A Dictionary Of Chinese Buddhist Terms

With Sanskrit And English Equivalents And A Sanskrit-pali Index

by William Edward Soothill | 1937 | 324,264 words

For about a thousand years, Buddhism dominated the thought of China and her thinkers were occupied with Buddhist philosophy. This dictionary serves as a resource to the interpretation of Chinese culture, as well as an important reference for the comparative study of Sanskrit and Pali originals. The author provides a key for the students which to u...

Part 13 - Thirteen Strokes

Disturb, perturb, confusion, disorder, rebellion.

亂僧 A disorderly monk.

亂善 To disturb the good, confound goodness; the confused goodness of those who worship, etc., with divided mind.

亂心 A perturbed or confused mind, to disturb or unsettle the mind.

亂想 To think confusedly, or improperly.

亂行 Disorderly conduct.

To transmit, pass on, hand down, promulgate, propagate; tradition; summon; interpret; record; the Abhidharma.

傳心 To pass from mind to mind, to pass by narration or tradition, to transmit the mind of Buddha as in the Intuitional school, mental transmission.

傳戒 To transmit the commandments, to grant them as at ordination.

傳持 To maintain what has been transmitted; to transmit and maintain.

傳教 To spread the teaching, or doctrine; to transmit and instruct.

傳法 To transmit, or spread abroad the Buddha truth.

傳燈 To transmit the light, pass on the lamp of truth.

傳衣 To hand down the mantle, or garments.

傳通 Universal propagation; unhindered transmission.

To injure, wound, hurt, harm, distress, A tr. of yakṣa.

傷和氣 To disturb the harmony.

傷命 Injury to life.

To solicit, call upon, invite: enroll, enlist, subscribe.

募緣 募化 To raise subscriptions.

bala, sthāman. Power, influence, authority; aspect, circumstances.

勢力鬼 A powerful demon.

勢羅 śaila, craggy, mountainous, mountain.

勢至 He whose wisdom and power reach everywhere, Mahāsthāmaprāpta, i.e. 大勢至 q.v. Great power arrived (at maturity), the bodhisattva on the right of Amitābha, who is the guardian of Buddha-wisdom.

vīrya, energy, zeal, fortitude, virility; intp. also as 精進 one of the pāramitās.

勤息 A tr. of śramaṇa, one who diligently pursues the good, and ceases from evil.

勤求 To seek diligently (after the good).

勤苦 Devoted and suffering, zealously suffering.

勤行 Diligently going forward, zealous conduct, devoted to service, worship, etc.

To sigh.

嗟嘆 Alas ! translit. cha.

Oh ! alas ! to wail.

鳴嚕捺囉叉 rudrakṣa, the Eiceocarpus ganitrus, whose berries are used for rosaries; hence, a rosary.

Fond of, given up to, doting; translit. sh, j sounds.

嗜那耶舍 Jinayaśas, a noted monk.

To succeed to, continue, adopt, posterity, follow after.

嗣法 To succeed to the dharma, or methods, of the master, a term used by the meditative school; 傳法 is used by the esoteric sect.

To clear the throat; translit. u, cf. 鬱, 烏, 溫, 優.

嗢呾羅 (or嗢怛羅) uttarā, tr. by 上 superior, predominant, above all.

嗢呾羅矩嚕 Uttarakuru, one of the four continents, that north of Meru.

嗢呾羅犀那 Uttarasena, a king of Udyāna who obtained part of Śākyamuni's relics.

嗢呾羅頞沙荼 Uttarāṣāḍhā, the nakṣatra presiding over the second half of the 4th month, 'the month in which Śākyamuni was conceived.' Eitel.

嗢尸羅 uśīra, fragrant root of Andropogon muricatus.

嗢屈竹迦 嗢倶吒 utkuṭukāsana, v. 結跏 to squat on the heels.

嗢瑟尼沙 uṣṇīṣa, the protuberance on the Buddha's head, v. 烏.

嗢蹭伽 utsaṅga, 100,000 trillions, a 大嗢蹭伽 being a quadrillion, v. 洛叉.

嗢鉢 (嗢鉢羅) utpala, the blue lotus; the 6th cold hell.

vihāra; place for walking about, pleasure-ground, garden, park.

園觀 A garden look-out, or terrace.

園頭 A gardener, or head of a monastery-garden, either for pleasure, or for vegetables.

Round, all-round, full-orbed, inclusive, all-embracing, whole, perfect, complete.

圓乘 The all-complete vehicle, the final teaching of Buddha.

圓信 Complete faith; the faith of the 'perfect' school. A Tiantai doctrine that a moment's faith embraces the universe.

圓修 (1) TO observe the complete Tiantai meditation, at one and the same time to comprehend the three ideas of 空假中 q.v. (2) To keep all the commandments perfectly.

圓位 The perfect status, the position of the 'perfect' school, perfect unity which embraces all diversity.

圓光 The halo surrounding the head of a Buddha, etc.

圓佛 The Buddha of the 'perfect' school, the perfect pan-Buddha embracing all things in every direction; the dharmakāya; Vairocana, identified with Śākyamuni.

圓凝 Complete crystallization, or formation, i.e. perfect nirvāṇa.

圓合 All-embracing, all inclusive.

圓壇 Round altar; a complete group of objects of worship, a maṇḍala.

圓妙 The mystery of the 'perfect' school, i.e. the complete harmony of 空假中 noumenon, phenomenon, and the middle way.

圓宗 The sect of the complete or final Buddha-truth, i.e. Tiantai; cf. 圓教.

圓密 The complete teaching of Tiantai and the esoteric teaching. Also, the harmony of both as one.

圓寂 Perfect rest, i.e. parinirvāṇa; the perfection of all virtue and the elimination of all evil, release from the miseries of transmigration and entrance into the fullest joy.

圓實 Perfect reality; the Tiantai perfect doctrine which enables one to attain reality or Buddhahood at once.

圓心 The perfect mind, the mind that seeks perfection, i.e. nirvāṇa.

圓悟 Completely to apprehend the truth. In Tiantai, the complete apprehension at the same time of noumenon, phenomenon, and the middle way.

圓成 Complete perfection.

圓成實性 The perfect true nature, absolute reality, the bhūtatathatā.

圓戒 v. 圓頓戒.

圓教 The complete, perfect, or comprehensive doctrine; the school or sect of Mahāyāna which represents it. The term has had three references. The first was by 光統 Guangtong of the Later Wei, sixth century, who defined three schools, 漸 gradual, 頓 immediate, and 圓 inclusive or complete. The Tiantai called its fourth section the inclusive, complete, or perfect teaching 圓, the other three being 三藏 Hīnayāna, 通 Mahāyāna-cum-Hīnayāna, 別 Mahāyāna. The Huayan so called its fifth section, i.e. 小乘; 大乘始; 大乘終; 頓 and 圓. It is the Tiantai version that is in general acceptance, defined as a perfect whole and as complete in its parts; for the whole is the absolute and its parts are therefore the absolute; the two may be called noumenon and phenomenon, or 空 and 假 (or 俗), but in reality they are one, i.e. the 中 medial condition. To conceive these three as a whole is the Tiantai inclusive or 'perfect' doctrine. The Huayan 'perfect' doctrine also taught that unity and differentiation, or absolute and relative, were one, a similar doctrine to that of the identity of contraries. In Tiantai teaching the harmony is due to its underlying unity; its completeness to the permeation of this unity in all phenomena; these two are united in the medial 中 principle; to comprehend these three principles at one and the same time is the complete, all-containing, or 'perfect' doctrine of Tiantai. There are other definitions of the all-inclusive doctrine, e.g. the eight complete things, complete in teaching, principles, knowledge, etc. 圓教四門 v. 四門.

圓斷 The Tiantai doctrine of the complete cutting off, at one remove, of the three illusions, i.e. 見思 associated with 空; 塵沙 with 假; and 無明 with 中; q. v.

圓果 Perfect fruit, nirvāṇa.

圓極 Inclusive to the uttermost; absolute perfection.

圓機 The potentiality of becoming fully enlightened at once.

圓海 The all-embracing ocean, i.e. the perfection or power of the Tathāgata.

圓滿 Completely full; wholly complete; the fulfilling of the whole, i.e. that the part contains the whole, the absolute in the relative.

圓滿經 The complete, or all-inclusive sūtra, a term applied to the Huayan jing.

圓空 Complete vacuity, i.e. 空空, from which even the idea of vacuity is absent.

圓融 Complete combination; the absolute in the relative and vice versa; the identity of apparent contraries; perfect harmony among all differences, as in water and waves, passion and enlightenment, transmigration and nirvāṇa, or life and death, etc.; all are of the same fundamental nature, all are bhūtatathatā, and bhūtatathatā is all; waves are one with waves, and water is one with water, and water and wave are one.

圓融三諦 The three dogmas of 空假中 as combined, as one and the same, as a unity, according to the Tiantai inclusive or perfect school. The universal 空 apart from the particular 假 is an abstraction. The particular apart from the universal is unreal. The universal realizes its true nature in the particular, and the particular derives its meaning from the universal. The middle path 中 unites these two aspects of one reality.

圓行 The conduct or discipline of the Tiantai 'perfect' school.

圓覺 Complete enlightenment potentially present in each being, for all have 本覺 primal awareness, or 眞心 the true heart (e. g. conscience), which has always remained pure and shining; considered as essence it is the 一心 one mind, considered causally it is the Tathāgata-garbha, considered it is|| perfect enlightenment, cf. 圓覺經.

圓詮 Exposition of the perfect or all-embracing doctrine, as found in the Huayan and Lotus Sūtras.

圓具 whole and complete, i.e. the whole of the commandments, by the observance of which one is near to nirvāṇa.

圓通 Universally penetrating; supernatural powers of omnipresence; universality; by wisdom to penetrate the nature or truth of all things.

圓通三昧 The various samādhi of supernatural powers of the twenty-five 'great ones' of the 楞嚴經 Surangama sūtra, especially of 圓通大士 the omnipresent hearer of those who call, i.e. Guanyin.

圓道 The perfect way (of the three principles of Tiantai, v. above).

圓頓 Complete and immediate, i.e. to comprehend the three principles 空假中 at one and the same time, cf. 圓教.

圓頓一乘 The complete immediate vehicle, that of Tiantai.

圓頓宗 圓頓教 See 圓頓一乘.

圓頓戒 The rules of the Tiantai school, especially for attaining immediate enlightenment as above; also called 圓頓無作大戒 (or 圓頓菩薩大戒).

圓頓觀 (圓頓止觀) as given in the 摩訶止觀 is the concentration, or mental state, in which is perceived, at one and the same time, the unity in the diversity and the diversity in the unity, a method ascribed by Tiantai to the Lotus Sūtra; v. above.

A tomb, mound, cemetery; śmaśāna, v. 舍.

To model in clay.

泥塑木雕 Modeled clay and carved wood, images.

塑像 To model images.

To fill up.

塡王 Udayana, v. 優塡 king of Kauśāmbi.

塡陵 A raised mound, a stūpa.

A bank, wall, entrenchment, dock; translit. u, for which many other characters are used, e.g. 烏; 憂; 于, etc.

To smear, rub on.

塗割 To anoint the hand, or cut it off, instances of love and hatred.

塗毒鼓 A drum smeared with poison to destroy those who hear it.

塗灰外道 Pāṃśupatas, perhaps Pāsupatas, followers of Śiva, Śaiva ascetics; a class of heretics who smeared themselves with ashes.

塗足油 Oil rubbed on the feet to avoid disease.

塗香 To rub the body with incense or scent to worship Buddha.

stūpa; tope; a tumulus, or mound, for the bones, or remains of the dead, or for other sacred relics, especially of the Buddha, whether relics of the body or the mind, e.g. bones or scriptures. As the body is supposed to consist of 84,000 atoms, Aśoka is said to have built 84,000 stūpas to preserve relics of Śākyamuni. Pagodas, dagobas, or towers with an odd number of stories are used in China for the purpose of controlling the geomantic influences of a neighbourbood. Also 塔婆; 兜婆; 偸婆; 藪斗波; 窣堵波; 率都婆; 素覩波; 私鍮簸, etc. The stūpas erected over relics of the Buddha vary from the four at his birthplace, the scene of his enlightenment, of his first sermon, and of his death, to the 84,000 accredited to Aśoka.

塔像 stūpas and images.

塔廟 Pagodas and temples.

To stop up, block, gag; dull; honest; a barrier, frontier; translit. s.

塞建陀 (塞建陀羅); 塞健陀 skandha, 'the shoulder'; 'the body'; 'the trunk of a tree'; 'a section,' etc. M.W. 'Five psychological constituents.' 'Five attributes of every human being.' Eitel. Commonly known as the five aggregates, constituents, or groups; the pañcaskandha; under the Han dynasty 陰 was used, under the Jin 衆, under the Tang 蘊. The five are: 色 rūpa, form, or sensuous quality; 受 vedana, reception, feeling, sensation; 想 sañjñā , thought, consciousness, perception; 行 karman, or saṃskāra, action, mental activity; 識 vijñāna, cognition. The last four are mental constituents of the ego. Skandha is also the name of an arhat, and Skanda, also 塞建那, of a deva.

塞畢力迦 spṛkka, clover, lucern.

塞縛悉底迦 svastika, v. 萬.

塞頗胝加 sphāṭika, crystal, quartz, one of the saptaratna, seven treasures.

[奥] South-west corner where were the lares; retired, quiet; abstruse, mysterious; blended; warm; translit. au.

奧箄迦 aupayika, proper, fit, suitable.

奧疏 Esoteric commentary 奥疏.

īrṣyā; envy of other's possessions, jealousy.

Nurse, mother.

媽哈薩督呀 mahāsattva, a great or noble being; the perfect bodhisattva, greater (mahā) than any other being (sattva) except a Buddha; v. 摩訶薩埵.

? To pair. Small.

?摩 Bhīmā, terrible, fearful; name of Śiva' s wife. 'A city west of Khoten noted for a Buddha-statue, which had transported itself thither from Udjyana.' Eitel. Xuanzang's Pimo. v. 毗.

To and fro, to roll: translit. bha, va.

媻毗吠伽 Bhāvaviveka, a disciple of Nāgārjuna, who retired to a rock cavern to await the coming of Maitreya.

媻羅犀那 Varasena (the Aparasvin of the Zend-Avesta); a pass on the Paropamisus, now called Khawak, south of Indarab.

媻藪天 Vasudeva, in Brahmanic mythology the father of Kṛṣṇa.

媻達羅鉢陀 Bhādrapada, the last month of summer.

Irregular, uneven; translit. jha.

A cave.

廅天 Parīttābha, the fourth brahmaloka, the first region of the second dhyāna.

廅樓亘 An early attempt to translate the name of Guanyin. 廅樓亙.

廅波摩那 (廅波) Apramāṇābha, the heaven of infinite light, the second region of the second dhyāna.

sūkṣma. Minute, small, slight; abstruse, subtle; disguised; not; used in the sense of a molecule seven times larger than 極微 an atom; translit. vi, bi.

微塵 A molecule, v. above.

微塵數 Numerous as molecules, or atoms; numberless.

微妙 Abstruse, recondite, mysterious.

微密 Mysterious, secret, occult.

微戍陀 viśuddha, purified, pure.

微沙落起多 Vibhārakṣita ? , a form of Tiṣyarakṣita, Aśoka's queen.

微瑟紐 Viṣṇu, also 毘瑟紐 (or 毘瑟笯 or 毘瑟怒); 毘紐; 毘搜紐 (or 毘痩紐); 韋紐; the second in the Trimūrti, Brahmā, Viṣṇu, Śiva; the 'preserver', and all-pervading, or encompassing; identified with Nārāyaṇa-deva.

微若布雷迦 bījapūraka; a citron, citron medicus. M. W.

微細 Minute, fine, refined, subtle.

微細身 A refined, subtle body.

微聚 A molecule, the smallest aggregation of atoms.

微行 Minute, refined, or subtle action.

微誓耶 Vijayā, also 微惹耶; 毘社耶 the overcomer, Durgā, intp. as the wife, or female manifestation, of Vairocana.

Careful, cautious, attentive, heedful.

愼謹 translit. ji.

愼那弗怛羅 Jinaputra, author of the Yogācāryabhūmi-śāstra-kārikā, tr. by Xuanzang A.D. 654.

M011078惕鬼 A demon of the nerves who troubles those who sit in meditation. Also 堆惕鬼; 埠惕鬼.

Ashamed, intp. as ashamed for the misdeeds of others. v. 慚.

Incite, provoke, irritate; translit. j, ja, jña; cf. 社; 闍.

惹那 jñāna, v. 智 knowledge, wisdom.

idem 憫. Grieve for, mourn, sympathize.

愍忌 A day of remembrance for a virtuous elder on the anniversary of his birthday.

To influence, move.

感應 Response to appeal or need; Buddha moved to respond.

感果 The result that is sought.

感進 To move to zeal, or inspire to progress.

To think, meditate, reflect, expect; a function of mind.

想地獄 Sañjīva, idem 等地獄 the resurrecting hell.

想念 To think and reflect.

想愛 Thought of and desire for, thought leading to desire.

想蘊 sañjñā, one of the five skandhas, perception.

想顚倒 Inverted thoughts or perceptions, i.e. the illusion of regarding the seeming as real.

Monkey-witted, silly, stupid, ignorant.

愚僧 Ignorant monk.

愚夫 bāla; ignorant, immature, a simpleton, the unenlightened.

愚惑 Deluded by ignorance, the delusion of ignorance.

愚法 Ignorant, or immature law, or method, i.e. that of śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas, Hīnayāna.

愚痴 muḍha; ignorant and unenlightened, v. 痴.

愚鈍 Ignorant and dull-witted.

Affection (as that of a mother), mercy, compassion, tenderness; mother.

慈光 Merciful light, that of the Buddhas.

慈力王 Maitrībala-rāja, king of merciful virtue, or power, a former incarnation of the Buddha when, as all his people had embraced the vegetarian life, and yakṣas had no animal food and were suffering, the king fed five of them with his own blood.

慈嚴 Compassion and strictness, the maternal-cum-paternal spirit.

慈子 Sons of compassion, i.e. the disciples of Maitreya.

慈尊 The compassionate honoured one, Maitreya.

慈心 A compassionate heart.

慈忍 Compassion and patience, compassionate tolerance.

慈恩 Compassion and grace, merciful favour; name of a temple in Luoyang, under the Tang dynasty, which gave its name to Kuiji 窺基 q.v., founder of the 法相 school, known also as the 慈恩 or 唯識 school; he was a disciple of and collaborator with Xuanzang, and died A.D. 682.

慈悲 Compassion and pity, merciful, compassionate.

慈悲室 The abode of compassion, the dwelling of Buddha, v. Lotus Sūtra.

慈悲萬行 Tender compassion in all things, or with compassion all things succeed.

慈悲衣 Compassionate garment, the monk's robe.

慈悲觀 The compassion-contemplation, in which pity destroys resentment.

慈意 The mind or spirit of compassion and kindness.

慈敬 Loving reverence.

慈明 Ciming, a noted monk of the Song dynasty.

慈氏 The compassionate one, Maitreya.

慈水 Mercy as water fertilizing the life.

慈眼 The compassionate eye (of Buddha).

慈航 The bark of mercy.

慈辯 To discuss compassionately.

慈門 The gate of mercy, Buddhism.

慈雲 The over-spreading, fructifying cloud of compassion, the Buddha-heart; also Ciyun, the name of a noted Sung monk.

慈霪 To rain down compassion on men.

Manas, the sixth of the ṣaḍāyatanas or six means of perception, i.e. sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, and mind. Manas means "mind (in its widest sense as applied to all the mental powers), intellect, intelligence, understanding, perception, sense, conscience, will". M.W. It is "the intellectual function of consciousness", Keith. In Chinese it connotes thought, idea, intention, meaning, will; but in Buddhist terminology its distinctive meaning is mind, or the faculty of thought.

意三 The three evils which belong to intellect — lobha, dveṣa, moha, i.e. desire, dislike, delusion.

意力 Mental power or intention; the purpose to attain bodhi or enlightenment.

意地 The stage of intellectual consciousness, being the sixth vijñāna, the source of all concepts.

意學 Mental learning, learning by meditation rather than from books, the special cult of the Chan or Intuitional school, which is also called the School of the Buddha-mind.

意安樂行 The calmly joyful life of the mind — one of the four in the Lotus Sutra 14; v. 四安樂行.

意念往生 By thought and remembrance or invocation of Amitābha to enter into his Pure Land.

意憤天 A deva who sinned and was sent down to be born among men.

意成 Mentally evolved, or evolved at will.

意成天 Devas independent of the nourishment of the realms of form and formlessness, who live only in the realm of mind.

意成身 idem 意生身 q.v.

意根 The mind-sense, or indriya, the sixth of the senses; v. 六處.

意業 The function of mind or thought, one of the 三業 thought, word, deed.

意樂 Joy of the mind, the mind satisfied and joyful. Manobhirāma, the realm foretold for Maudgalyāyana as a Buddha.

意水 The mind or will to become calm as still water, on entering samādhi.

意猿 The mind as intractable as a monkey.

意生身 A body mentally produced, or produced at will, a tr. of manomaya. Bodhisattvas from the first stage 地 upwards are able to take any form at will to save the living ; also 意生化身 ; 意成身.

意界 Manodhātu, the realm of mind.

意處 The, mind-sense, the mind, the sixth of the six senses, v. 六處.

意見 Thoughts, ideas, concepts, views.

意解 Intellectual explanation; liberation of the mind, or thought.

意言 Mental words, words within the intellectual consciousness; thought and words.

意識 manovijñāna; the faculty of mind, one of the six vijñānas.

意趣 The direction of the mind, or will.

意車 The mind vehicle, the vehicle of intellectual consciousness, the imagination.

意馬 The mind as a horse, ever running from one thing to another.

意馬心猿 The mind like a horse and the heart like a monkey — restless and intractable.

kāma; rāga. Love, affection, desire; also used for tṛṣṇā, thirst, avidity, desire, one of the twelve nidānas. It is intp. as 貪 coveting, and 染著 defiling attachment; also defined as defiling love like that toward wife and children, and undefiling love like that toward one's teachers and elders.

愛恨 The falseness or unreality of desire.

愛別離苦 The suffering of being separated from those whom one loves. v. 八苦.

愛刺 The thorn of love; the suffering of attachment which pierces like a thorn.

愛執 The grip of love and desire.

愛心 A loving heart; a mind full of desire; a mind dominated by desire.

愛恚 Love and hate, desire and hate.

愛惜 Love and care for; to be unwilling to giving up; sparing.

愛惑 The illusion of love, or desire.

愛憎 Love and hate, desire and dislike.

愛果 The fruit of desire and attachment, i.e. suffering.

愛根 The root of desire, which produces the passions.

愛業 The karma which follows desire.

愛樂 The joy of right love, i.e. the love of the good.

愛欲 Love and desire; love of family.

愛欲海 The ocean of desire.

愛毒 The poison of desire, or love, which harms devotion to Buddha.

愛水 Semen; also the passion of desire which fertilizes evil fruit.

愛法 Love for Buddha-truth; the method of love.

愛河 The river of desire in which men are drowned.

愛染 The taint of desire.

愛染王 Rāga, one of the 明王 with angry appearance, three faces and six arms.

愛涎 The mouth watering with desire.

愛海 The ocean of desire.

愛流 The food of desire which overwhelms.

愛渴 The thirst of desire, also 渴愛 thirstily to desire.

愛潤 The fertilizing of desire; i.e. when dying the illusion of attachment fertilizes the seed of future karma, producing the fruit of further suffering.

愛火 Love as fire that burns.

愛獄 The prison of desire.

愛界 The realm of desire, or love ; those who dwell in it.

愛眼 The eye of love, that of Buddha.

愛種 The seed of desire, with its harvest of pain.

愛結 The tie of love or desire.

愛緣 Love or desire as a contributory cause, or attachment.

愛繫 The bond of love, or desire.

愛羂 The noose, or net, of desire.

愛羅刹女 The rākṣasī, or female demon, of desire.

愛著 The strong attachment of love; the bondage of desire. From this bond of love also arises pity 慈悲 which is fundamental to Buddhism.

愛著生死 bondage to rebirth and mortality by love of life, and to be rid of this love is essential to deliverance.

愛著迷 The delusion of love for and attachment to the transient and perishing.

愛繭 The cocoon of desire spun about beings as a silkworm spins a cocoon about itself.

愛行 Emotional behavior, or the emotions of desire, as contrasted with 見行 rational behavior.

愛見 Attachment or love growing from thinking of others. Also, attachment to things 愛 and attachment to false views 見; also emotional and rational.

愛語 Loving speech; the words of a bodhisattva.

愛論 Talk of love or desire, which gives rise to improper conversation.

愛身天 The heaven of lovely form in the desire-realm, but said to be above the devalokas; cf. sudṛśa 善現.

愛輪 The wheel of desire which turns men into the six paths of transmigration.

愛鬼 The demon of desire.

To spoil, hurt, damage.

損伏斷 To spoil, subject and destroy (the passions).

Reverence, respect.

敬愛 Reverence and love; reverent love.

敬田 The field of reverence, i.e. worship and support of the Buddha, dharma, and saṃgha as a means to obtain blessing.

敬禮 vandanī, paying reverence, worship.

New, newly, just, opposite of 奮 old.

新戒 One who has newly been admitted; a novice.

新歳 The new year of the monks, beginning on the day after the summer retreat.

新發意 One who has newly resolved on becoming a Buddhist, or on any new line of conduct.

新舊兩譯 Old and new methods of or terms in translation, the old before the new with Xuanzang.

新舊醫 Old and new methods of healing, e.g. Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna, v. Nirvāṇa Sūtra 2.

Warm; to warm.

暖寮 暖寺; 暖洞; 暖席 Presents of tea, fruit, etc., brought to a monastery, or offered to a new arrival.

Dark, dim, gloom, dull; secret, hidden.

暗蔽 Dark, ignorant.

暗證禪師 暗證; 暗禪, etc. A charlatan who teaches intuitional meditation differently from the methods of that school; an ignorant preceptor.

Meet, assemble, collect, associate, unite; assembly, company; communicate; comprehend, skilled in, can, will; a time, moment.

會三歸一 To unite the three vehicles in one, as in the Lotus Sutra.

會下 The lower, or junior members of an assembly, or company.

會得 To comprehend, understand; to meet with.

會式 The manners customs, or rules of an assembly, or community.

會繹 To assemble and explain the meaning; to comprehend and explain.

會衆 To assemble the community, or company; to meet all.

會通 To compare and adjust; compound; bring into agreement; solve and unify conflicting ideas.

Brambles, spinous; painful, grievous; to flog; clear up; the Chu state.

楚江王 King of the grievous river, the second of the ten rulers of Hades.


Willow; aspen, poplar, arbutus; syphilis.

楊枝 Willow branches, or twigs, used as dantakāṣṭha, i.e. for cleansing the teeth by chewing or rubbing.

楊柳觀音 Guanyin with the willow-branch.

楊葉 Wi11ow leaves, e.g. yellow willow leaves given to a child as golden leaves to stop its crying, a parallel to the Buddha's opportune methods of teaching.

楞伽 Laṅkā, a mountain in the south-east part of Ceylon, now called Adam's Peak; the island of Ceylon 錫蘭.

楞伽經 The Laṅkāvatāra sūtra, a philosophical discourse attributed to Śākyamuni as delivered on the Laṅka mountain in Ceylon. It may have been composed in the fourth or fifth century A.D.; it "represents a mature phase of speculation and not only criticizes the Sāṅkhya, Pāśupata and other Hindu schools, but is conscious of the growing resemblance of Mahāyānism to Brahmanic philosophy and tries to explain it". Eliot. There have been four translations into Chinese, the first by Dharmarakṣa between 412-433, which no longer exists; the second was by Guṇabhadra in 443, ca11ed 楞伽 阿跋多羅寶經 4 juan; the third by Bodhiruci in 513, called 入楞伽經 10 juan; the fourth by Śikṣānanda in 700-704, called 大乘入楞伽經 7 juan. There are many treatises and commentaries on it, by Faxian and others. See Studies in the Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra by Suzuki and his translation of it. This was the sūtra allowed by Bodhidharma, and is the recognized text of the Chan (Zen) School. There are numerous treatises on it.

楞嚴經 Śūraṅgama-sūtra, a Tantric work tr. by Pāramiti in 705; v. 首楞嚴經; there are many treatises under both titles.

Highest point, apex; utmost, ultimate, extreme, the limit, finality; reaching to.

極位 The highest stage of enlightenment, that of Buddha.

極光淨天 Pure heaven of utmost light, the highest of the second dhyāna heavens of the form world; the first to be re-formed after a universal destruction and in it Brahma and devas come into existence; also極光音天 Ābhāsvara.

極喜地 The stage of utmost joy, the first of the ten stages 十地 of the bodhisattva.

極地 Reaching the ground; utmost; fundamental principle; the highest of all, i.e. Buddha.

極妙 Of utmost beauty, wonder, or mystery.

極尊 The highest revered one, Buddha.

極微 An atom, especially as a mental concept, in contrast with 色聚之微, i.e. a material atom which has a center and the six directions, an actual but imperceptible atom; seven atoms make a 微塵 molecule, the smallest perceptible aggregation, called an aṇu 阿莬 or 阿拏; the perceptibility is ascribed to the deva-eye rather than to the human eye. There is much disputation as to whether the ultimate atom has real existence or not, whether it is eternal and immutable and so on.

極果 The highest fruit, perfect Buddha-enlightenment.

極樂 Sukhāvatī, highest joy, name of the Pure Land of Amitābha in the West, also called 極樂世界 the world of utmost joy.

極熱地獄 Pratāpana; Mahātāpana; the hottest hell, the seventh of the eight hells.

極略色 The smallest perceptible particle into which matter can be divided, an atom.

極聖 The highest saint, Buddha.

極臈 The oldest monk in orders.

極致 Utmost, ultimate, final point; reaching to.

極覺 Profound enlightenment, utmost awareness.

極靜 Utmost quiescence, or mental repose; meditation, trance.

極難勝地 The stage in which the bodhisattva has overcome his worst difficulties, the fifth stage.

karman, karma, "action, work, deed"; "moral duty"; "product, result, effect." M.W. The doctrine of the act; deeds and their effects on the character, especially in their relation to succeeding forms of transmigration. The 三業 are thought, word, and deed, each as good, bad, or indifferent. Karma from former lives is 宿業, from present conduct 現業. Karma is moral action that causes future retribution, and either good or evil transmigration. It is also that moral kernel in which each being survives death for further rebirth or metempsychosis. There are categories of 2, 3, 4, 6, and 10; the 六業 are rebirth in the hells, or as animals, hungry ghosts, men, devas, or asuras: v. 六趣.

業力 The power of karma to produce good and evil fruit.

業厄 The constraints of karma; i.e. restricted conditions now as resulting from previous lives.

業受 That which is received as the result of former karmic conduct, e.g. long or short life, etc.

業因 The deed as cause; the cause of good or bad karma.

業垢 Karma defilement.

業報 Karma-reward; the retribution of karma, good or evil.

業報身 The body of karmic retribution, especially that assumed by a bodhisattva to accord with the conditions of those he seeks to save.

業塵 Karma-dirt, the defilement or remains of evil karma.

業天 The karma of heaven, i.e. the natural inevitable law of cause and effect.

業壽 Life, long or short, as determined by previous karma.

業影 Karma-shadow, karma dogging one's steps like a shadow.

業性 The nature of karma, its essential being; idem 業體.

業惱 Karmic distress; karma and distress.

業感 The influence of karma; caused by karma.

業有 Reality of karma, idem 行有.

業果 The fruit of karma, conditions of rebirth depending on previous karmic conduct.

業海 The vast, deep ocean of (evil) karma.

業火 The fires of evil karma; the fires of the hells.

業田 The field of karma; the life in which the seeds of future harvest are sown.

業病 Illness as the result of previous karma.

業相 Action, activity, the karmic, the condition of karmic action. The first of the three 相 of the Awakening of Faith, when mental activity is stirred to action by unenlightenment.

業秤 The scales of karma, in which good and evil are weighed by the rulers of Hades.

業種 karmabīja; karma-seed which springs up in happy or in suffering rebirth.

業簿 The record, or account book, kept by the rulers of Hades, recording the deeds of all sentient beings.

業結 The bond of karma; karma and the bond (of the passions).

業綱 The net of karma which entangles beings in the sufferings of rebirth.

業緣 Karma-cause, karma-circumstance, condition resulting from karma.

業縛 Karma-bonds; the binding power of karma.

業繩 Karma-cords, the bonds of karma.

業繫 Karma-bonds; karma-fetters.

業繫苦相 The suffering state of karma-bondage.

業羂 The noose of karma which entangles in transmigration.

業苦 Karmaic suffering.

業處 karmasthāna; a place for working, of business, etc.; the place, or condition, in which the mind is maintained in meditation; by inference, the Pure Land, etc.

業行 Deeds, actions; karma deeds, moral action which influences future rebirth.

業識 "Activity-consciousness in the sense that through the agency of ignorance an unenlightened mind begins to be disturbed (or awakened)." Suzuki's Awakening of Faith, 76.

業賊 Robber-karma; evil karma harms as does a robber.

業輪 The wheel of karma which turns men into the six paths of transmigration.

業通 Supernatural powers obtained from former karma; idem 報通.

業道 The way of karma.

業道神 The gods who watch over men's deeds.

業鏡 Karma-mirror, that kept in Hades reveals all karma.

業障 karmāvaraṇa; the screen, or hindrance, of past karma, hindering the attainment of bodhi.

業障除 A symbol indicating the cutting away of all karmic hindrances by the sword of wisdom.

業風 Karma-wind: (1) the fierce wind of evil karma and the wind from the hells, at the end of the age; (2) karma as wind blowing a person into good or evil rebirth.

業食 Karma as nutritive basis for succeeding existence.

業餘 A remnant of karma after the six paths of existence. v. 三餘.

業體 idem 業性.

業魔 Karma-māras, the demons who or the karma which hinders and harms goodness.

Vatsara, a year; cf. 臘 19 strokes.

To break down, destroy, abolish, defame.

毀訾 To defame, vilify.

毀釋 To slander the Buddha or Buddhism.

殿 A temple, hall, palace; rearguard.

殿主 殿司 The warden of a temple.

correct, exact, a rule.

準提 Candī, or Cundi; also 准胝; 尊提. (1) In Brahmanic mythology a vindictive form of Durgā, or Pārvatī, wife of Śiva. (2) In China identified with Marīci 摩里支 or 天后 Queen of Heaven. She is represented with three eyes and eighteen arms; also as a form of Guanyin, or in Guanyin's retinue.

準陀 純陀 Cunda, a native of Kuśinagara from whom Śākyamuni accepted his last meal.


溥首 A name of Mañjuśrī, v. 文.

The class of beings produced by moisture, such as fish, etc. v. 四生.

Spring, source, origin, fons et origo.

源底 The very beginning, source, or basis.

Extinguish, exterminate, destroy; a tr. of nirodha, suppression, annihilation; of nirvāṇa, blown out, extinguished, dead, perfect rest, highest felicity, etc.; and of nivṛtti, cessation, disappearance. nirodha is the third of the four axioms: 苦, 集, 滅, 道 pain, its focussing, its cessation (or cure), the way of such cure. Various ideas are expressed as to the meaning of 滅, i.e. annihilation or extinction of existence; or of rebirth and mortal existence; or of the passions as the cause of pain; and it is the two latter views which generally prevail; cf. M017574 10 strokes.

滅劫 The saṃvarta-kalpa of world-destruction, cf; 壞劫.

滅受想定 A samādhi in which there is complete extinction of sensation and thought; one of the highest forms of kenosis, resulting from concentration.

滅場 The plot or arena where the extinction (of the passions) is attained; the place of perfect repose, or nirvāṇa.

滅定 idem 滅盡定.

滅定智通 The freedom or supernatural power of the wisdom attained in nirvāṇa, or perfect passivity.

滅度 nirvāṇa: extinction of reincarnation and escape from suffering.

滅後 After the nirvāṇa, after the Buddha's death.

滅擯 Blotting out the name and the expulsion of a monk who has committed a grievous sin without repentance.

滅智 The knowledge, or wisdom, of the third axiom, nirodha or the extinction of suffering.

滅果 nirvāṇa as the fruit of extinction (of desire).

滅業 The work or karma of nirodha, the karma resulting from the extinction of suffering, i.e. nirvāṇa.

滅法 The unconditioned dharma, the ultimate inertia from which all forms come, the noumenal source of all phenomena.

滅法智 The knowledge or wisdom of the dogma of extinction (of passion and reincarnation); one of the 八智 q. v.

滅法智忍 One of the 八忍, the endurance and patience associated with the last.

滅法界 The realm of the absolute, of perfect quiescence.

滅理 The principle or law of extinction, i.e. nirvāṇa.

滅病 One of the 四病 four sick or faulty ways of seeking perfection, the Hīnayāna method of endeavouring to extinguish all perturbing passions so that nothing of them remains.

滅盡定 idem 滅受想定, also called 滅定 and 滅盡三昧.

滅相 Extinction, as when the present passes into the past. Also, the absolute, unconditioned aspect of bhūtatathatā.

滅種 To destroy one's seed of Buddhahood.

滅羯磨 The extinguishing karma, or the blotting out of the name of a monk and his expulsion.

滅觀 The contemplation of extinction: the destruction of ignorance is followed by the annihilation of karma, of birth, old age, and death.

滅諦 nirodha-āryasatya, the third of the four dogmas, the extinction of suffering, which is rooted in reincarnation, v. 四諦.

滅道 Extinction of suffering and the way of extinction, nirodha and mārga; v. supra.

To shine, illumine; to superintend; a dispatch, pass; as, according to.

照寂 The shining mystic purity of Buddha, or the bhūtatathatā.

照拂 The manager of affairs in a monastery.

照牌 A notice board, especially allotting seats.

照覽 To shine upon and behold; to survey; to enlighten.

照鏡 To look at oneself in a mirror, forbidden to monks except for specified reasons.

To simmer, fry.

煎點 To fry cakes.

To boil, cook.

煮沙 Like boiling sand for food.

Light, bright, splendid, prosperous.

煕連 The river Hiraṇyavatī, see 尸.

Smoke, tobacco, opium.

煙蓋 A smoke cover, i.e. a cloud of incense.

Warm, idem 暖.

煗法 The first of the 四加行位; the stage in which dialectic processes are left behind and the mind dwells only on the four dogmas and the sixteen disciplines.

uc3ddb To heat; a pot.

uc3ddb牒薩督呀 bodhisattva, v. 菩.

To dry by the fire.

煏芻 bhikṣu, v. 比.

To forge metal, work upon, calcine.

煅髮 To burn up the hair of a novice, male or female.

Trouble, annoyance, perplexity.

煩惱 kleśa, 'pain, affliction, distress,' 'care, trouble' (M.W.). The Chinese tr. is similar, distress, worry, trouble, and whatever causes them. Keith interprets kleśa by 'infection', 'contamination', 'defilement'. The Chinese intp. is the delusions, trials, or temptations of the passions and of ignorance which disturb and distress the mind; also in brief as the three poisons 貪瞋痴 desire, detestation, and delusion. There is a division into the six fundamental 煩惱, or afflictions, v. below, and the twenty which result or follow them and there are other dual divisions. The six are: 貪瞋痴慢疑 and 惡見 desire, detestation, delusion, pride, doubt, and evil views, which last are the false views of a permanent ego, etc. The ten 煩惱 are the first five, and the sixth subdivided into five. 煩惱, like kleśa, implies moral affliction or distress, trial, temptation, tempting, sin. Cf. 使.

煩惱卽菩提 The passions, or moral afflictions, are bodhi, i.e. the one is included in the other; it is a Tiantai term, and said to be the highest expression of Mahāyāna thought; cf. 卽.

煩惱林 The forest of moral affliction.

煩惱業苦 The suffering arising out of the working of the passions, which produce good or evil karma, which in turn results in a happy or suffering lot in one of the three realms, and again from the lot of suffering (or mortality) arises the karma of the passions; also known as 惑業苦, 三輪, and 三道.

煩惱冰 The ice of moral affliction, i.e. its congealing, chilling influence on bodhi.

煩惱泥 The soil or mud of moral affliction, out of which grows the lotus of enlightenment.

煩惱河 The river of moral affliction which overwhelms all beings.

煩惱海 The ocean of moral affliction which engulfs all beings.

煩惱濁 The impurity, or defiling nature of the passions, one of the five 濁.

煩惱病 The disease of moral affliction.

煩惱礙 The obstruction of temptation, or defilement, to entrance into nirvāṇa peace by perturbing the mind.

煩惱習 The habit or influence of the passions after they have been cut off.

煩惱薪 The faggots of passion, which are burnt up by the fire of wisdom.

煩惱藏 The store of moral affliction, or defilement, contained in the five 住地 q.v.

煩惱賊 Temptation, or passion, as a thief injuring the spiritual nature.

煩惱道 The way of temptation, or passion, in producing bad karma.

煩惱陣 The army of temptations, tempters, or allurements.

煩惱障 The barrier of temptation, passion, or defilement, which obstructs the attainment of the nirvāṇa-mind.

煩惱餘 The remnants of illusion after it has been cut off in the realms of desire, form, and formlessness—a Hīnayāna term.

煩惱魔 The Māra of the passions who troubles mind and body; the tempter; cf. 使.

煩籠 The basket of the troublers, i.e. the passions.

煩談 vandana, obeisance, worship, v. 和.

Tablets, records.

戒牒 A monk' s certificate, useful to a wandering or travelling monk.

A gelded bull, an ox; a creature half man, half leopard.

犍不男 A eunuch by castration, cf. paṇḍaka.

犍地 v. 犍稚 infra.

犍度 khaṇda, a piece, fragment, portion, section, chapter; a collection; the rules, monastic rules; also used for skandha, v. 塞. There are categories of eight, and twenty subjective divisions for the eight, v. the Abhidharma 八犍度論 B. N. 1273.

犍德 犍陟 (犍陟馬) Kaṇṭhaka, name of the steed on which Śākyamuni rode away from home.

犍沓 gandharva, v. 乾.

犍稚 ghaṇṭā, also 犍地; 犍椎; 犍槌; 犍遲; a bell, gong, or any similar resonant article.

犍陀 skandha, v. 塞.

犍陀羅 犍陀衙; 犍陀訶; 犍馱邏 Gandhāra; v. 乾.

犍黃門 Palace eunuchs.

A lion; cf. 師子.


瑚璉 A sacrificial grain-vessel; described as a precious stone.

Auspicious: a jade token.

瑞像 Auspicious image, especially the first image of Śākyamuni made of sandalwood and attributed to Udayana, king of Kauśāmbī, a contemporary of Śākyamuni. Cf. 西域記 5.

瑞應 Auspicious response, the name of the udumbara flower, v. 優.

瑞相 Auspicious, auspicious sign, or aspect.

A lute; massive.

瑟瑟 瑟石 The stone of which the throne of 不動明王 q.v. consists.

Lustre of gems; a beautiful stone; excellences, virtues; translit. yu, yoyo.

瑜乾馱羅 Yugaṃdhara, v. 踰, the first of the seven concentric circles around Meru.

瑜伽 yoga; also 瑜誐; 遊迦; a yoke, yoking, union, especially an ecstatic union of the individual soul with a divine being, or spirit, also of the individual soul with the universal soul. The method requires the mutual response or relation of 境, 行, 理, 果 and 機; i.e. (1) state, or environment, referred to mind; (2) action, or mode of practice; (3) right principle; (4) results in enlightenment; (5) motivity, i.e. practical application in saving others. Also the mutual relation of hand, mouth, and mind referring to manifestation, incantation, and mental operation; these are known as 瑜伽三密, the three esoteric (means) of Yoga. The older practice of meditation as a means of obtaining spiritual or magical power was distorted in Tantrism to exorcism, sorcery, and juggling in general.

瑜伽宗 The Yogacara, Vijñānavāda, Tantric, or esoteric sect. The principles of Yoga are accredited to Patañjali in the second century B.C., later founded as a school in Buddhism by Asaṅga, fourth century A.D. Cf. 大教. Xuanzang became a disciple and advocate of this school.

瑜伽師 瑜伽阿闍梨 yogācāra, a teacher, or master of magic, or of this school.

瑜伽師地論 Yogācāryabhūmi-śāstra, the work of Asaṅga, said to have been dictated to him in or from the Tuṣita heaven by Maitreya, tr. by Xuanzang, is the foundation text of this school, on which there are numerous treatises, the 瑜伽師地論釋 being a commentary on it by Jinaputra, tr. by Xuanzang.

瑜伽祇 瑜岐; 瑜祁 yogin, one who practises yoga.

Suitable, adequate, equal to; to bear, undertake; ought; proper; to regard as, as; to pawn, put in place of; at, in the future.

當位卽妙 According to its place, or application, wonderful or effective; e.g. poison as poison, medicine as medicine.

當來 That which is to come, the future, the future life, etc.

當分 According to condition, position, duty, etc.

當機 To suit the capacity or ability, i.e. of hearers, as did the Buddha; to avail oneself of an opportunity.

當機衆 Those hearers of the Lotus who were adaptable to its teaching, and received it; one of the 四衆 q.v.

當陽 In the sun, in the light.

當體 The present body, or person; the body before you, or in question; in body, or person.

當體卽空 idem 體空 Corporeal entities are unreal, for they disintegrate.

Sickness, pain; diarrhoea.

痾M061768祗 ārogya, freedom from sickness, healthy; a greeting from a superior monk, Are you well ? or Be you well!


痺鉢羅 pippala, the peepul tree, Ficus religiosa, v. 畢.

moha, 'unconsciousness,' 'delusion,' 'perplexity,' 'ignorance, folly,' 'infatuation,' etc. M.W. Also, mūḍha. In Chinese it is silly, foolish, daft, stupid. It is intp. by 無明 unenlightened, i.e. misled by appearances, taking the seeming for real; from this unenlightened condition arises every kind of kleśa, i.e. affliction or defilement by the passions, etc. It is one of the three poisons, desire, dislike, delusion.

痴使 The messenger, lictor, or affliction of unenlightenment.

痴凡 痴子 The common, unenlightened people.

痴取 The kleśa of moha, held in unenlightenment.

痴定 The samādhi of ignorance, i.e. without mystic insight.

痴心 An unenlightened mind, ignorance deluded, ignorant of the right way of seeing life and phenomena.

痴愛 Ignorance and desire, or unenlightened desire, ignorance being father, desire mother, which produce all affliction and evil karma.

痴慢 Ignorance and pride, or ignorant pride.

痴毒 The poison of ignorance, or delusion, one of the three poisons.

痴水 The turbid waters of ignorance; also to drink the water of delusion.

痴燈 The lamp of delusion, attracting the unenlightened as a lamp does the moth.

痴狗 Deluded dogs, i.e. the Hīnayāna śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas.

痴猴 The deluded monkey seizing the reflection of the moon in the water, e.g. unenlightened men who take the seeming for the real.

痴迷 Unenlightened and led astray.

痴綱 The net of delusion, or ignorance.

痴縛 The bond of unenlightenment.

痴闇 The darkness of the unenlightened condition.

Amicable, friendly.

和睦 Concord, harmony.

śaya, asleep; sleep; śay, to sleep.

睡眠 idem; also middha, drowsiness, torpor, sloth.

睡眠欲 The lust for sleep, physical and spiritual, hence 睡眠蓋 sleep, drowsiness, or sloth as a hindrance to progress.

Glance; lustrous; translit. śa.

睒彌 śamī, a kind of acacia.

睒摩 Śāmaka, a bodhisattva born to a blind couple, clad in deerskin, slain by the king in hunting, restored to life and to his blind parents by the gods.

A stone tablet, or monument.

Broken, fragments.

碎身舍利 Relics of a cremated body.

Prohibitions, to forbid, prohibit.

禁戒 Prohibitions, commandments, especially the Vinaya as containing the laws and regulations of Buddhism.

禁呪藏 The Vidyādharapiṭaka, or Dhāraṇīpiṭaka, the canon of dhāraṇīs, a later addition to-the Tripiṭaka.

To petition, report, request, beg; to receive (from above); endowment.

禀具 To be fully ordained, i.e. receive all the commandments.

禀教 To receive the Buddha's teaching.

Thick-set as growing grain, dense.

稠林 A dense forest, e.g. the passions, etc.

Tares, weeds.

稗沙門 Lazy monks, cumberers of the ground.

稗稊 Tares, weeds, only fit to be ploughed up.

gūha. A cave.

窟內 'Within the cave,' the assembly of the elder disciples, after Śākyamuni's death, in the cave near Magadha, when, according to tradition, Kāśyapa presided over the compiling of the Tripiṭaka; while at the same time the 窟外 disciples 'without the cave' compiled another canon known as the 五藏 Pañcapiṭaka. To this separation is ascribed, without evidence, the formation of the two schools of the 上座部 Mahāsthavirāḥ and 大衆部 Mahāsāṅghikaḥ.

Rustle, move, rush; translit. s.

窣?黎濕伐羅 ? Sūnurīśvara, ancient capital of Laṅgala, in the Punjab.

窣利 ? Suri, 'an ancient kingdom to the west of Kachgar, peopled by Turks (A.D. 600).' Eitel.

窣唎 窣羅 surī, or surā distilled liquor.

窣堵波 stūpa, a tumulus, or building over relics, v. 率.

窣莎揭哆 susvāgata, most welcome (a greeting).

窣路多阿半那 srota-āpanna, one who has entered the stream of the holy life, cf. 半 and 入流.

窣都利慧那 Sutriṣṇa, Satruṣṇa, Osrushna, Ura-tepe, 'an ancient city in Turkestan between Kojend and Samarcand.' Eitel.

To stand, erect, upright.

竪底沙論 The Jyotiṣa śāstra.

竪敵 Protagonist and antagonist in debate.

竪義 立義 To propound a thesis and defend it.

竪者 One who supplies answers to difficulties.

The threads of beads or gems which hang, front and back, from the ceremonial square cap.

綖經 or 線經 A sūtra, or sūtras.

A warp, that which runs lengthwise; to pass through or by, past; to manage, regulate; laws, canons, classics. Skt. sūtras; threads, threaded together, classical works. Also called 契經 and 經本. The sūtras in the Tripiṭaka are the sermons attributed to the Buddha; the other two divisions are 律 the Vinaya, and 論 the śāstras, or Abhidharma; cf. 三藏. Every sūtra begins with the words 如是我聞 'Thus did I hear', indicating that it contains the words of Śākyamuni.

經典 The discourses of Buddha, the sūtrapiṭaka.

經唄 Intoning the sūtras.

經塔 A pagoda containing the scriptures as relics of the Buddha, or having verses on or in the building material.

經宗 The sūtra school, any school which bases its doctrines on the sūtras, e. g. the Tiantai, or Huayan, in contrast to schools based on the śāstras, or philosophical discourses.

經家 One who collected or collects the sūtras, especially Ānanda, who according to tradition recorded the first Buddhist sūtras.

經師 A teacher of the sūtras, or canon in general.

經律論 Sūtras, Vinaya, Abhidharma śāstras, the three divisions of the Buddhist canon.

經戒 sūtras and commandments; the sūtras and morality, or discipline. The commandments found in the sūtras. The commandments regarded as permanent and fundamental.

經手 A copier of classical works; also called 經生.

經教 The teaching of the sūtras, cf. 經量部.

經法 The doctrines of the sūtras as spoken by the Buddha.

經生 To pass through life; also a copier of classical works.

經笥 A case for the scriptures, bookcase or box, also 經箱 et al.

有脚經笥 A walking bookcase, a learned monk.

經者 One who expounds the sūtras and śāstras; one who keeps the teaching of the Lotus Sūtra.

經藏 The sūtra-piṭaka.

經行 To walk about when meditating to prevent sleepiness; also as exercise to keep in health; the caṅkramana was a place for such exercise, e.g. a cloister, a corridor.

經衣 The garment with sūtra in which the dead were dressed, so called because it had quotations from the sūtras written on it: also 經帷子.

經論 The sūtras and śāstras.

經軌 sūtras and regulations (of the esoteric sects).

經道 The doctrines of the sūtras.

經部 (經量部) Sautrantika, an important Hīnayāna school, which based its doctrine on the sūtras alone, cf. Keith, 151 et al.

To set up, place, arrange; set aside, buy.

置答 To reply by ignoring a question.

That which is blameworthy and brings about bad karma; entangled in the net of wrong-doing; sin, crime.

罪垢 The filth of sin, moral defilement.

罪報 The retribution of sin, its punishment in suffering.

罪性 A sinful nature; the nature of sin.

罪惡 Sin and evil.

罪根 The root of sin, i.e. unenlightenment or ignorance.

罪業 That which sin does, its karma, producing subsequent suffering.

罪福 Sinfulness and blessedness.

罪福無主 Sinfulness and blessedness have no lord, or governor, i.e. we induce them ourselves.

罪行 Sinful acts, or conduct.

罪障 The veil, or barrier of sin, which hinders the obtaining of good karma, and the obedient hearing of the truth.

A flock of sheep, herd, multitude, the flock, crowd, all.

羣有 All that exists.

羣生 All the living, especially all living, conscious beings.

羣萌 All the shoots, sprouts, or immature things, i.e. all the living as ignorant and undeveloped.

羣迷 All the deluded; all delusions.

羣類 All classes of living beings, especially the sentient.

The right, proper, righteous; loyal; public-spirited, public; meaning, significance. It is used for the Skt. artha, object, purpose, meaning, etc.; also for abhidheya.

義例 Meaning and rules, or method, abbrev. for 止觀義例 q.v.

義意 Meaning and aim.

義淨 Yijing, A.D. 635-713, the famous monk who in 671 set out by the sea-route for India, where he remained for over twenty years, spending half this period in the Nālandā monastery. He returned to China in 695, was received with much honour, brought back some four hundred works, tr. with Śikṣānanda the Avataṃsaka-sūtra, later tr. many other works and left a valuable account of his travels and life in India, died aged 79.

義無礙 Unobstructed knowledge of the meaning, or the truth; complete knowledge.

義疏 Meaning and comments on or explanations.

義相 Truth, meaning; meaning and form, truth and its aspect.

義辯 One of the seven powers of reasoning, or discourse of a bodhisattva, that on the things that are profitable to the attainment of nirvāṇa.

義趣 The path of truth, the right direction, or objective.

義門 The gate of righteousness; the schools, or sects of the meaning or truth of Buddhism.

義陀羅尼 Truth dhāraṇī, the power of the bodhisattva to retain all truth he hears.

ārya; sādhu; a sage; wise and good; upright, or correct in all his character; sacred, holy, saintly.

聖人 is the opposite of the 凡人 common, or unenlightened man.

聖主天中天 The holy lord, deva of devas, i.e. Buddha; also 聖主師子 the holy lion-lord.

聖仙 The holy ṛṣi, Buddha.

聖位 The holy position, the holy life of Buddhism.

聖供 Holy offerings, or those made to the saints, especially to the triratna.

聖僧 The holy monk, the image in the monks' assembly room; in Mahāyāna that of Mañjuśrī, in Hīnayāna that of Kāśyapa, or Subhūti, etc.

聖儀 The saintly appearance, i.e. an image of Buddha.

聖典 The sacred canon, or holy classics, the Tripiṭaka.

聖寳藏神 The deva, or devas, of the sacred treasury of precious things (who bestows them on the living).

聖尊 The holy honoured one, Buddha.

聖師子 The holy lion, Buddha.

聖心 The holy mind, that of Buddha.

聖性 The holy nature, according to the Abhidharma-kośa 倶舍論, of the passionless life; according to the Vijñānamātrasiddhi 唯識論, of enlightenment and wisdom.

聖性離生 The life of holiness apart or distinguished from the life of common unenlightened people.

聖應 The influence of Buddha; the response of the Buddhas, or saints.

聖提婆 Āryadeva, or Devabodhisattva, a native of Ceylon and disciple of Nāgārjuna, famous for his writings and discussions.

聖教 The teaching of the sage, or holy one; holy teaching.

聖教量 The argument or evidence of authority in logic, i.e. that of the sacred books.

聖方 Āryadeśa, the holy land, India; the land of the sage, Buddha.

聖明 Holy enlightenment; or the enlightenment of saints.

聖智 ārya-jñāna; the wisdom of Buddha, or the saints, or sages; the wisdom which is above all particularization, i.e. that of transcendental truth.

聖果 The holy fruit, or fruit of the saintly life, i.e. bodhi, nirvāṇa.

聖法 The holy law of Buddha; the law or teaching of the saints, or sages.

聖淨 The schools of Buddhism and the Pure-land School, cf. 聖道.

聖福 Holy happiness, that of Buddhism, in contrast with 梵福 that of Brahma and Brahmanism.

聖種 (1) The holy seed, i.e. the community of monks; (2) that which produces the discipline of the saints, or monastic community.

聖網 The holy jāla, or net, of Buddha's teaching which gathers all into the truth.

聖緣 Holy conditions of, or aids to the holy life.

聖者 ārya, holy or saintly one; one who has started on the path to nirvāṇa; holiness.

聖胎 The womb of holiness which enfolds and develops the bodhisattva, i.e. the 三賢位 three excellent positions attained in the 十住, 十行 and 十廻向.

聖衆 The holy multitude, all the saints.

聖衆來迎 Amitābha's saintly host come to welcome at death those who call upon him.

聖行 The holy bodhisattva life of 戒定慧 the (monastic) commandments, meditation and wisdom.

聖言 Holy words; the words of a saint, or sage; the correct words of Buddhism.

聖語 āryabhāṣā. Sacred speech, language, words, or sayings; Sanskrit.

聖諦 The sacred principles or dogmas, or those of the saints, or sages; especially the four noble truths, cf. 四聖諦.

聖道 The holy way, Buddhism; the way of the saints, or sages; also the noble eightfold path.

聖道門 The ordinary schools of the way of holiness by the processes of devotion, in contrast with immediate salvation by faith in Amitābha.

聖靈 The saintly spirits (of the dead).

The belly.

腹中 Within the belly, the heart, womb, unborn child, etc.

The waist, middle.

腰衣 A skirt, 'shorts,' etc.

腰白 A white, or undyed, sash worn in mourning.

Strongly smelling vegetables, e.g. onions, garlic, leeks, etc., forbidden to Buddhist vegetarians; any non-vegetarian food.

葷辛 Strong or peppery vegetables, or foods.

葷酒 Non-vegetarian foods and wine.

The rambling, or creeping bean.

葛藤 Creepers, trailers, clinging vines, etc., i.e. the afflicting passions; troublesome people: talk, words (so used by the Intuitional School).

葛哩麻 karma, v. 業.

葛耶 kāya, body, v. 身.

Falling leaves: to fall, drop, descend, settle; translit. la, na.

落叉 A lakh, 100,000, v. 洛.

落吃澁弭 Lakṣmī, the goddess of fortune, of good auspices, etc.

落賺 A humbug, trickster, impostor, deceiver.

落迦 Naraka, hell, v. 那.

落髮 To cut off the hair of the head, shave, become a monk.

落髮染衣 落染 To shave the head and dye the clothing, i.e. to dye grey the normal white Indian garment; to become a monk.

Inter, bury.

葬送 送葬 To escort the deceased to the grave.

pattra; parṇa; leaf, leaves.

葉蓋 A leaf-hat, or cover made of leaves.

葉衣觀音 A form of Guanyin clad in leaves to represent the 84,000 merits.

To manifest, display, publish, fix; interchanged with 着. In a Buddhist sense it is used for attachment to anything, e.g. the attachment of love, desire, greed, etc.

著心 The mind of attachment, or attached.

著想 The attachment of thought, or desire.

著我 Attachment, to the ego, or idea of a permanent self.

著樂 Attachment to bliss, or pleasure regarded as real and permanent.

著法 Attachment to things; attachment and its object.

著衣喫飯 To wear clothes and eat food, i.e. the common things of life.

Myriad, 10,000; all.

萬八千世界 The 18,000 easterly worlds lighted by the ray from the Buddha's brows, v. Lotus Sūtra.

萬善 All goodness, all good works.

萬境 All realms, all regions.

萬字 The sauvastika 卍, also styled śrīvatsa-lakṣana, the mark on the breast of Viṣṇu, 'a particular curl of hair on the breast'; the lightning; a sun symbol; a sign of all power over evil and all favour to the good; a sign shown on the Buddha' s breast. One of the marks on a Buddha' s feet.

萬法 All things, everything that has noumenal or phenomenal existence.

萬法一如 The absolute in everything; the ultimate reality behind everything.

萬法一心 Myriad things but one mind; all things as noumenal.

萬物 All things.

萬行 All procedures, all actions, all disciplines, or modes of salvation.

To roar, call, cry, scream; sign, mark, designation.

號呌地獄 Raurava; the hell of wailing.

Mirage; sea-serpent; frog.

蜃樓臺 A mirage palace, cf. 乾.

A moth.

如蛾趣燈火 Like a moth flying into the lamp — is man after his pleasures.

A skirt. nivāsana, cf. 泥, a kind of garment, especially an under garment.

To dress, make up, pretend, pack, load, store; a fashion.

裝像 To dress an image.

裝香 To put incense into a censer.

To patch, repair, restore; tonic; translit. pu, po, cf. 富, 弗, 佛, 布.

補伽羅 pudgala, infra.

補剌拏 v. 富; intp. by 滿 pūrṇa.

補囉嚩 Pūrva, in Pūrva-videha, the eastern continent.

補怛洛迦 Potaraka, Potala, infra.

補沙 Puṣya, the 鬼 asterism, v. 富.

補澁波 puṣpa, a flower, a bloom, v. 布.

補特伽羅 pudgala, 'the body, matter; the soul, personal identity' (M.W.); intp. by man, men, human being, and 衆生 all the living; also by 趣向 direction, or transmigration; and 有情 the sentient, v. 弗.

補瑟置 (or 補瑟迦) pauṣṭika, promoting advancement, invigorating, protective.

補盧沙 puruṣa 'man collectively or individually'; 'Man personified'; 'the Soul of the universe' (M.W.); intp. by 丈夫 and 人; v. 布; also the first form of the masculine gender; (2) puruṣam 補盧衫; (3) puruṣeṇa 補盧沙拏; (4) puruṣāya 補盧沙耶; (5) puruṣaṭ 補盧沙?; (6) puruṣasya 補盧殺沙; (7) puruṣe 補盧 M040949.

補羯婆 [Note: 婆 should probably be 娑] paulkasa, an aboriginal, or the son 'of a śūdra father and of a kshatryā mother' (M.W.); intp. as low caste, scavenger, also an unbeliever (in the Buddhist doctrine of 因果 or retribution).

補羯娑 paulkasa, an aboriginal, or the son 'of a śūdra father and of a kshatryā mother' (M.W.); intp. as low caste, scavenger, also an unbeliever (in the Buddhist doctrine of 因果 or retribution).

補處 One who repairs, or occupies a vacated place, a Buddha who succeeds a Buddha, as Maitreya is to succeed Śākyamuni.

補陀 補陁; 補陀落 (補陀落迦) Potala; Potalaka. (1) A sea-port on the Indus, the παταλα of the ancients, identified by some with Thaṭtha, said to be the ancient home of Śākyamuni's ancestors. (2) A mountain south-east of Malakūṭa, reputed as the home of Avalokiteśvara. (3) The island of Pootoo, east of Ningpo, the Guanyin centre. (4) The Lhasa Potala in Tibet; the seat of the Dalai Lama, an incarnation of Avalokiteśvara; cf. 普; also written補怛落迦 (or 補但落迦); 逋多 (逋多羅); 布呾洛加.

To unloose, let go, release, untie, disentangle, explain, expound; intp. by mokṣa, mukti, vimokṣa, vimukti, cf. 解脫.

解一切衆生言語 sarva-ruta-kauśalya, supernatural power of interpreting all the language of all beings.

解境十佛 All existence discriminated as ten forms of Buddha. The Huayan school sees all things as pan-Buddha, but discriminates them into ten forms: all the living, countries (or places), karma, śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas, tathāgatas, 智 jñānakāya, dharmakāya, and space; i.e. each is a 身 corpus of the Buddha.

解夏 The dismissing of the summer retreat; also 解制.

解悟 Release and awareness: the attaining of liberation through enlightenment.

解深蜜經 Sandhi-nirmocana-sūtra, tr. by Xuanzang, the chief text of the Dharmalakṣana school, 法相宗. Four tr. have been made, three preceding that of Xuanzang, the first in the fifth century A. D.

解界 To release or liberate the power by magic words, in esoteric practice.

解知見 A Buddha's understanding, or intp. of release, or nirvāṇa, the fifth of the 五分法身.

解空To apprehend or interpret the immateriality of all things.

解脫 mukti, 'loosing, release, deliverance, liberation, setting free,... emancipation.' M.W. mokṣa, 'emancipation, deliverance, freedom, liberation, escape, release.' M.W. Escape from bonds and the obtaining of freedom, freedom from transmigration, from karma, from illusion, from suffering; it denotes nirvāṇa and also the freedom obtained in dhyāna-meditation; it is one of the five characteristics of Buddha; v. 五分法身. It is also vimukti and vimokṣa, especially in the sense of final emancipation. There are several categories of two kinds of emancipation, also categories of three and eight. Cf. 毘; and 八解脫.

解脫冠 The crown of release.

解脫味 The flavour of release, i.e. nirvāṇa.

解脫天 Mokṣadeva, a name given to Xuanzang in India.

解脫戒 The commandments accepted on leaving the world and becoming a disciple or a monk.

解脫海 The ocean of liberation.

解脫淸淨法殿 The pure dharma-court of nirvāṇa, the sphere of nirvāṇa, the abode of the dharmakāya.

解脫相 Liberation; the mark, or condition, of liberation, release from the idea of transmigration.

解脫知見 The knowledge and experience of nirvāṇa, v. 解知見.

解脫耳 The ear of deliverance, the ear freed, hearing the truth is the entrance to nirvāṇa.

解脫處 v. 八解脫.

解脫衣 The garment of liberation, the robe; also 解脫幢相衣; 解脫服.

解脫身 The body of liberation, the body of Buddha released from kleśa, i.e. passion-affliction.

解脫道 The way or doctrine of liberation, Buddhism.

解脫門 The door of release, the stage of meditation characterized by vacuity and absence of perception or wishes.

解脫風 The wind of liberation from the fires of worldly suffering.

解行 Interpretation and conduct; to understand and do.

解行地 The stage of apprehending and following the teaching.

See under Fourteen Strokes.

Explain, expound, discourse upon.

詮旨 To explain the meaning, or import.

詮辯 To explain, comment on.

Talking, inquiring, buzzing, swarming.

詵遮 abhiṣecana, to baptize, or sprinkle upon; also 毘詵遮.

Words, language, talk.

話則 Word-norm, the spoken words of the Buddha the norm of conduct.

To connect, belong to; proper; ought, owe; the said; the whole.

該羅 該攝 Containing, inclusive, undivided, whole; the one vehicle containing the three.

To try, test, attempt; tempt.

試經 To test or prove the scriptures; to examine them.

試羅 śilā, a stone, flat stone, intp. as 'probably a coral' (Eitel), also as 'mother'-of-pearl.

A thief, robber, spoiler; to rob, steal, etc.

賊住 An unordained person who passes himself off as a monk.

Funds, basis, property, supplies; fees; to depend on: disposition: expenditure.

資生 Necessaries of life.

資糧 saṃbhāra; supplies for body or soul, e.g. food, almsgiving, wisdom, etc.

資緣 The material necessaries of a monk, clothing, food, and shelter.

資財帳 Schedule of property (of a monastery).

To straddle, bestride, pass over.

跨節 To interpret one sūtra by another, a Tiantai term, e.g. interpreting all other sūtras in the light of the Lotus Sūtra.

To kneel.

跪拜 To kneel and worship, or pay respect.

跪爐 To kneel and offer incense.

A road, way.

路伽 idem路迦.

路伽多 lohita, red, copper-coloured.

路伽祇夜 lokageya, intp. as repetition in verse, but also as singing after common fashion.

路賀 loha, copper, also gold, iron, etc.

路迦 loka, intp. by 世間, the world, a region or realm, a division of the universe.

路迦憊 (or 路伽憊) lokavit, lokavid, he who knows, or interprets the world, a title of a Buddha.

路迦耶底迦 路伽耶 (路伽耶陀); 路柯耶胝柯 lokāyatika. 'A materialist, follower of the Cārvāka system, atheist, unbeliever' (M.W.); intp. as 順世 worldly, epicurean, the soul perishes with the body, and the pleasures of the senses are the highest good.

路迦那他 intp. 世尊 lokajyeṣṭha; lokanātha, most excellent of the world, lord of the world, epithet of Brahma and of a Buddha.

A prince, sovereign, lord; split; punish, repress; perverse; toady; quiet.

辟支 (辟支迦) pratyeka, each one, individual, oneself only.

辟支佛 (辟支迦) (辟支佛陀) (辟支迦佛陀) pratyekabuddha, one who seeks enlightenment for himself, defined in the Lotus Sūtra as a believer who is diligent and zealous in seeking wisdom, loves loneliness and seclusion, and understands deeply the nidānas. Also called 緣覺; 獨覺; 倶存. It is a stage above the śrāvaka 聲聞 and is known as the 中乘 middle vehicle. Tiantai distinguishes 獨覺 as an ascetic in a period without a Buddha, 緣覺 as a pratyekabuddha. He attains his enlightenment alone, independently of a teacher, and with the object of attaining nirvāṇa and his own salvation rather than that of others, as is the object of a bodhisattva. Cf. 畢.

辟支佛乘 The middle vehicle, that of the pratyekabuddha, one of the three vehicles.

辟除 To suppress, get rid of.

辟雷 To rend as thunder, to thunder.

辟鬼 To suppress demons.

Farm, farming, agriculture; an intp. of the śūdra caste.

To retire, vanish.

遁世 To retire from the world and become a monk: also to withdraw from the community and become a hermit.

Check, stop.

遏部多 adbhuta, the marvellous; name of a stūpa in Udyāna, north-west India.

To press, constrain, urge, harass.

逼廹 To constrain, compel, bring strong pressure to bear.

To oppose, disregard, disobey; leave, avoid.

違他順自 To disregard or oppose others and follow one's own way; the opposite of 違自順他.

違境 To oppose or disregard conditions; opposing or unfavourable circumstances.

違緣 Opposing or hostile conditions.

違陀 Veda, knowledge, the Vedas, cf. 章, 毘.

違順 To oppose, or accord with; hostile or favourable.

Revolve; turn of the wheel, luck; carry, transport.

運心 Revolve in the mind; indecision; to have in mind; to carry the mind, or thought, towards.

To pass over, exceed.

逾越 To pass over.

逾時 To exceed the time.

逾健達羅 Yugaṃdhara, v. 踰.

bhrāmyati. Ramble, wander, travel, go from place to place.

遊化 To go about preaching and converting men.

遊山 To go from monastery to monastery; ramble about the hills.

遊增地獄 The sixteen subsidiary hells of each of the eight hot hells.

遊心法界 A mind free to wander in the realm of all things; that realm as the realm of the liberated mind.

遊戲 vikrīḍita. To roam for pleasure; play, sport.

遊戲神通 The supernatural powers in which Buddhas and bodhisattvas indulge, or take their pleasure.

遊方 To wander from place to place.

遊虛空天 To roam in space, as do the devas of the sun, moon, stars, etc.; also the four upper devalokas.

遊行 To roam, wander, travel, etc.

To pass; past; gone; transgression error.

過去 Passed, past.

過去世 The past, past time, past world or age.

過去七佛 The seven past Buddhas: Vipaśyin, Śikhin, Visvabhū (of the previous 莊嚴 kalpa), and Krakucchanda, Kanakamuni, Kāśyapa, and Śākyamuni (of the 賢 or present kalpa).

過去聖靈 The spirit of the departed.

過夏 To pass the summer, or the summer retreat.

過度 To pass from mortal life.

過慢 The pride which among equals regards self as superior and among superiors as equal; one of the seven arrogances.

過木橋 To cross over the single log bridge, i.e. only one string to the bow.

過現未 Past, present, future.

過惡 dauṣṭhulya. Surpassing evil; extremely evil.

sarvatraga. Everywhere, universe, whole; a time.

遍依圓 The three points of view: 遍計 which regards the seeming as real; 依他 which sees things as derived; 圓成 which sees them in their true nature; cf. 三性.

遍出外道 Ascetics who entirely separate themselves from their fellowmen.

遍周 Universal, everywhere.

遍智 Universal knowledge, omniscience.

遍淨天 The heaven of universal purity, the third of the third dhyāna heavens.

遍法界身 The universal dharmakāya, i.e. the universal body of Buddha, pan-Buddha.

遍照如來 The universally shining Tathāgata, i.e. Vairocana.

遍至 Universally reaching, universal.

遍行 Universally operative; omnipresent.

遍計所執性 The nature that maintains the seeming to be real.

Permeate, penetrate, reach to, transfer, inform, promote, successful, reaching everywhere; translit. ta, da, dha, etc.

達利瑟致 dṛṣṭi, 見 seeing, viewing, views, ideas, opinions; especially seeing the seeming as if real, therefore incorrect views, false opinions, e.g. 我見 the false idea of a permanent self; cf. darśana, infra.

達嚫 (達嚫拏) dakṣiṇā, a gift or fee; acknowledgment of a gift; the right hand (which receives the gift); the south. Eitel says it is an ancient name for Deccan, 'situated south of Behar,' and that it is 'often confounded with 大秦國 the eastern Roman empire'. Also 達 M036979 (or 達親 or 達櫬); 噠嚫; 大嚫; 檀嚫.

達多 Devadatta, v. 提.

達婆 gandharva, v. 乾.

達梨舍那 darśana, seeing, a view, views, viewing, showing; 見 v. above, dṛṣṭi.

達水 Also 達池, Anavatapta, v. 阿.

達磨 dharma; also 達摩; 達麼; 達而麻耶; 曇摩; 馱摩 tr. by 法. dharma is from dhara, holding, bearing, possessing, etc.; and means 'that which is to be held fast or kept, ordinance, statute, law, usage, practice'; 'anything right.' M.W. It may be variously intp. as (1) characteristic, attribute, predicate; (2) the bearer, the transcendent substratum of single elements of conscious life; (3) element, i.e. a part of conscious life; (4) nirvāṇa, i.e. the Dharma par excellence, the object of Buddhist teaching; (5) the absolute, the real; (6) the teaching or religion of Buddha; (7) thing, object, appearance. Also, Damo, or Bodhidharma, the twenty-eighth Indian and first Chinese patriarch, who arrived in China A.D. 520, the reputed founder of the Chan or Intuitional School in China. He is described as son of a king in southern India; originally called Bodhitara. He arrived at Guangdong, bringing it is said the sacred begging-bowl, and settled in Luoyang, where he engaged in silent meditation for nine years, whence he received the title of wall-gazing Brahman 壁觀婆羅門, though he was a kṣatriya. His doctrine and practice were those of the 'inner light', independent of the written word, but to 慧可 Huike, his successor, he commended the Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra as nearest to his views. There are many names with Dharma as initial: Dharmapāla, Dharmagupta, Dharmayaśas, Dharmaruci, Dharmarakṣa, Dharmatrāta, Dharmavardhana, etc.

達磨宗 The Damo, or Dharma sect, i.e. the 禪宗 Meditation, or Intuitional School.

達磨忌 The anniversary of Bodhidharma's death, fifth of the tenth month.

達磨馱都 dharmadhātu, tr. 法界 'the element of law or of existence' (M.W.); all psychic and non-psychic processes (64 dharmas), with the exception of rūpa-skandha and mano-ayatana (11), grouped as one dharma element; the storehouse or matrix of phenomena, all-embracing totality of things; in the Tantric school, Vairocana divided into Garbhadhātu (material) and Vajradhātu (indestructible); a relic of the Buddha.

達羅毘荼 Draviḍa, a district on the east coast of the Deccan.

達賴喇嘛 Dalai Lama, the head of the Yellow-robe sect of Tibetan Buddhism, and chief of the nation.

達須 dasyu, barbarians; demons; also 達首; 達架. Used for Sudarśana, v. 須.

mārga. A way, road; the right path; principle, Truth, Reason, Logos, Cosmic energy; to lead; to say. The way of transmigration by which one arrives at a good or bad existence; any of the six gati, or paths of destiny. The way of bodhi, or enlightenment leading to nirvāṇa through spiritual stages. Essential nirvāṇa, in which absolute freedom reigns. For the eightfold noble path v. 八聖道.

道交 Mutual interaction between the individual seeking the truth and the Buddha who responds to his aspirations; mutual intercourse through religion.

道人 One who has entered the way, one who seeks enlightenment, a general name for early Buddhists and also for Taoists.

道位 The stages in the attainment of Buddha-truth.

道俗 Monks and laymen.

道元 The beginning of right doctrine, i.e. faith.

道光 The light of Buddha-truth.

道具 The implements of the faith, such as garments, begging-bowl, and other accessories which aid one in the Way.

道力 The power which comes from enlightenment, or the right doctrine.

道化 To transform others through the truth of Buddhism; converted by the Truth.

道品 Religious or monastic grade, or grades.

道器 A vessel of religion, the capacity for Buddhism.

道士 A Taoist (hermit), also applied to Buddhists, and to Śākyamuni.

道場 Truth-plot. bodhimaṇḍala, circle, or place of enlightenment. The place where Buddha attained enlightenment. A place, or method, for attaining to Buddha-truth. An object of or place for religious offerings. A place for teaching, learning, or practising religion.

道場樹 The bodhidruma, or tree under which the Buddha attained enlightenment.

道場神 Tutelary deities of Buddhist religious places, etc.

道宣 A celebrated Tang monk, Daoxuan, who assisted Xuanzang in his translations.

道心 The mind which is bent on the right way, which seeks enlightenment. A mind not free from the five gati, i.e. transmigration. Also 道意.

道教 Taoism. The teaching of the right way, i.e. of Buddhism.

道智 Religious wisdom; the wisdom which understands the principles of mārga, the eightfold path.

道果 The result of the Buddha-way, i.e. nirvāṇa.

道業 The karma of religion which leads to Buddhahood.

道樂 The joy of religion.

道樹 The bodhi-tree, under which Buddha attained enlightenment; also as a synonym of Buddhism with its powers of growth and fruitfulness.

道檢 The restraints, or control of religion.

道次 The stages of enlightenment, or attainment.

道氣 The breath, or vital energy, of the Way, i.e. of Buddhist religion.

道水 The water of Truth which washes away defilement.

道法 The way or methods to obtain nirvāṇa.

道法智 The wisdom attained by them; the wisdom which rids one of false views in regard to mārga, or the eightfold noble path.

道流 The stream of Truth; the flow, or progress, of Buddha, truth; the spread of a particular movement, e.g. the Chan school.

道理 Truth, doctrine, principle; the principles of Buddhism, Taoism, etc.

道眼 The eye attained through the cultivation of Buddha-truth; the eye which sees that truth.

道禁 Whatever is prohibited by the religion, or the religious life; śīla, the second pāramitā, moral purity.

道種性 The nature possessing the seed of Buddhahood. The stage in which the 'middle' way is realized.

道種智 The wisdom which adopts all means to save all the living: one of the 三智.

道者 One who practises Buddhism; the Truth, the religion.

道舊 An old monastic, or religious, friend.

道芽 The sprouts, or seedlings, of Buddha-truth.

道衆 Those who practise religion, the body of monks.

道號 The hao, or literary name of a monk.

道行 Conduct according to Buddha-truth; the discipline of religion.

道術 The methods, or arts, of the Buddhist religion.

道要 The fundamentals of Buddhism.

道觀 Religious practice (or external influence) and internal vision.

道諦 mārga, the dogma of the path leading to the extinction of passion, the fourth of the four axioms, i.e. the eightfold noble path, v. 八聖道.

道識 The knowledge of religion; the wisdom, or insight, attained through Buddhism.

道門 The gate of the Way, or of truth, religion, etc.; the various schools of Buddhism.

道類智 The wisdom obtained through insight into the way of release in the upper realms of form and formlessness; one of the 八智.

道風 The wind of Buddha-truth, as a transforming power; also as a prognosis of future events.

道體 The embodiment of truth, the fundament of religion, i.e. the natural heart or mind, the pure nature, the universal mind, the bhūtatathatā.

The country, rural, village.

鄉人 Country people, people of one's village.

Translit. u, ū, cf. 烏, 塢, 優.

鄔波尼殺曇 Upaniṣad, cf. 優; variously intp. but in general refers to drawing near (to a teacher to hear instruction); the Upanishads.

鄔闍衍那 Ujjayinī, Oujein; cf. 烏.

鄔陀延 鄔陀衍那 Udayana, king of Kauśāmbi, cf. 烏.

Pledge, toast, requite.

酬還 To pay a vow, repay.

dadhi, a thick, sour milk which is highly esteemed as a food and as a remedy or preventive.

酪味 Sour, one of the five tastes. Tiantai compared the second period of the Hīnayāna with this.

酪經 Tiantai term for the Hīnayāna sūtras.

A small gong struck during the worship, or service.

鉦鼓 Cymbals, or small gongs and drums.

A hand-bell with a tongue.


patra, a bowl, vessel, receptacle, an almsbowl; translit. p, pa, ba.

鉢伐多 parvata, crags, mountain range. An ancient city and province of Takka, 700 li north-east of Mūlasthānapura, perhaps the modern Futtihpoor between Multan and Lahore. Also 鉢羅伐多.

鉢位 Bowl seat, the place each monk occupies at table.

鉢健提 pākhanda, i.e. pāṣaṇḍa, pāṣaṇḍin, heresy, a heretic, intp. 堅固 firm, stubborn; name of a deva.

鉢剌底羯爛多 pratikrānta, following in order, or by degrees.

鉢剌翳迦佛陀 v. 辟, pratyekabuddha.

鉢剌迦羅 prakaraṇa, intp. as a section, chapter, etc.

鉢吒 paṭa, woven cloth or silk.

鉢吒補怛囉 Pātaliputra, the present Patna.

鉢吉帝 prakṛti, natural; woman; etc. Name of the woman at the well who supplied water to Ānanda, seduced him, but became a nun.

鉢和羅 pravāraṇa. A freewill offering made, or the rejoicings on the last day of the summer retreat. Also described as the day of mutual confession; also 鉢和蘭; 鉢剌婆剌拏; 盋和羅.

鉢哩體吠 pṛthivī, the earth, world, ground, soil, etc.

鉢唎部 prabhu, mighty, intp. by 自在 sovereign, a title of Viṣṇu, Brahmā, and others.

鉢喇底木叉 prātimokṣa, idem mokṣa, v. 木, 波, 解. prātimokṣa, a portion of the Vinaya, called the sūtra of emancipation.

鉢喇底提舍尼 (or 鉢喇底提舍那) pratideśanā, public confession; pratideśanīya, offences to be confessed; a section of the Vinaya, v. 波.

鉢喇特崎拏 pradakṣiṇa, circumambulation with the right shoulder towards the object of homage.

鉢囉惹 (鉢囉惹鉢多曳) Prājapati, 'lord of creatures,' 'bestower of progeny,' 'creator'; tr. as 生主 lord of life, or production, and intp. as Brahmā. Also, v. Mahāprajāpatī, name of the Buddha's aunt and nurse.

鉢塞莫 pāśakamāla, dice-chain i.e. a rosary.

鉢多 (鉢多羅) pātra, a bowl, vessel, receptacle, an almsbowl; also 鉢呾羅; 鉢和羅 (or 鉢和蘭); 波怛囉 (or 播怛囉); in brief 鉢. The almsbowl of the Buddha is said to have been brought by Bodhidharma to China in A. D. 520.

鉢摩羅伽 padmarāga, lotus-hued, a ruby; also 鉢曇摩羅伽.

鉢曇 pada, v. 鉢陀.

鉢特摩 (鉢特) padma, or raktapadma, the red lotus; one of the signs on the foot of a Buddha; the seventh hell; also 鉢特忙; 鉢頭摩 (or 鉢弩摩 or 鉢曇摩); 鉢納摩; 鉢頭摩 (or 鉢曇摩).

鉢羅 pala, a particular measure or weight, intp. as 4 ounces; also 波羅; 波賴他; but pala also means flesh, meat, and palāda a flesh-eater, a rākṣasa; translit. pra, para.

鉢羅吠奢 praveśa, entrance, 入 q.v.

鉢羅奢佉 (or 鉢羅賖佉) praśākha; praśaka; the fifth stage of the fœtus, the limbs being formed.

鉢羅底也 pratyaya, a concurrent or environmental cause.

鉢羅弭 parama; highest, supreme, first.

鉢羅摩菩提 parama-bodhi, supreme enlightenment.

鉢羅斯那特多 (or 鉢羅犀那特多); 波斯匿 Prasenajit, a king of Kośala, patron of Śākyamuni, who is reputed as the first to make an image of the Buddha.

鉢羅枳孃 鉢羅賢禳 v. 般 prajñā.

鉢羅歩多囉怛曩野 (or 鉢羅部多囉怛曩野), i.e. 多寳 q.v. Prabhūtaratna.

鉢羅由他 (or 鉢羅廋他); also 波羅由他; ? Prayuta; ten billions; 大鉢羅由他 100 billions, v. 洛.

鉢羅笈菩提 Prāgbodhi. A mountain in Magadha, which Śākyamuni ascended 'before entering upon bodhi'; wrongly explained by 前正覺 anterior to supreme enligtenment.

鉢羅耶伽 Prayāga, now Allahabad.

鉢羅若 v. 般 prajñā.

鉢羅薩他 prastha, a weight tr. as a 斤 Chinese pound; a measure.

鉢里薩囉伐拏 parisrāvaṇa, a filtering bag, or cloth, for straining water (to save the lives of insects), part of the equipment of a monk.

鉢鐸創那 Badakshan, 'A mountainous district of Tukhara' (M.W.); also 巴達克山.

鉢陀 pada, footstep, pace, stride, position; also 鉢曇; 波陀; 播陀; also tr. as foot; and stop.

鉢露兒 Bolor, a kingdom north of the Indus, south-east of the Pamir, rich in minerals, i.e. Hunza-Nagar; it is to be distinguished from Bolor in Tukhāra.

鉢露羅 Polulo, perhaps Baltistan.

鉢頭摩 padma, v. 鉢特.

A crack, crevice, rift; translit. kha.

隙遊塵 Motes in a sunbeam; a minute particle.

隙棄羅 khakkhara, a mendicant's staff; a monk's staff.

To divide of, separate, part.

隔宿 Separated by a night, i.e. the previous day.

隔生 Divided by birth; on rebirth to be parted from all knowledge of a previous life.

隔歷 Separate, distinct.

隔歷三諦 To differentiate and apprehend the three distinctive principles 空假中 noumenon, phenomenon, and the mean.

A pheasant; a parapet.

雉救林火 The pheasant which busied itself in putting out the forest on fire and was pitied and saved by the fire-god.

garjita, thunder, thundering.

Lightning, symbolizes the impermanent and transient.

電光石火 Lightning and flint-fire, transient.

電影 Impermanence of all things like lightning and shadow.

Extol, praise. gāthā, hymns, songs, verses, stanzas, the metrical part of a sūtra; cf. 伽陀.

頑Stupid, obstinate.

頑石點頭(Moved by the reciting of the Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra,) even the stupid stones nodded their heads.

At ease, contented, pleased; arranged, provided for; beforehand; an autumn trip.

預流 According with the stream of holy living, the srota-āpanna disciple of the śrāvaka stage, who has overcome the illusion of the seeming, the first stage in Hīnayāna.

預彌國 Yāmī, the land or state of Yama, where is no Buddha.

To fall headlong, prostrate; at one time, at once; suddenly; immediate; a pause; to stamp; make ready; used chiefly in contrast with 漸 gradually.

頓圓 The immediate and complete way of enlightenment of the Tiantai Lotus school.

頓頓圓 Instantaneous perfect enlightenment of the Huayan, a term used by 澄觀 Chengguan, who left the Lotus for the Huayan.

頓大 The immediate school and sūtra of the Mahāyāna, i.e. the Huayan.

頓寫 頓經; 一日經 To copy the Lotus Sūtra at one sitting.

頓悟 Instantly to apprehend, or attain to Buddha-enlightenment, in contrast with Hīnayāna and other methods of gradual attainment.

頓悟菩薩A bodhisattva who attains immediately without passing through the various stages.

頓成諸行 The immediate fulfilment of all acts, processes, or disciplines (by the fulfilment of one).

頓教 The doctrine that enlightenment or Buddhahood may be attained at once; also immediate teaching of the higher truth without preliminary stages.

頓斷 To cut of at one stroke all the passions, etc.

頓機 The capacity, or opportunity, for immediate enlightenment.

頓漸 Immediate, or sudden, attainment in contrast with gradualness.

頓旨 The will, or aim, of immediate attainment.

頓法 The method of immediacy.

頓覺 Immediate apprehension or enlightenment as opposed to gradual development.

Rice (cooked); food; to eat.

飯磬 The dinner-gong.

飯袋子 A rice-bag fellow, a monk only devoted to his food, useless.

飯那 vana, a grove, a wood.

飯頭 A cook.

To drink, swallow; to water cattle.

飮光 Drinking light, a tr. of the name of Kāśyapa, v. 迦, or his patronymic, possibly because it is a title of Aruṇa, the charioteer of the sun, but said to be because of Kāśyapa's radiant body.

飮光部 Mahākāśyapīyāḥ, or school of the Mahāsāṅghikaḥ.

飮血地獄 The hell where they have to drink blood.

飮酒 To drink wine, or alcoholic liquor, forbidden by the fifth of the five commandments; 10, 35, and 36 reasons for abstinence from it are given.

飮食 Drink and food, two things on which sentient beings depend; desire for them is one of the three passions; offerings of them are one of the five forms of offerings.

A dove; to collect; translit. ku, gu, ko, ki; cf. 瞿, 拘, 倶, 矩.

鳩垣 Kupana, 鳩洹; 仇桓; an asura who swells with anger.

鳩夷羅 kokila, the cuckoo; or 鳩那羅 Kuṇāla, cf. 拘. There are other forms beginning with 拘, 倶, 瞿.

鳩摩 (鳩摩羅) Kumāra, a child, youth, prince.

鳩摩羅 鳩摩羅什 (鳩摩羅什婆); 鳩摩羅時婆 (or 鳩摩羅耆婆); 羅什 Kumārajīva, one of the 'four suns' of Mahāyāna Buddhism, of which he was the early and most effective propagator in China. He died in Chang-an about A.D. 412. His father was an Indian, his mother a princess of Karashahr. He is noted for the number of his translations and commentaries, which he is said to have dictated to some 800 monastic scribes. After cremation his tongue remained 'unconsumed'.

鳩摩羅伽 Kumāraka, idem Kumāra.

鳩摩羅伽地 Kumāraka-stage, or鳩摩羅浮多 Kumāra-bhūta, youthful state, i.e. a bodhisattva state or condition, e.g. the position of a prince to the throne.

鳩摩羅炎 Kumārāyaṇa, father of Kumārajīva.

鳩摩邏多 (or 鳩摩邏陀) Kumāralabdha, also 矩 and 拘; two noted monks, one during the period of Aśoka, of the Sautrantika sect; the other Kumāralabdha, or 'Kumārata' (Eitel), the nineteenth patriarch.

鳩槃荼 Kumbhāṇḍa, a demon shaped like a gourd, or pot; or with a scrotum like one; it devours the vitality of men; also written with initials 弓, 恭, 究, 拘, 倶, and 吉; also 鳩摩邏滿拏.

鳩鳩吒 kukkuta, a fowl.

A drum.

鼓樂絃歌 Drum-music and singing with stringed instruments.

鼓音 The rolling of drums.

鼓天 The drum-deva, thunder.

muṣa; ākhu; a mouse, rat.

自黑二鼠 The two mice in the parable, one white the other black, gnawing at the rope of life, i.e. day and night, or sun and moon.

鼠喞鳥空 Vain discussions, like rat-squeakings and cuckoo-callings.

Let's grow together!

I humbly request your help to keep doing what I do best: provide the world with unbiased sources, definitions and images. Your donation direclty influences the quality and quantity of knowledge, wisdom and spiritual insight the world is exposed to.

Let's make the world a better place together!

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: