, obeisance, worship.

槃特 槃陀 cf. 半 paṇḍaka, eunuch.

槃遮 vāc, speech, talk.

槃頭 Pāṇḍu, father of Vipaśyin, the 998th Buddha of the last kalpa .

A placard, list; model, example.

To sing; a song; translit. ka; cf. 迦, 羯.

歌偈 Verses for singing; to sing verses.

歌利 Kali, the present evil age.

歌利王 v. 羯 Kalirāja.

歌唄 歌嘆; 歌咏; 歌頌 To sing, chant.

歌憂底迦 Kārttika, the month October-November.

歌舞 To sing and dance.

歌羅 (歌羅分) v. 迦 kalā, a fraction.

歌羅邏 kalala, an embryo, the womb.

歌羅頻迦 v. 迦, kalaviṅka.

歌聲 The sound of singing, the singing of kinnaras, cf. 緊.

To perish, die; fall; become extinct.

Varnish, lacquer.

漆桶 Varnish tub, a stupid, unseeing fellow.

The River Han: the Han dynasty; a fine fellow; China.

To strain, filter.

漉水袋 or 漉水囊 A monk's filtering-bag to strain off living creatures.

Overflowing, boundless; translit. man, van; cf. 曼, 滿.

漫提 vande, 'I worship.'

漫荼羅 (or 漫怛羅 or漫陀羅) v. 曼 maṇḍala.

漫荼迦 maṇḍaka, a cake, pastry.

To steep, macerate, rot; bubble; translit. u, o, etc.

漚和倶舍羅 (or 傴和倶舍羅) (or 漚和拘舍羅) (or 傴和拘舍羅) upāyakauśalya, intp. by 方便善巧 expediency and skill, adaptable, suited to conditions, opportunist, the adaptation of teaching to the capacity of the hearer.

漚多羅僧 v. 鬱 uttarāsaṅga, a toga worn over the left shoulder.

漚波耶波羅蜜 upāya-pāramitā, saving by the method of expedient teaching, v. 漚和倶舍羅.

漚鉢羅 utpala, also 嗢鉢羅; 優鉢羅; 烏鉢羅 the blue lotus; also a lord of nāgas and his blue lotus lake.

A channel, canal; transport, especially by the 漕河 Grand Canal.

漕矩吒 Tsaukūta, an 'ancient (Arachotos) kingdom in N. W. India (near Ghuznee)'. Eitel.

To extend, expound, practise, perform.

演暢 To expound and make clear.

演若達多 Yajñadatta (演若) , 'obtained from sacrifice,' a crazy man who saw his eyebrows and eyes in a mirror but not seeing them in his own head thought himself bedevilled; the eyes and head are a symbol of 正性 reality, those in the mirror of 妄相 unreality.

演說 To expound, dilate upon, discourse.

Gradual, by degrees, to flow little by little.

漸次 step by step, by degrees, gradually.

漸教 The gradual method of teaching by beginning with the Hīnayāna and proceeding to the Mahāyāna, in contrast with 頓教 q.v. the immediate teaching of the Mahāyāna doctrine, or of any truth directly; e.g. the Huayan school considers the Huayan sūtra as the immediate or direct teaching, and the Lotus Sūtra as both gradual and direct; Tiantai considers the Lotus direct and complete; but there are other definitions.

漸斷 Gradually to cut off, as contrasted with 頓斷 sudden or instantaneous excision.

漸熱 Increasing heat; grīṣma, the two months from middle of May to middle of July.

滿 pūrṇa. Full, whole, complete.

滿分戒 The whole of the commandments, i.e. of the monk.

滿字 The complete word, i.e. Mahāyāna, as compared with the 半字 half word, or incomplete word of Hīnayāna.

滿座 A complete, or full assembly; also the last day of a general assembly.

滿怛羅 滿荼邏 v. 曼 maṇḍala.

滿慈子 滿祝子; 滿見子; 滿願子 see 富 pūrṇa.

滿成 Fully complete, perfect.

滿月尊 The full-moon honoured one, Buddha.

滿果 滿業 The fruit, or karma, which fills out the details of any incarnation, as distinguished from 引業 which determines the type, e.g. man, animal, etc., of that incarnation.

滿殊尸利 v. 文 Mañjuśrī.

滿泥 漫提 vande, 'I worship.'

滿濡 曼殊 or 曼乳 mañju, beautiful, lovely.

滿荼 maṇḍa, solid, the diamond throne.

滿足 Full, complete.

āsrava, 'flowing, running, discharge; distress, pain, affliction.' M.W. It is defined as another term for 煩惱 q.v.; also as the discharge, or outflow, from the organs of sense, wherever those exist, hence it is applied to the passions and their filth; impure efflux from the mind, v. 欲有; also to the leakage or loss thereby of the 正道 truth; also to the stream of transmigration.

漏永盡無所畏 Absolute confidence (of Buddha) that transmigration would cease for ever.

漏戒 To make a leak in the commandments, i.e. break them.

漏業 The deeds of the sinner in the stream of transmigration, which produce his karma.

漏無漏 Transmigration and nirvāṇa.

漏盡 āsravakṣaya. The end of the passions, or the exhaustion of the stream of transmigration.

漏盡明 The realization that the stream of transmigration is ended.

漏盡意解 The passions ended and the mind freed, the state of the arhat.

漏盡智 The wisdom of the arhat.

漏盡比丘 The monk who has ended the stream of transmigration, the arhat.

漏盡證明 The assurance or realization that the stream of transmigration is ended and nirvāṇa attained.

漏盡通 The supernatural insight into the ending of the stream of transmigration; one of the six abhijñās.

To smoke, fumigate, cense, perfume, exhale; fog, becloud.

熏習 To fumigate, perfume, i.e. the influence of unenlightenment, ignorance, or blind fate, on the unconditioned producing the conditioned, v. 薰 18.

A bear.

熊耳山 Bear's ear mount, the place, where Bodhidharma was buried.

Glitter, twinkle.

熒惑心 (or熒惑天) Aṅgāraka, the planet Mars; also 火曜日; it is also described as a nakṣatra, or asterism, and as such is represented in feminine form in the Vajradhātu group.

You, thou; so, thus; used adverbially.

爾前 Before this, formerly used by Tiantai to denote the time preceding the Lotus Sūtra.

爾燄 爾炎 jñeya, cognizable, the region or basis of knowledge.

Litigation, law-case; a prison; 地獄 q.v. Earth-prison, the hells.

璢璃 vaiḍūrya, described as a green indestructible gem, one of the seven precious things. A mountain near Vārāṇaśī. Also 吠璢璃 (吠璢璃耶); 毘頭梨.

璢璃王 Virūḍhaka, cf. 毘.


Jasper (green), green crystal.

瑤花宮 cf. 玉.

Mould, influence, discern; translit. kiṃ, kin.

甄叔迦 kiṃśuka, the tree Butea frondosa, with beautiful red blossoms; a red stone perhaps a ruby.

甄迦羅 kiṃkara, 10,000,000,000.

甄陀 kinnara, v. 緊.

vicikitsā; doubt, suspect; hesitate, be uncertain, fear, surmise.

疑使The messenger, tempter, or lictor, of doubt.

疑剌 The thorn of doubt.

疑域胎宮 The palace for doubters outside Amitābha's heaven, where all doubters of him are confined for 500 years until fit to enjoy his paradise.

疑執 The holding to doubt.

疑心 A doubting heart, dubious, suspicious.

疑惑 Doubt and delusion, doubt, uncertainty.

疑悔 To repent of doubt.

疑結 The bondage of doubt.

疑蓋 The overhanging cover of doubt.

疑見 Doubtfully to view, doubtful views, doubt.

To survey, examine; a palace-eunuch; the Academy; to superintend, oversee; warden of a jail, warder, jail.

監寺 監院; 監收 The warden, or superintendent of a monastery, especially the one who controls its internal affairs.

An emptied vessel, all used up; end, finish, complete, nothing left; all, utmost, entirely. At the end of seven days, seven days being completed.

盡十方 The entire ten directions, the universe, everywhere.

盡未來際 To the end of all time, eternal.

盡淨虛融 The identity of the absolute and the empirical, a doctrine of the Prajñāpāramitā.

Jade-green, or blue.

碧眼胡 The blue-eyed barbarian, Bodhidharma.

Woe, calamity, misfortune.

Blessing, happiness, felicity, good fortune.

福地 A place of blessedness, a monastery.

福報 A blessed reward, e.g. to be reborn as a man or a deva.

福因 That which causes or gives rise to blessing, i.e. all good deeds.

福庭 A court, or hall, of blessedness, a monastery.

福德 puṇya. Blessed virtues, all good deeds; the blessing arising from good deeds.

福德莊嚴 The adornment of blessedness and virtue. i.e. of good deeds.

福德資糧 The nutriment of blessedness i.e. deeds of charity.

福德身 The buddhakāya, or body of Buddha, in the enjoyment of the highest samādhi bliss.

福德門 The gates of blessedness and virtue, the first five of the six pāramitās.

福慧 Blessedness and wisdom; or virtue and wisdom.

福慶 Blessedness and felicity, blessed felicity; to congratulate on good fortune.

福智 Blessedness and wisdom, the two virtues which adorn.

福果 The reward of blessedness.

福業 The karma of blessedness, a happy karma.

福生 Born of or to happiness.

福生天 Puṇyaprasavās, the tenth brahmaloka, the first region of the fourth dhyāna.

福田 The field of blessedness, i.e. any sphere of kindness, charity, or virtue; there are categories of 2, 3, 4, and 8, e.g. that of study and that of charity; parents, teachers, etc.; the field of poverty as a monk, etc.

福田衣 The garment of the field of blessing, the monk's robe.

福相法身 The Buddha-dharmakāya as blessedness, in contrast with it as wisdom.

福祿 Happiness and emolument, good fortune here or hereafter.

福蓋 The cover, or canopy, of blessing.

福行 The life or conduct which results in blessing e.g. being reborn as a man or a deva.

福觀 Blessedness and insight, similar to福慧; 福智.

福足 The feet of blessedness, one consisting of the first five pāramitās, the other being the sixth pāramitā, i.e. wisdom; happiness replete.

To call, style, invoke; to weigh; a steelyard, scale; to suit, tally with.

稱佛 To invoke a Buddha.

稱名 To invoke the (Buddha's) name, especially that of Amitābha.

稱名雜行 To worship a variety of Buddhas, etc., instead of cleaving to Amitābha alone.

稱意華 The soma plant, suggested by Sir Aurel Stein as possibly wild rhubarb.

稱讚 To praise.

vīja; bīja. Seed, germ; sort, species; also to sow, plant.

種子 Seed, germ; the content of the ālayavijñāna as the seed of all phenomena; the esoterics also have certain Sanskrit letters, especially the first letter ā, as a seed or germ containing supernatural powers.

種子識 ālayavijñāna, the abode or seed-store of consciousness from which all phenomena spring, producing and reproducing momentarily.

種性 Seed nature, germ nature; derivative or inherited nature.

種智 Omniscience, knowledge of the seed or cause of all phenomena.

種根器 The three categories of the ālayavijñāna: (1) the seed, or cause, of all phenomena; (2) the five organs of sensation; (3) the material environment on which they depend.

種熟脫 The seed of Buddha-truth implanted, its ripening, and its liberation or harvest.

種種色世界 A world of every kind of thing.

種覺 The insight into all seeds or causes, Buddha-knowledge, omniscience.

種識 The ālayavijñāna.

Beginning, coming forth, elementary principles; a point either beginning or end; straight, proper.

端嚴 In strict propriety.

端坐 To sit straight and proper.

端心正意 With a proper mind and regulated will, doing no evil.

端正 Proper, properly ordered, rectitude, integrity.

Exhaust, used up, finish; utmost.

竭叉 A place said to be in the Karakoram mountains, where according to Faxian formerly great assemblies were held under royal patronage and with royal treatment. Eitel gives it as Khaśa, and says 'an ancient tribe on the Paropamisus, the Kasioi of Ptolemy'; others give different places, e.g. Kashmir, Iskardu, Krtchou.

竭支 v. 僧祇支.

竭誐 khaḍga (sometimes in error khaṅga), a sword, a rhinoceros' horn, a rhinoceros.

竭陀羅 khadira, the Acacia catechu; khadīra, the Mimosa pudica. M.W. A hard wood, also karavīra.

A tablet, slip.

箋書 sūtras.

Each, every.

箇箇圓常道 Every single thing is the complete eternal Dao.

A pipe, tube; to rule, control.

管絃講 Pipes, stings, and preaching, an 'accompanied' service — in India.

Reckon, count, calculate.

算數 To count numbers, to count, number.

Cleaned rice, freed from the husk, pure; essential, essence, germinating principle, spirit; fine, best, finest.

精室 精廬; 精舍 A place for pure, or spiritual, cultivation, a pure abode, the abode of the celibate, a monastery or nunnery.

精氣 Vitality, virility.

精眞 Pure truth, apprehension of ultimate reality.

精神 Vitality; also the pure and spiritual, the subtle, or recondite.

精進 vīrya, one of the seven bodhyaṅga; 'vigour,' 'valour, fortitude,' 'virility' (M.W.); 'welldoing' (Keith). The Chinese interpretation may be defined, as pure or unadulterated progress, i.e. 勤 zeal, zealous, courageously progressing in the good and eliminating the evil.

精進力 vīryabala. The power of unfailing progress, one of the five moral powers.

精進弓智慧箭 Zeal as the bow, wisdom the arrow.

精進波羅蜜 Zeal, energy, or progress as the fourth of the six pāramitās.

精靈棚 The booth, or canopy, where the feast of all souls is provided.

A kind of open-work variegated silk.

綺語 Sexual talk; improper remarks.

Tight; to bind tight; press tight; pressing, urgent; translit. kin.

緊祝迦 kiṃśuka, v. 甄 ruby-colour.

緊要 Important.

緊那羅 緊捺羅 (or緊陀羅); 甄陀羅 (or 眞陀羅 ) kinnara; the musicians of Kuvera, with men's bodies and horses' heads; they are described as 人非人 men yet not men, and 疑神 mythical beings; one of the eight classes of heavenly musicians; they are also described as horned, as having crystal lutes, the females singing and dancing, and as ranking below gandharvas.

Thread: a clue, continuation. An intp. of sūtra.

A net rope, bond, social nexus, constant obligation, the restraints of society.

綱維 The controller of a monastery.

jāla. A net, a web.

網目 The 'eyes', or meshes of a net. For the Brahmajāla sūtra v. 梵網經.

Black garments; at one time black was used for monastic robes.

緇徒 緇流 Monks.

緇林 A monastery.

緇衣 Black robes, monks.

緇門 The black-robe order, monks.

A carriage-curtain; a net; a corner, cardinal point; to tie or hold together, connect; a copula, also, but, whereas, now.

維口食 Improper means of existence by spells, fortune-telling, etc., one of the four cardinal improper ways of earning a livelihood.

維摩 Vimalakīrti, 維摩詰 (維摩羅詰); 毘摩羅詰 undefiled or spotless reputation, 'a native of Vaiśālī, said to have been a contemporary of Śākyamuni, and to have visited China.' Eitel. The Vimalakīrti-nirdeśa sūtra 維摩詰所說經 is an apocryphal account of 'conversations between Śākyamuni and some residents of Vaiśālī', tr. by Kumārajīva; an earlier tr. was the維摩詰經, a later was by Xuanzang, and there are numerous treatises.

維耶離 cf. 毘 Vaiśālī.

維衛 (維衛佛) cf. 毘 Vipaśyin, one of the seven ancient Buddhas.

維越 avaivartika, cf. 阿, one who never reverts to a lower condition.

維那 羯磨陀那 karmadāna, the duty-distributor, deacon, arranger of duties, second in command of a monastery.

samāsa ; assemble, collect; an assemblage.

聚沫 The phenomenal world likened to assembled scum, or bubbles.

聚諦 samudaya, the second of the four dogmas, that of 'accumulation', i.e. that suffering is caused by the passions.

聚集 To assemble, flock together.

To hear; to make known to; to smell.

聞光力 To hear of the power of the light of Amitābha.

聞名 To hear the name of; fame, famous; to hear the name of Buddha, or a Buddha.

聞慧 Hearing the word and becoming wise in it; wisdom obtained from hearing.

聞持 To hear and keep; hearing and keeping in mind; hearing and obeying.

聞法 To hear the doctrine.

聞陀羅尼 (聞持陀羅尼) To hear and keep, hear and remember the teaching, dhāraṇī 陀羅尼 meaning to hold to, maintain.

To begin, initiate.

肇法師 or 僧肇 Sengzhao, name of a monk in the fourth century whose treatise is called by this name.

Rotten, corrupt, putrid, sloughing.

腐爤藥 Purgatives, diuretics.

Fat, oil, unguent.

膏明 Oil and light, oil being right conduct, with the resultant shining before men.

A terrace, platform, stage, look-out; also written 台.

臺座 A platform, or stage, for an image.

Give, grant; with, associate; present at, share in; mark of interrogation or exclamation.

與力 To give strength.

與願 To be willing (or vow) to grant.

To posture, brandish, play; urge.

與戲 To play, perform plays.

Twigs; to steam, vapour.

蒸沙 Steaming or cooking sand for food: an impossibility, like Ānanda trying to meditate without cutting off evil conduct.

Thorny bushes, furze.

蒺藜 The calthrop, Tribulus terrestris.

Hay, straw, fodder.

蒭摩 kṣumā, kṣauma, linen, flax, linen garments; also 芻蒭迦; 菆蒭; 須蒭; 蘇蒭; 讖蒭.

蓱沙王 Bimbisāra, v. 頻.

Rushes, flags, grass.

蒲團 A rush cushion, or hassock.

蒲塞 upāsaka, 伊蒲塞 cf. 優.

蒲闍尼 蒲膳尼 bhojanīya, to be eaten, edible; what is suitable as the fare of monks and nuns, proper food; one list gives wheat, rice (boiled), parched rice, fish, and flesh; another gives cakes (or loaves), porridge, parched grain, flesh, and boiled rice.

A cover, anything that screens, hides, or hinders; to build; then, for. The passions which delude the real mind so that it does not develop. A hat, or umbrella, or any cover. The canopy over a Buddha.

蓋纏 Cover and bonds i.e. the passions which stunt growth and hold in bondage.

To cover; stupid, ignorant; receive (from above); Mongol.

蒙古 Mongolia, Mongol.

蒙惑 Stupid and deluded.

Azure; the heavens; grey, old.

蒼龍窟 The cave of the azure or green dragon, where it lies curled over the talismanic pearl, which only a hero can obtain.

Insects, creeping things.

蜫蟲作佛 Even insects may attain Buddhahood; v. 智度論 93.

Honey; translit. m.

蜜利伽羅 mṛga; a deer; mṛga-rāja, royal stag, Buddha.

蜜利車 mleccha, cf. 彌 heathen, non-Buddhist nations, the barbarians.

蜜栗伽悉他鉢娜 Mṛga-sthāpana, Mṛgadāva, famous park north-east of Vārāṇaśī, a favourite resort of Śākyamuni. The modern Sārnath, near Benares. Eitel.

Beautifully robed.

裴弗略 vaipulya, enlarged, v. 方.


裸形外道 nirgranthas, naked ascetics.

Truthful, true, truth; real; sincere, sincerity.

誠信 True and trustworthy, true, reliable.

誠諦 Truth, a truth, the true teaching of Buddhism.

Commandment, precept, prohibition, warning, rule.

誡罰 To warn and punish; to punish for breach of the commandments or rules.

誡勸 Prohibitions from evil and exhortations to good. See 戒.

To remember, record.

To intone, hum; translit. ga.

誐囉娜 gardabha, defined as an ass.

誐嚕 garuḍa, v. 迦.

誐那鉢氏 gaṇapati, a leader, Gaṇeśa, the 'elephant god'; it is, however, defined as 歡喜 pleased, joyful.

To recognize.

認識 to acknowledge, e.g. sin 認罪.

Imposition, deception, lying.

To murmur, recite, intone, memorize by repeating in a murmur, cf. 念.

誦經 To intone sūtras.

A birthday; to bear, produce; wide, boastful.

誕生會 An assembly to celebrate a birthday, e.g. the Buddha's on the 8th of the 4th month.

To swear, vow, engage to, enter into a contract.

誓約 To swear and engage to.

誓願 To swear and vow, e.g. the forty-eight vows of Amitābha to save all beings.

Words, discourse, conversation, speech, language; to say, speak with; cf. 嚕 ruta.

語業 The karma produced by speech.

語義 rutārtha word-meaning; word and meaning.

語言 abhidhāna. Words, talk, speech; naming.

To speak, say, talk, discourse, expound; speech, etc. Used for 悅 pleased.

說一切有部 v. 一 and 有; the Sarvāstivādaḥ realistic school.

說假部 The Prajñāptivādinaḥ school, a branch of the Mahāsāṅghikaḥ, which took the view of phenomenality and reality, ? founded on the Prajñāpti-śāstra.

說出世部 The Lokottaravādinaḥ school, a branch of the Mahāsāṅghikaḥ, which held the view that all in the world is merely phenomenal and that reality exists outside it.

說因部 Hetuvādinaḥ, idem Sarvāstivādaḥ.

說戒 The bi-monthly reading of the prohibitions for the order and of mutual confession.

說法 To tell or expound the law, or doctrine; to preach.

說示 To tell and indicate.

說經 To expound the sūtras.

說罪 To confess sin, or wrong-doing.

說轉部 idem 經部 (經量部) Sautrāntika school.

說通 To expound thoroughly, penetrating exposition.

說默 Speech and silence.

To buy or sell on credit; to borrow; slow, remiss, shirk.

賒乃以室折羅 Śanaiścara 土星, Saturn, or its regent.

賒多 śānta, pacified, at ease, ceased, dead, liberated; also 奢多.

A guest; to entertain; to submit.

賓伽羅 Piṅgala, an Indian sage to whom is attributed 'the Chandas' (M.W.), i.e. a treatise on metre.

賓吒羅 ? Piṇḍāra, ? Piṇḍala, one of the painless purgatories.

賓坻 Piṇḍada, abbrev. for Anāthapiṇḍada. v. 阿.

賓撥利力叉 pippala, pippala-vṛkṣa, the bodhidruma, or tree under which Śākyamuni obtained insight.

賓波羅窟 Vaibhāra, the Vaibhāra cavern; 'a rock-cut temple on a mountain near Rādjagṛha 王舍城, now called Baibhargiri. Śākyamuni used to resort thither for meditation.' Eitel.

賓鉢羅 pippala, v. 賓撥利力叉.

賓頭 One of the purgatories, v. 賓吒羅.

賓頭盧頗羅墮 Piṇḍola-bhāradvāja, name of the first of the sixteen arhats, who became the old man of the mountains, white hair and bead, bushy eyebrows, one of the genī.

To hasten to, return; a long time.

趙州 A prefecture in south-west Chihli, with a monastery, from which the Tang monk Zhaozhou got his pseudonym.

Light; frivolous; to slight.

輕安 Not oppressed, at ease.

輕慢 To despise; the pride of thinking lightly of others.

輕毛 As light as a hair, as unstable as a feather.

輕重 Light and heavy.

To send; to drive away.

遣喚 To send, and to call.

To yield, accord; modest.

Far, distant, far removed.

遠塵離垢 To be far removed from the dust and defilement of the world.

遠師 idem 慧遠 q.v.

遠行地 The seventh stage of the bodhisattva, in which he leaves the world of phenomena and enjoys mystic contemplation.

遠離 vivṛj; vivarjana; leave afar off, be far removed; absolute separation of unconditioned reality from the realm of phenomena.

遠離樂 The joy of the first dhyāna heaven, in which the defilement of desire is left far behind in mystic contemplation.

To engrave, on metal, stone, or the tablets of the heart.

A weight equal to the twenty-fourth part of a tael; a small ancient coin; a scruple; trifles.

銖衣 The gossamer clothing of the devas, or angels.

tāmra. copper, brass.

銅錢 Copper money, cash.

銅鑼 A gong.

rūpya. Silver; money.

銀色 Silver-colour.

A pavilion, temple building; chamber, council, cabinet.

A border, region, juncture, limit; between; to join on; then, since, now.

生死之際 Between life and death.

無際 Unlimited.

際史吒 Jyaiṣṭha, the month in May-June.

varaṇa; āvaraṇa; a screen, barricade, partition, a term for the passions or any delusion which hinders enlightenment.

障礙 Screen and obstruction, i.e. anything that hinders.

障盡解脫 Salvation through the complete removal of the obstruction of illusion.

Red socks.

靺? 沙迦; 靺師迦 vārṣika; a flower that blooms during the rainy season, described as of a white colour and very fragrant; the aloe.

Neck, collar; lead, direct; receive.

領納 To receive, accept.

領解 To receive and interpret.

Somewhat, quite, very; partial; translit. pha, bha. Cf. 叵.

頗勒具那 (or 頗勒窶拏) Phālguna, the twelfth month in India (February-March).

頗尼多 phāṇita, the inspissated juice of the sugar cane, raw sugar.

頗羅 phala, fruit, produce, progeny, profit, etc.

頗羅墮 (or 頗羅吒) Bhāradvāja, descendant of the ancient sage Bharadvāja, intp. as one of the six (or eighteen) Brahmin surnames, and as meaning 利根 of keen mind, clever.

頗胝迦 頗置迦; 頗黎; 頗棃 sphāṭika, rock crystal.

In gusts, suddenly.

颯秣建 Samakan, the modern Samarkand. Eitel.

颯破?sphaṭika, see 頗.

Replete, full.

飽學 Replete with learning; fed full with study.

To adorn; gloss over; pretend. 裝飾.

馝柯 Vikramāditya, a king of Śrāvastī and famous benefactor of Buddhism, v. 毘.

v. 蘇 svāhā.

駄 Translit. dha, dhya.

駄南 dhyāna, also 駄演那; 駄衍那 tr. by 定 and 禪 q.v.

駄器尼 v. 達 The Deccan.

駄摩 v. 達 dharma.

駄索迦 dāsaka, a slave, or dāsikā, a female slave.

駄縛若 dhvaja, a flag.

駄那羯磔迦 Dhanakaṭaka, or Amarāvatī, an ancient kingdom in the north-east of the modern Madras presidency.

駄都 dhātu, intp. by 界 field, area, sphere; 體 embodiment, body, corpus; 性nature, characteristic. It means that which is placed or laid; a deposit, foundation, constituent, ingredient, element; also a śarīra, or relic of Buddha The two dhātus are the conditioned and unconditioned, phenomenal and noumenal; the three are the realms of desire, of form, and of the formless; the four are earth, water, fire, and air; the six add space and intelligence; the eighteen are the twelve āyatanas, with six sensations added.

The mind, the soul, conscious mind, vijñāna; also 魂神.

魂魄 Animus and anima; the spiritual nature or mind, and the animal soul; the two are defined as mind and body or mental and physical, the invisible soul inhabiting the visible body, the former being celestial, the latter terrestrial.

The 'phœnix' the auspicious bird.

鳳刹 'Phœnix'-kṣetra, a term for a Buddhist temple.

Cry, sound, note of a bird, etc.

鳴魚 To sound the wooden fish to announce a meal time.

鳴錫 A rattling staff shaken to warn the spirits.

Interrogative particle; translit. ma, ba; cf. 摩.

麽也 māyā, illusion, hallucination; also intp. as 體 body.

麽度羅 Mathurā, the modern Muttra.

麽攞 麽羅 mālā, a head-dress, wreath.

麽洗 Māsa, a month.

麽羅庾 malaya, a kind of incense from the Malaya mountains in Malabar.

麽麽 mama, my, mine, genitive case of the first personal pronoun.

麽麽鷄 Māmakī; 忙忙鷄; 忙莽鷄 (or 忙莽計); 摩莫枳; the Vajra mother, mother of the 金剛部 or of wisdom in all the vajra group.

ghrāṇa. The nose; one of the five 根 indryas; the organ of smell; one of the six vijñānas (六識) or perceptions, the sense of smell; translit. vai, vi.

鼻入 Organ and sense of smell.

鼻奢佉 Vaiśākha, the second month of spring.

鼻婆沙 see 毘, Vibhāṣā.

鼻根 The organ of smell.

鼻息 The breath of the nostrils; also the perception of smell.

鼻溜荼迦 v. 毘 Virūḍhaka.

鼻識 The sensation, or perception of smell.

鼻路波阿叉 Virūpākṣa. One of the lokapāla, or guardians of the four cardinal points of Mount Sumeru. In China known as 廣目 wide-eyed, red in colour with a small pagoda in his right hand, and a serpent in his left; in China worshipped as one of the twenty-four Deva Ārya 天尊. Also, a name for Maheśvara or Rudra (Śiva). Cf. 毘 and 髀.

鼻那夜 cf. 毘 Vinaya.

鼻隔禪師 dhyāna master with nose (and other organs) shutoff from sensation, i.e. a stupid mystic.

鼻鼓迦 (or鼻致迦) bījaka, a seed, v. 種.

Even, level, equal, uniform; complete, perfect; equalize; tranquillize; alike; all; at the same time, altogether.

齊業身 The final body which brings to an end all former karma.

齊說齊聞 Speaking and hearing together, or at the same time.

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