A Dictionary Of Chinese Buddhist Terms

With Sanskrit And English Equivalents And A Sanskrit-pali Index

by William Edward Soothill | 1937 | 324,264 words

For about a thousand years, Buddhism dominated the thought of China and her thinkers were occupied with Buddhist philosophy. This dictionary serves as a resource to the interpretation of Chinese culture, as well as an important reference for the comparative study of Sanskrit and Pali originals. The author provides a key for the students which to u...

Part 12 - Twelve Strokes

To superintend, teach; a tutor; to paint; a function; annex.

傅訓 The instructions of a teacher: to instruct.

Gigantic, monstrous, part man part devil; a puppet.

傀儡子 A puppet, marionette.

Near, adjoining, side, dependent.

傍生 tiryagyoni, 'born of or as an animal' (M. W.); born to walk on one side, i.e. belly downwards, because of sin in past existence.

傍生趣 The animal path, that of rebirth as an animal, one of the six gati.

囘鶻 高車; 高昌. M067729彝 Uighurs, M067729胡; A branch of the Turks first heard of in the seventh century in the Orkhon district where they remained until A. D. 840, when they were defeated and driven out by the Kirghiz; one group went to Kansu, where they remained until about 1020; another group founded a kingdom in the Turfan country which survived until Mongol times. They had an alphabet which was copied from the Soghdian. Chingis Khan adopted it for writing Mongolian. A. D. 1294 the whole Buddhist canon was translated into Uighur.

To cut, gash, sever.

割斷 To cut off.

Toil, labour, trouble; to reward.

勞侶 Troublesome companions, e.g. the passions.

勞怨 The annoyance or hatred of labour, or trouble, or the passions, or demons.

勞結 The troublers, or passions, those which hold one in bondage.

jina, victorious, from ji, to overcome, surpass.

勝乘 The victorious vehicle, i.e. Mahāyāna.

勝友 Jinamitra, friend of the Jina, or, having the Jina for friend; also the name of an eloquent monk of Nālandā, circa A. D. 630, author of Sarvāstivādavinaya-saṅgrāha, tr. A. D. 700.

勝士 Victor, one who keeps the commandments.

勝子樹 v. 祇. The Jeta grove, Jetavana.

勝宗 v. 勝論宗.

勝州 Uttarakuru, v. 鬱 the continent north of Meru.

勝心 The victorious mind, which carries out the Buddhist discipline.

勝應身 A Tiantai term for the superior incarnational Buddha-body, i.e. his compensation-body under the aspect of 他受用身 saving others.

勝林 v. 祇 The Jeta grove, Jetavana.

勝果 The surpassing fruit, i.e. that of the attainment of Buddhahood, in contrast with Hīnayāna lower aims; two of these fruits are transcendent nirvāṇa and complete bodhi.

勝業 Surpassing karma.

勝神州 Pūrvavideha, Videha, the continent east of Meru.

勝義 Beyond description, that which surpasses mere earthly ideas; superlative, inscrutable.

勝義根 The surpassing organ, i.e. intellectual perception, behind the ordinary organs of perception, e.g. eyes, ears, etc.

勝義法 The superlative dharma, nirvāṇa.

勝義空 nirvāṇa as surpassingly real or transcendental.

勝義諦 The superior truth, enlightened truth as contrasted with worldly truth.

勝義諦論 Paramārtha-satya-śāstra, a philosophical work by Vasubandhu.

勝者 Pradhāna, pre-eminent, predominant.

勝論 v. 吠 Vaiśeṣika-śāstra.

勝論宗 The Vaiśeṣika school of Indian philosophy, whose foundation is ascribed to Kaṇāda (Ulūka); he and his successors are respectfully styled 論師 or slightingly 論外道; the school, when combined with the Nyāya, is also known as Nyāya-vaiśeṣika .

勝軍 Prasenajit, conquering army, or conqueror of an army; king of Kośala and patron of Śākyamuni; also one of the Maharājas, v. 明王.

勝鬘夫人 Mālyaśrī, daughter of Prasenajit, wife of the king of Kośala (Oudh), after whom the Śrīmālādevi-siṃhanāda 會 and 經 are named.

Wide, universal; widely read, versed in; to cause; gamble; barter.

博叉 Vaṅkṣu; Vakṣu; v. 縛 the Oxus.

博叉般荼迦 博叉半擇迦 pakṣa-paṇḍakās; partial eunuchs, cf. 半.

博吃蒭 pakṣa, half a lunar month; also used for Māra's army.

Third personal pronoun; demonstrative pronoun; also used instead of 倶.

To eat.

喫素 To eat ordinary, or vegetarian food.

喫棄羅 khakkhara, a beggar's staff; an abbot's staff.

To shout, bawl, call, scold; to drink.

喝捍 Gahan, an ancient kingdom, also called 東安國, i.e. Eastern Parthia, west of Samarkand, now a district of Bukhara.

To call, summon.

喚鐘 半鐘 (or飯鐘) The dinner bell or gong.

To wail; crow.

啼哭 To weep and wail; to weep.

啼哭佛 The ever-wailing Buddha, the final Buddha of the present kalpa; cf. 薩陀.


喬答魔 Gautama.

喬答彌 Gautami; v. 瞿.

Mourning. To lose; destroy.

喪? Gifts to monks for masses for the dead.

喇嘛 Lama, the Lamaistic form of Buddhism found chiefly in Tibet, and Mongolia, and the smaller Himālayan States. In Tibet it is divided into two schools, the older one wearing red robes, the later, which was founded by Tson-kha-pa in the fifteenth century, wearing yellow; its chiefs are the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama, respectively.

Single, alone; only; the odd numbers; poor, deficient; a bill, cheque, etc.; cf. 但.

單位 A single seat, or position; also a fixed, or listed position, or seat.

單前 In front of one's listed name, i.e. in one's allotted place.

單麻 The single hempseed a day to which the Buddha reduced his food before his enlightenment.

Illustrate, example; to know 宗因喩q.v. The example (dṛṣṭānta) in a syllogism.

喩依 The subject of the example, e.g. a vase, or bottle; as contrasted with 喩體 the predicate, e.g. (the vase) is not eternal.

prīti; ānanda. Joy; glad; delighted, rejoice; to like.

喜受 The sensation, or receptivity, of joy; to receive with pleasure.

喜忍 The 'patience' of joy, achieved on beholding by faith Amitābha and his Pure Land; one of the 三忍.

喜悅 喜歡; 喜樂 Pleased, delighted.

喜捨 Joyful giving.

喜林苑 Joy-grove garden, a name for Indra's garden or paradise.

喜見 priyadarśana. Joyful to see, beautiful, name of a kalpa.

喜見城 Sudarśana, the city, beautiful, the chief city or capital, of the thirty-three Indra-heavens; also 善見域.

喜見天 The Trāyastriṃśas, or thirty-three devas or gods of Indra's heaven, on the summit of Meru.

喜見菩薩 The Bodhisattva Beautiful, an incarnation of藥王.

喜覺支 The third bodhyaṅga, the stage of joy on attaining the truth.

su; sādhu; bhadra; kuśala. Good, virtuous, well; good at; skilful.

善人 A good man, especially one who believes in Buddhist ideas of causality and lives a good life.

善來 svāgata, susvāgata; 'welcome'; well come, a title of a Buddha; v. 善逝.

善劫 A good kalpa, bhadrakalpa, especially that in which we now live.

善友 kalyāṇamitra, 'a friend of virtue, a religious counsellor,' M. W.; a friend in the good life, or one who stimulates to goodness.

善哉 sādhu. Good! excellent!

善因 Good causation, i.e. a good cause for a good effect.

善宿 Abiding in goodness, disciples who keep eight commandments, upavasatha, poṣadha.

善巧 Clever, skilful, adroit, apt.

善心 A good heart, or mind.

善性 Good nature, good in nature, or in fundamental quality.

善惡 Good and evil; good, inter alia, is defined as 順理, evil as 違理; i.e. to accord with, or to disobey the right. The 十善十惡 are the keeping or breaking of the ten commandments.

善慧地 sādhumatī, v. 十地.

善月 Good month, i.e. the first, fifth, and ninth; because they are the most important in which to do good works and thus obtain a good report in the spirit realm.

善本 Good stock, or roots, planting good seed or roots; good in the root of enlightenment.

善果 Good fruit from 善因 q.v.; good fortune in life resulting from previous goodness.

善現 Well appearing, name of Subhūti, v. 蘇.

善現天 (or 善現色) Suḍṛśa, the seventh brahmaloka; the eighth region of the fourth dhyāna.

善生 Sujāta, 'well born, of high birth,' M. W. Also tr. of Susaṃbhava, a former incarnation of Śākyamuni.

善男子 Good sons, or sons of good families, one of the Buddha's terms of address to his disciples, somewhat resembling 'gentlemen'.

善男信女 Good men and believing women.

善知 vibhāvana, clear perception.

善知識 A good friend or intimate, one well known and intimate.

善神 The good devas, or spirits, who protect Buddhism, 8, 16, or 36 in number; the 8 are also called 善鬼神.

善見 sudarśana, good to see, good for seeing, belle vue, etc., similar to 喜見 q.v.

善財童子 Sudhana, a disciple mentioned in the 華嚴經 34 and elsewhere, one of the 四勝身 q.v.; the story is given in Divyāvadāna, ed. Cowell and Neil, pp. 441 seq.

善逝 sugata, well departed, gone as he should go; a title of a Buddha; cf. 善來.

Surround, enclose, encircle, go round.

圍繞 To surround, go round; especially to make three complete turns to the right round an image of Buddha.

堙羅那 Airāvana, a king of the elephants; Indra's white elephant, cf. 伊. It is also confused with Airāvata in the above senses, and for certain trees, herbs, etc.; also with Elāpattra, name of a nāga.

Area, arena, field, especially the bodhi-plot, or place of enlightenment, etc.; cf. 道場; 菩提場.

To bear, sustain, be adequate to.

堪忍 sahā; to bear, patiently endure.

堪忍世界 The sahā world of endurance of suffering; any world of transmigration.

堪忍地 The stage of endurance, the first of the ten bodhisattva stages.

堪能 Ability to bear, or undertake.

Recompense, retribution, reward, punishment, tell.

報佛 To thank the Buddha; also idem報身.

報命 The life of reward or punishment for former deeds.

報因 The cause of retribution.

報土 The land of reward, the Pure Land.

報恩 To acknowledge, or requite favours.

報恩施 Almsgiving out of gratitude.

報恩田 The field for requiting blessings received, e.g. parents, teachers, etc.

報應 Recompense, reward, punishment; also the 報身 and 應身 q.v.

報果 The reward-fruit, or consequences of past deeds.

報沙 Pauṣa, the first of the three Indian winter months, from the 16th of the 10th Chinese month.

報生三昧 A degree of bodhisattva samādhi in which transcendental powers are obtained.

報緣 The circumstantial cause of retribution.

報身 Reward body, the saṃbhoga-kāya of a Buddha, in which he enjoys the reward of his labours, v. 三身 trikāya.

報謝 To acknowledge and thank; also, retribution ended.

報通 The supernatural powers that have been acquired as karma by demons, spirits, nāgas, etc.

報障 The veil of delusion which accompanies retribution.

To settle, offer, condole.

奠茶 To make an offering of tea to a Buddha, a spirit, etc.

To spread out; profuse; extravagant.

奢利 奢利弗多羅(or 奢利富多羅); 奢利補擔羅 v. 舍 Śāriputra.

奢彌 奢弭 śamī, a leguminous tree associated with Śiva.

奢摩他 (or 奢摩陀); 舍摩他 śamatha, 'quiet, tranquility, calmness of mind, absence of passion.' M. W. Rest, peace, power to end (passion, etc.), one of the seven names for dhyāna.

奢羯羅 Śākala, the ancient capital of Takka and (under Mihirakula) of the whole Punjab; the Sagala of Ptolemy; Eitel gives it as the present village of Sanga a few miles south-west of Amritsar, but this is doubtful.

奢薩擔羅 舍薩擔羅; 設娑擔羅 śāstra, intp. by 論 treatise, q.v.

奢陀 śāṭhya, knavery, fawning, crooked.

To dwell, lodge; appertain, belong to, resemble.

寓宗 A branch sect; one school appertaining to another.

寓錢 Semblance money, i.e. paper money.

śīta. Cold; in poverty; plain.

寒暑 Cold and heat.

寒林 The cold forest, where the dead were exposed (to be devoured by vultures, etc.); a cemetery; v. 尸 for śītavana and śmaśāna.

寒獄 The cold hells, v. 地獄.

Rich, wealthy, affluent, well supplied; translit. pu and ve sounds; cf. 不, 布, 補, 婆.

富單那 (or 富陀那) pūtana. A class of pretas in charge of fevers, v. 布.

富婁沙富羅 (or 富留沙富羅) Puruṣapura, the ancient capital of Gandhara, the modern Peshawar, stated to be the native country of Vasubandhu.

富樓沙 puruṣa, v. 布; a man, mankind. Man personified as Nārāyaṇa; the soul and source of the universe; soul. Explained by 神我 the spiritual self; the ātman whose characteristic is thought, and which produces, through successive modifications, all forms of existence.

富樓那 Pūrṇa; also富樓那彌多羅尼子 and other similar phonetic forms; Pūrṇamaitrāyaṇīputra, or Maitrāyaṇīputra, a disciple of Śākyamuni, son of Bhava by a slave girl, often confounded with Maitreya. The chief preacher among the ten principal disciples of Śākyamuni; ill-treated by his brother, engaged in business, saved his brothers from shipwreck by conquering Indra through samādhi; built a vihāra for Śākyamuni; expected to reappear as 法明如來 Dharmaprabhāsa Buddha.

富沙 Puṣya. An ancient ṛṣi. A constellation, v. 弗.

富伽羅 (富特伽羅) pudgala, that which has (handsome) form; body; soul; beings subject to metempsychosis. Cf. 弗, 補.

富羅 A translit. for a short-legged, or ornamented boot, as 富維跋陀羅 is boot or shoe ornamentation. 富羅 is also intp. as land, country; perhaps pura, a city.

富蘭那 Purāṇas. A class of Brahmanic mythological literature; also 布剌拏 (or 補剌拏).

富蘭那迦葉 布剌拏 (or布剌那, 晡剌拏, 晡剌那, 棓剌拏, 棓剌那); 不蘭; 補剌那, etc. Purāṇa Kāśyapa; one of the six heretics opposed by Śākyamuni; he taught the non-existence of all things, that all was illusion, and that there was neither birth nor death; ergo, neither prince nor subject, parent nor child, nor their duties.

富蘭陀羅 Purandara; stronghold-breaker, fortress-destroyer, a name for Indra as thunder-god.

富那 Puṇya; Punar; Pūrṇa.

富那奇 Name of a preta, or hungry ghost; and of a monk named Pūrṇeccha .

富那婆蘇 Punarvasu; an asterism, i. e. the 弗宿; name of a monk.

富那耶舍 Puṇyayaśas; 富那奢 (富那夜奢) the tenth (or eleventh) patriarch; a descendant of the Gautama family; born in Pāṭaliputra, laboured in Vārāṇasī and converted Aśvaghoṣa.

富那跋陀 Pūrṇabhadra, name of a spirit-general.

To seek; investigate; to continue; usually; a fathom, 8 Chinese feet.

尋伺 vitarka and vicāra, two conditions in dhyāna discovery and analysis of principles; vitarka 毘擔迦 a dharma which tends to increase, and vicāra 毘遮羅one which tends to diminish, definiteness and clearness in the stream of consciousness; cf. 中間定.

尋常念佛 Normal or ordinary worship of Buddha, in contrast with special occasions.

To honour. ārya; honoured, honourable.

尊敕 The honourable commands, Buddha's teaching.

尊勝 Honoured and victorious, the honoured victorious one, one of the five 佛頂, also known as 除障佛頂, one of the divinities of the Yoga school.

尊宿 A monk honoured and advanced in years.

尊者 ārya, honourable one, a sage, a saint, an arhat.

尊記 The prediction of Buddhahood to his disciples by the Honoured One; the honourable prediction.

尊貴 尊重 Honoured, honourable; to honour.

屠人 To butcher, kill; a butcher.

屠沽 Butcher and huckster; caṇḍāla is 'the generic name for a man of the lowest and most despised of the mixed tribes'. M. W.

Mountain mist; vapour.

嵐毘尼 Lumbinī, the park in which Māyā gave birth to Śākyamuni, 15 miles east of Kapilavastu; also Limbinī, Lambinī, Lavinī. 嵐鞞尼; 藍毘尼 (or 留毘尼, 流毘尼, 林毘尼, 樓毘尼); 流彌尼; 林微尼; 臘伐尼; 龍彌你; 論民尼; 藍軬尼.

Strong, forceful, violent; to force; to strengthen.

強伽 The Ganges, v. 恒.

Again, return, revert, reply.

復活 To live again, return to life.

復飾 To return to ordinary garments, i.e. to doff the robe for lay life.

To follow accord with, according to.

循環 pradakṣina; moving round so that the right shoulder is towards the object of reverence.

循身觀 The meditation which observes the body in detail and considers its filthiness.

sarvatraga. On every side, ambit, everywhere, universal, pervade, all, the whole.

徧一切處 Pervading everywhere, omnipresent, an epithet for Vairocana.

徧吉 Universally auspicious, a tr. of 普賢 Samantabhadra.

徧成 To complete wholly, fulfil in every detail.

徧淨 Universal purity.

徧照 Universally shining, everywhere illuminating.

徧界 The whole universe.

徧行因 sarvatragahetu, 'omnipresent causes, like false views which affect every act.' Keith.

徧覺 The omniscience, absolute enlightenment, or universal awareness of a Buddha.

徧計 parakalpita. Counting everything as real, the way of the unenlightened.

徧計所執性 The nature of the unenlightened, holding to the tenet that everything is calculable or reliable, i.e. is what it appears to be.

Depressed, oppressed, sad, melancholy; to cover, shut down, or in.

憂悶 愁悶 Distress, grief, sadness.

Vexation, irritation, annoyance, e. g. 懊惱 and especially 煩惱 kleśa, q.v.

Kind, gracious, forbearing, accordant.

恩惠 Grace, kindness.

施惠 To bestow kindness, or charity.

惠利 To show kindness to and benefit others.

moha. Illusion, delusion, doubt, unbelief; it is also used for kleśa, passion, temptation, distress, care, trouble.

惑人 A deluded person, to delude others.

惑染 The taint of delusion, the contamination of illusion.

惑業苦 Illusion, accordant action, and suffering; the pains arising from a life of illusion.

惑著 The bond of illusion, the delusive bondage of desire to its environment.

惑趣 The way or direction of illusion, delusive objective, intp. as deluded in fundamental principles.

惑障 The hindrance, or obstruction of the delusive passions to entry into truth.

karuṇā; kṛpā. Sympathy, pity for another in distress and the desire to help him, sad.

悲心 A heart of pity, of sympathy, or sadness.

悲手 A pitying hand.

悲智 Pity and wisdom; the two characteristics of a bodhisattva seeking to attain perfect enlightenment and the salvation of all beings. In the esoteric sects pity is represented by the Garbadhātu or the womb treasury, while wisdom is represented by the Vajradhātu, the diamond treasury. Pity is typified by Guanyin, wisdom by Mahāsthāmaprāpta, the two associates of Amitābha.

悲無量心 Infinite pity for all.

悲田 The field of pity, cultivated by helping those in trouble, one of the three fields of blessing.

悲觀慈觀 The pitying contemplation for saving beings from suffering, and the merciful contemplation for giving joy to all beings.

悲願 The great pitying vow of Buddhas and bodhisattvas to save all beings.

悲願船 The boat of this vow for ferrying beings to salvation.

agha. Bad, evil, wicked, hateful; to hate, dislike; translit. a, cf. 阿.

惡世界 An evil world.

惡作 Evil doings; also to hate that which one has done, to repent.

惡叉 akṣa, 'a seed of which rosaries are made (in compound words, like Indrāksha, Rudrāksha); a shrub producing that seed ( Eleocarpus ganitrus).' M. W. It is called the 惡叉聚 because its seeds are said to be formed in triplets, and illustrate the simultaneous character of 惑行苦 illusion, action, and suffering; another version is that the seeds fall in clusters, and illustrate numbers, or numerous; they are also known as 金剛子.

惡取空 To have evil ideas of the doctrine of voidness, to deny the doctrine of cause and effect.

惡口 Evil mouth, evil speech; a slanderous, evil-speaking person.

惡因 A cause of evil, or of a bad fate; an evil cause.

惡報 Recompense for ill, punishment.

惡察那 (or 惡察羅) akṣara; imperishable, unalterable; a syllable; words; intp. as unchanging word, a root word, or word-root. Also 惡刹羅; 阿乞史羅.

惡師 An evil teacher who teaches harmful doctrines.

惡律儀 Bad, or evil rules and customs.

惡揭嚕 aguru, lignum aloes, v. 沉水香.

惡果 Evil fruit from evil deeds.

惡業 Evil conduct in thought, word, or deed, which leads to evil recompense; evil karma.

惡無過 That it is not wrong to do evil; that there are no consequences at attached to an evil life.

惡癩野干心 A scabby pariah, a phrase describing the evil of the mind.

惡知識 A bad intimate, or friend, or teacher.

惡祁尼 Agni; intp. by 火神 the god of fire, cf. 阿.

惡緣 External conditions or circumstances which stir or tempt one do evil.

惡見 Evil or heterodox views.

惡見處 The place in Hades whence the sinner beholds the evil done in life, one of the sixteen special hells.

惡覺 Contemplation or thought contrary to Buddhist principles.

惡觸 Evil touch; contaminated as is food by being handled or touched.

惡趣 The evil directions, or incarnations, i. e. those of animals, pretas, and beings in purgatory; to which some add asuras.

惡道 Evil ways; also the three evil paths or destinies— animals, pretas, and purgatory.

惡露 Foul discharges from the body; also evil revealed.

惡鬼神 Evil demons and evil spirits, yakṣas, rākṣasas, etc.

惡魔 Evil māras, demon enemies of Buddhism.

To insert, stick in.

插單 To insert one's slip, or credentials.

A palm, a paw; to grasp, control, administer.

掌果 (As easy to see) as a mango in the hand.

To pick, choose, select.

揀擇 To choose, select.

揀師 One chosen to be a teacher, but not yet fit for a full appointment.

揵達婆 gandharva, v. 乾.

To estimate, conjecture, guess; said also to mean 摶 to roll into a ball, roll together.

揣食 The Indian way of eating by first rolling the food into a ball in the hand; also 團食.

To draw out, extol.

揄旬 yojana, v. 由.

To lift up, or off, uncover; make known, stick up, publish; translit. g, ga, kha.

揭利呵跋底 grḥapati, an elder, householder, proprietor, landlord.

揭底 gati, 'a particular high number' (M. W.), 10 sexillions; 大揭底 100 sexillions, v. 洛叉 lakṣa.

揭盤陀 Khavandha, an ancient kingdom and city, 'modern Kartchou' south-east of the Sirikol Lake. Eitel.

揭職 Gachi, an ancient kingdom between Balkh and Bamian, about Rui. Eitel.

揭路茶 garuḍa, the mythical bird on which Viṣṇu rides, v. 迦樓羅.

To raise, mention, bring forward, summon, lead.

提和 deva.

提和竭羅 Dīpaṃkara, v. 然燈.

提唱 To mention, to deliver oral instruction, or the gist of a subject, as done in the Intuitional School. Also 提綱; 提要.

提多羅吒 Dhṛtarāṣṭra, one of the four mahārājas, the yellow guardian eastward of Sumeru; also 頭賴吒; 第黎多曷羅殺吒羅.

提多迦 Dhṛtaka; the fifth patriarch 'unknown to Southern Buddhists, born in Magadha, a disciple of Upagupta, he went to Madhyadeśa where he converted the heretic Micchaka and his 8,000 followers'. Eitel.

提婆 deva. Explained by 天 celestial; also by 梵天人 inhabitants of the brahmalokas, or by 天神 celestial spirits. General designation of the gods of Brahmanism, and of all the inhabitants of devalokas who are subject to metempsychosis. Also 提波; 提和; 提桓. Used also for Devadatta, infra.

提婆地提婆 Devātideva, the god of gods, Viṣṇu; also name of the Buddha before he left home.

提婆宗 The school of Nāgārjuna, so called after Āryadeva, infra.

提婆犀那 Devasena, celestial host, name of an arhat.

提婆菩薩 Devabodhisattva, or Āryadeva, or Kāṇadeva, the one-eyed deva, disciple of Nāgārjuna, and one of the 'four sons' of Buddhism; fourteenth patriarch; a monk of Pāṭaliputra; along with Nāgārjuna he is counted as founder of the 三論宗 q.v.

提婆設摩 Devakṣema, or Devaśarman, an arhat who wrote the 阿毘達磨識身足論 tr. by Xuanzang, A. D. 649, in which he denied the ego.

提婆達多 提婆; 提婆達; 提婆達兜; 達兜; 地婆達多 (or 地婆達兜); 禘婆達多; 調婆達多 Devadatta, son of Droṇodana rāja 斛飯王, and cousin of Śākyamuni, of whom he was enemy and rival, cultivating magical powers. For his wicked designs on the Buddha he is said to have been swallowed up alive in hell; nevertheless, he is predicted to become a Buddha as Devarāja; he was worshipped as a Buddha by a sect 'up to A. D. 400'. Eitel.

提婆魔囉播稗 Deva-māra-pāpīyān, Māra, the evil one, king of demons.

提撕 To arouse or stimulate a student.

提桓 deva, v. 提婆.

提樹 The bodhidruma tree, v. 菩.

提波 deva, v. 提婆.

提洹竭 Dīpaṃkara, cf. 然燈.

提羅 One with abnormal sexual organs; abbreviation of ṣaṇḍhilā, cf. 般, 半.

提舍 Intp. as preaching to and ferrying people over the stream of transmigration; also 底沙.

提舍尼 pratideśanīya, v. 波.

提舍那 deśanīya, confession.

提訶 deha; the body. Also v. 八中洲.

提調 To arrange, or manage, as deputy; a deputy manager or director.

提謂波利 Trapusa and Bhallika, the two merchants who offered Śākyamuni barley and honey after his enlightenment.

提那婆 'Dinabha,' or Dineśvara, the sun-god, worshipped by 'heretics in Persia'. Eitel.

提雲般若 Devaprajñā, a śramaṇa of Kustana (Khotan) who tr. six works A. D. 689-691; in B. N. eight works are ascribed to him. Also 提曇陀若那.

提鞞 devī. Female devas; apsaras.

提鞞沙 dveṣa, hatred, dislike, enmity, one of the 三毒 three poisons.

提鞞波 dvīpa, an island, or continent; four dvīpa compose a world, v. 四洲.

To dare, venture.

敢曼 kambala, a woollen or hair mantle; a loin cloth.

Staunch, honest, substantial; to consolidate; urge, etc.

敦煌 (or 燉煌) The city in Kansu near which are the 千佛洞 Cave-temples of the thousand Buddhas; where a monk in A. D. 1900, sweeping away the collected sand, broke through a partition and found a room full of MSS. ranging in date from the beginning of the 5th to the end of the 10th century, together with block prints and paintings, first brought to light by Sir Aurel Stein.

viprakrī. Scatter, disperse, dismiss; scattered; broken, powder; translit. saṃ, san.

散亂 Scattered, dispersed, unsettled, disturbed, restless.

散供 To scatter paper money, etc., as offerings.

散善 Goodness cultivated during normal life, not as 定善, i.e. by meditation.

散地 The stage of distraction, i.e. the world of desire.

散心 A distracted or unsettled mind; inattentive.

散拓羅 saṃsāra, course, passage, transmigration.

散支 散脂 (散脂迦); 半只迦 (or半支迦) Pañcika, one of the eight generals of Vaiśravaṇa, cf. 毘.

散日 The dispersing day, the last of an assembly.

散業 The good karma acquired in a life of activity.

散業念佛 To repeat the name of Buddha generally and habitually.

散生齋 Almsgiving in petition for restoration from illness.

散疑三昧 A samādhi free from all doubt.

散花 散華 To scatter flowers in honour of a Buddha, etc.

散錢 To scatter paper money as offerings.

散陀那 sandānikā, a kind of flower.

Spotted, striped, streaked, variegated.

斑足王 The king with the marks on his feet, Kalmāṣapāda, said to be the name of a previous incarnation of the Buddha.

This, these; to rive; forthwith; translit. s.

斯哩牙 Sūrya, the sun, the sun-deva.

斯陀含 sakṛdāgāmin, once more to arrive, or be born; the second grade of arhatship involving only one rebirth. Cf. 四向 and 四果.

Prospect, view, circumstances.

景命日 The day of the king's accession, when services were conducted monthly on that day for his welfare.

景教 The Luminous Religion, i.e. Nestorian Christianity.

viśva; universal, all; pervasive, ubiquitous; translit. po, pa, pu.

普光 Universal light, to shine everywhere.

普化 Universal change, or transformation.

普明 Samantaprabhāsa, pervading-light, name of 500 arhats on their attaining Buddhahood.

普法 Universal dharmas, or things; all things.

普渡 Universally to ferry across.

普王 Universal king, title of Yama when he has expiated all his sins.

普現 Universal manifestation, especially the manifestation of a Buddha or bodhisattva in any shape at will.

普知 Omniscience, hence 普知者 the Omniscient, i.e. Buddha.

普禮 To worship all the Buddhas.

普等 Everywhere alike, universal equality, all equally.

普莎 Puṣya, the asterism Tiṣya, and the month Pauṣa; blossom, form, scum; but intp. as 吉祥 auspicious.

普賢 Samantabhadra, Viśvabhadra; cf. 三曼 Universal sagacity, or favour; lord of the 理 or fundamental law, the dhyāna, and the practice of all Buddhas. He and Mañjuśrī are the right- and left-hand assistants of Buddha, representing 理 and 智 respectively. He rides on a white elephant, is the patron of the Lotus Sūtra and its devotees, and has close connection with the Huayan Sūtra. His region is in the east. The esoteric school has its own special representation of him, with emphasis on the sword indicative of 理 as the basis of 智. He has ten vows.

普通 Universal, reaching everywhere, common to all.

普遍 普循 Universal, everywhere, on all sides.

普門 Universal door, the opening into all things, or universality; the universe in anything; the unlimited doors open to a Buddha, or bodhisattva, and the forms in which he can reveal himself.

普陀 Potala, cf. 補, 布; it is also Pattala, an ancient port near the mouth of the Indus; the Potala in Lhasa, etc., but in this form especially the sacred island of Pootoo, off Ningpo; also called普陀洛伽山 Potaraka monastery.

jñāna 若那; 闍那 Knowledge; wisdom; defined as 於事理決斷也 decision or judgment as to phenomena or affairs and their principles, of things and their fundamental laws. There are numerous categories, up to 20, 48, and 77, v. 一智; 二智 and others. It is also used as a tr. of prajñā, cf. 智度.

智儼 Fourth patriarch of the 華嚴 Huayan school, also called 雲華 Yunhua, A. D. 600-668.

智光 Jñānaprabha. Having the light of knowledge; name of a disciple of Śīlabhadra.

智刃 The sword of knowledge; knowledge like a sword.

智力 Knowledge and supernatural power; power of knowledge; the efficient use of mystic knowledge.

智度 prajñā-pāramitā, the sixth of the six pāramitās, wisdom which brings men to nirvāṇa.

智度論 (大智度論) The śāstra or commentary on the Prajñā-pāramitā-sūtra; cf. 般若. It is a famous philosophical Mahāyāna work.

智城 The city of mystic wisdom, Buddhahood.

智境 The objects of wisdom, or its state, or conditions.

智妙 Mystic knowledge (which reveals spiritual realities).

智山 The mountain of knowledge; knowledge exalted as a mountain.

智心 The mind of knowledge; a wise mind.

智悲 All-knowing and all-pitying; these two with 定 'contemplative' make up the 三德 three virtues or qualities of a Buddha.

智惑 Wisdom and delusion.

智慧 jñāna as 智 knowledge and prajñā as 慧 discernment, i.e. knowledge of things and realization of truth; in general knowledge and wisdom; but sometimes implying mental and moral wisdom.

智慧力 Wisdom, insight.

智慧光佛 Wisdom light Buddha, i.e. Amitābha.

智慧劍 (智劍) The sword of wisdom which cuts away passion and severs the link of transmigration.

智慧水 The water of wisdom which washes away the filth of passion.

智慧海 Buddha-wisdom deep and wide as the ocean.

智慧觀 One of the meditations of Guanyin, insight into reality.

智慧門 The gate of Buddha-wisdom which leads into all truth.

智手 The knowing hand, the right hand.

智斷 Mystic wisdom which attains absolute truth, and cuts off misery.

智智 Wisdom of wisdom; Buddha-omniscience.

智月 Jñānacandra. Knowledge bright as the moon; name of a prince of Karashahr who became a monk A. D. 625.

智杵 The wisdom hammer, the vajra or 'diamond club'.

智果 The fruit of knowledge, enlightenment.

智楫 Oar of wisdom, that rows across to nirvāṇa.

智母 The mother of knowledge; wisdom-mother; v. mātṛkā 摩.

智波羅蜜 prajñā-pāramitā, see 智度.

智淨相 Pure-wisdom-aspect; pure wisdom; wisdom and purity.

智火 Te fire of knowledge which burns up misery.

智炬 The torch of wisdom.

智界 The realm of knowledge in contrast with 理界 that of fundamental principles or law.

智相 Wise mien or appearance, the wisdom-light shining from the Buddha's face; also human intelligence.

智眼 The eye of wisdom; wisdom as an eye.

智礙 Obstacles to attaining Buddha-wisdom, especially original ignorance.

智積 Jñānākara. Accumulation of knowledge. Eldest son of Mahābhijñā; also said to be Akṣobhya. Prajñākūṭa. A Bodhisattva in the retinue of Prabhūtratna, v. Lotus Sūtra.

智者 The knower, or wise man; a name for 智顗 q.v.

智藏 The treasury of Buddha-wisdom; posthumous title of Amogha.

智證 Wisdom assurance, the witness of knowledge, the wisdom which realizes nirvāṇa.

智辯 Wisdom and dialectic power; wise discrimination; argument from knowledge.

智象 prajñā, or Wisdom, likened to an elephant, a title of Buddha, famous monks, the Nirvāṇa-sūtra, the Prajñā-pāramitā sūtra, etc.

智身 jñānakāya, wisdom-body, the Tathāgata.

智鏡 The mirror of wisdom.

智門 Wisdom gate; Buddha-wisdom and Buddha-pity are the two gates or ways through which Buddhism expresses itself: the way of enlightenment directed to the self, and the way of pity directed to others.

智顗 Zhiyi, founder of the Tiantai school, also known as 智者 and 天台 (天台大師); his surname was 陳 Chen; his 字 was 德安, De-an; born about A. D. 538, he died in 597 at 60 years of age. He was a native of 頴川 Ying-chuan in Anhui, became a neophyte at 7, was fully ordained at 20. At first a follower of 慧思, Huisi, in 575 he went to the Tiantai mountain in Chekiang, where he founded his famous school on the Lotus Sūtra as containing the complete gospel of the Buddha.

Substitute, deputy, on behalf of, for, exchange.

替僧 A youth who becomes a monk as deputy for a new-born prince.

Most, very, superlative.

最上 Supreme, superlative.

最上乘 The supreme vehicle, or teaching.

最上大悉地 The stage of supreme siddhi or wisdom, Buddhahood.

最勝 jina; vijaya; conquering, all-conquering, pre-eminent, peerless, supreme.

最勝乘 The supreme vehicle, Mahāyāna.

最勝尊 The most honoured one, Buddha.

最後 (最末後) The last of all, ultimate; final, finally, at death.

最後十念 To call on Amitābha ten times when dying.

最後心 最後念 The final mind, or ultimate thought, on entering final nirvāṇa.

最後身 最後生 The final body, or rebirth, that of an arhat, or a bodhisattva in the last stage.

最正覺 Supreme perfect enlightenment, i.e. Buddhahood.

A set time; a limit of time; times, seasons; to expect.

滿期 The time fulfilled.

過期 Beyond the time.

期望 To look for, expect, hope.

Morning. Court, dynasty; towards.

朝夕 朝暮 Morning and evening.

朝山 To worship (towards) the hills, pay court to a noted monastery, especially to pay court to the Dalai Lama.

朝露 Morning dew, e.g. man's life as transient.

朝鮮 Korea, Chosen.

Roost, rest.

棲光 To bring his light to rest, the Buddha's nirvāṇa.

棲身 To take one's rest, retire from the world.

棲神 To rest the spirit, or mind, be unperturbed.

To plant, set up.

植衆德本 To plant all virtuous roots, cultivate all capacities and powers.

A hammer, especially for a gong, etc.; idem 槌.

A coffin 棺材.

A corner, a shaped edge, trimmed timber, corner-like; intractable, uncertain.

棱嚴經 The Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra, v. 楞.

A stick, cudgel.

棒喝 To bang and bawl, in rebuke of a student.

A flail.

棓剌拏 Pūraṇa, v. 富.

Dense, forest-like.

森羅萬象 The myriad forms dense and close, i.e. the universe.

森羅萬象卽法身 The universe in its vast variety is the dharmakāya, or Buddha-body; in the esoteric school it is the Vairocana-body.

To cast aside, reject, abandon.

棄世 To leave the world; to die.

自棄 To throw oneself away.

Imperial; to respect, reverence.

欽婆羅 kambala, a woollen or hair mantle, v. 敢 12.

To spoil, injure; cruel.

殘果 Spoiled fruit, i.e. a corpse.

Husk, shell.

殼漏子 (or可漏子) A leaking husk or shell, i.e. the body of a man.

Down, feathered.

毳衣 A garment wadded with down.

v. 减.

Deep, clear, placid, to soak.

湛然 Zhanran, the sixth Tiantai patriarch, also known as 荆溪 Jingqi; died A. D. 784; author of many books.

A lake.

湖南 The province of Hunan.

Hot liquid, hot water, soup, etc.

湯頭 The monk in charge of the kettles, etc.

Warm, mild, bland, gentle; acquainted with; to warm.

溫室 Bath-house; bathroom.

溫宿 Wensu, a district in Sinkiang, on the river Aksu.

溫陀羅 uttara, cf. 嗢.

bhrāmyati; to ramble, travel; swim.

游藍 Ambrosia, nectar.

tṛṣṇā. Thirst, thirsty; translit. kha.

渴仰 To long for as one thirsts for water.

渴伽 khaḍga, a rhinoceros.

渴地獄 The thirst-hell, where red-hot iron pills are administered.

渴愛 Thirsty desire or longing; the will to live.

渴樹羅 kharjūra, a date, the wild date, the Persian date.

渴法 To thirst for the truth, or for the Buddha-way.

渴鹿 The thirsty deer which mistakes a mirage for water, i.e. human illusion.

Black mud at the bottom of pools; to defile, black.

湼槃 nirvāṇa, v. 涅槃.

湼末 Nimat, or Calmadana, 'an ancient kingdom and city at the south-east borders of the desert of Gobi.' Eitel.

湼疊般那 niṣṭapana, burning, cremation.

Scorch, harass.

焦熱地獄 Tapana, the sixth of the eight hot hells; the 焦熱大焦熱 is the seventh, i.e. Pratāpana.

To burn, consume by fire.

焚香 To burn incense.

To burn, simmer; so, yes; but, however.

然燈佛 Dīpaṃkara Buddha, the twenty-fourth predecessor of Śākyamuni, who always appears when a Buddha preaches the gospel found in the Lotus Sūtra, in which sūtra he is an important hearer; also 錠光; 提洹竭 (or 提和竭); 大和竭羅.

Flame, blaze; nirvāṇa; translit. ya. Cf. 炎; 閻; 夜.

焰慧地 The stage of flaming wisdom, the fourth of the ten Bodhisattva-stages.

焰摩大火仙 Jamadagni, one of the seven ancient sage-ṛṣis.

焰摩天 Yamadevaloka, the third of the desire-heavens, above the trāyastriṃśas; also deva Yama, v. 夜, whose wife is 焰摩天妃 in the Yama-maṇḍala.

焰王光佛 The fifth of the twelve shining Buddhas.

焰網 The flaming, or shining net of Buddha, the glory of Buddha, which encloses everything like the net of Indra.

焰胎 The flaming womb, the Garbhadhātu which surrounds with light.

Sanskrit a, or before a vowel an, similar to English un-, in- in a negative sense; not no, none, non-existent, v. 不, 非, 否; opposite of 有.

無一 Not one.

無二無三 Neither two nor three, but only 一乘 one Vehicle.

無上 anuttara. Unsurpassed, unexcelled, supreme, peerless.

無上上 Above the supreme, the supreme of the supreme, i.e. Buddha.

無上乘 (無上上乘) The most supreme Vehicle, the Mahāyāna.

無上尊 (無上兩足尊) The peerless (two-legged) honoured one.

無上士 The peerless nobleman, the Buddha.

無上妙覺 The supreme mystic enlightenment.

無上忍 The highest patient equanimity in receiving the truth; also, to believe the truth of impermanence without doubt, v. 十忍.

無上慧 Supreme wisdom, that of Buddha.

無上慚愧衣 The supreme garment of sensitiveness to the shameful, the monk's robe.

無上福田衣 The supreme garment of the field of blessedness, i.e. good works.

無上正徧智, or 無上正徧道 or 無上正徧覺, the last being the later tr., anuttara-samyak-saṃbodhi, supreme perfect enlightenment, or wisdom.

無上法 The supreme dharma, nirvāṇa.

無上法王 Lord of the supreme dharma, Buddha.

無上法輪 Preaching, or propagation, of the supreme dharma.

無上涅槃 The supreme nirvāṇa, that of Mahāyāna in contrast with the inferior nirvāṇa of Hīnayāna.

無上燈 The supreme lamp, that of nirvāṇa, as dispersing the gloom of passion-illusion.

無上眼 The supreme eye, able to discern the inward significance of all things.

無上菩提 The supreme bodhi or enlightenment, that of Buddha.

無上覺 see無上菩提.

無上道 The supreme way, or truth, that of Buddha.

無不 A double negative, making a positive; also 無非; 無沒.

無住 Not abiding; impermanence; things having no independent nature of their own, they have no real existence as separate entities.

無住三昧 The samādhi which contemplates all things as temporal and evanescent.

無依 Nothing on which to rely; unreliable.

無依湼槃 Final nirvāṇa, v. 無餘, nothing for reincarnation to lay hold of.

無倒 Not upside-down, seeing things right-side up, or correctly, i.e. correct views of truth and things, e.g. not regarding the seeming as real, the temporal as eternal, etc.

無作 Not creating; uncreated; not doing; inactive, physically or mentally; independent of action, word, or will i.e. natural, intuitive.

無作戒 無表戒 The intangible, invisible moral law that influences the ordinand when he receives visible ordination; i.e. the internal spiritual moral law and its influence; the invisible grace of which the visible ordination is a sign; v. 無表 avijñapti.

無光佛 An unilluminating Buddha, a useless Buddha who gives out no light.

無刀大賊 A bandit without a sword, e.g. a virtueless monk robbing others of their virtue.

無分別 nirvikalpa. Non-discriminating.

無分別心 The mind free from particularization, especially from affection and feelings; passionless; translates avikalpa; (a) unconditioned or absolute, as in the 眞如; (b) conditioned, as in dhyāna. Particularization includes memory, reason, self-consciousness; the mind free from particularization is free from these.

無分別智 The unconditioned or passionless mind, see 無分別心.

無分別法 The absolute dharma underlying all particular dharmas, the absolute as contrasted with the relative.

無功用 Without effort.

無功德 Without merit, or virtue.

無動 akṣobha; imperturbable, calm, serene, unagitated.

無動佛 Akṣobhya, cf. 阿閦婆 and 不動佛 The unperturbed Buddha, sometimes tr. as motionless, but the reference is to his calmness, serenity, and absence of passion; he is one of the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas, and generally reigns over the east, his kingdom being Abhirati; realm of mystic pleasure. In the Lotus Sūtra he is named as the first of the sixteen sons of Mahābhijñābhibhu. One of his principal characteristics is that of subduing the passions.

無動尊 idem 不動明王.

無勝 ajita; invincible, unsurpassed.

無勝國 The unexcelled land, the Pure Land located west of this universe.

無厭足 Insatiable, name of a rākṣasī, v. 十羅刹女.

無去無來 Neither going nor coming, eternal like the dharmakāya.

無叉羅 Mokṣala, also 無羅叉 'A native of Kustana who laboured in China as a translator and introduced there a new alphabet (A. D. 291) for the transliteration of Sanskit.' Eitel.

無問 Unasked; not to ask; volunteered.

無問自說 udāna, that part of the canon spoken voluntarily and not in reply to questions or appeals; but Kern defines udāna as 'enthusiastic utterances in prose and verse'.

無垢 vimala; amala. Undefiled, stainless; similar to 無漏.

無垢地 The stage of undefilement, the second stage of a bodhisattva; also applied to the final stage before attaining Buddhahood.

無垢忍 The stage of undefiled endurance, the final stage of a bodhisattva, see無垢地.

無垢衣 The stainless garment, the monastic robe of purity.

無垢識 amala, undefiled or pure knowing or knowledge, formerly considered as the ninth, later as the eighth vijñāna.

無塵 Dustless, without an atom of the material or unclean, immaterial, pure.

無塵法界 The immaterial realm out of which all things come.

無央數劫 asaṅkhyeya kalpa, a period of numberless kalpas.

無始 Without beginning, as is the chain of transmigration.

無始曠劫 Transmigration which has existed without beginning through vast kalpas.

無始無明 元品無明 (or 根本無明) The period of unenlightenment or ignorance without beginning, primal ignorance, also called 無始間隔, the period of transmigration which has no beginning; since under the law of causality everything has a cause, therefore no beginning is possible; for if there were a beginning it would be without cause, which is impossible. Also primal ignorance is without beginning; and the 眞如 is without beginning, the two terms connoting the same idea. 生死 Birth and death, or transmigration are 無始無終 also without beginning or end, but about the 'end' there is difference of interpretation.

無始無邊 The Buddha-truth is without beginning and infinite.

無始空 Without beginning and unreal, void without beginning, the abstract idea of 無始 i.e. without beginning.

無學 aśaikṣa. No longer learning, beyond study, the state of arhatship, the fourth of the śrāvaka stages; the preceding three stages requiring study; there are nine grades of arhats who have completed their course of learning.

無學道 The way of the arhat, especially his attainment to complete truth and freedom from all illusion, with nothing more to learn.

無常 anitya. Impermanent; the first of the 三明 trividyā; that all things are impermanent, their birth, existence, change, and death never resting for a moment.

無常依 The reliance of the impermanent, i.e. Buddha, upon whom mortals can rely.

無常堂 無常院; 延壽堂; 湼槃堂 The room where a dying monk was placed, in the direction of the sunset at the north-west corner.

無常磬 無常鐘 The passing bell, or gong, for the dying.

無常鵑 The bird which cries of impermanence, messenger of the shades, the goat-sucker.

無師智 Self-attained enlightenment, wisdom attained without a teacher, that of Buddha.

無影像 nirābhāsa, without image or shadow, without semblance or appearance.

無後生死 No more birth-and-death, the bodhisattva who will not again be subject to the wheel of transmigration.

無心 Mindless, without thought, will, or purpose; the real immaterial mind free from illusion; unconsciousness, or effortless action.

無心三昧 無心定 The samādhi in which active thought has ceased.

無心道人 The hermit or saint in ecstatic contemplation, as with emptied mind he becomes the receptacle of mystic influences.

無性 Without a nature, nothing has an independent nature of its own; cf. 三無性.

無性有情 Men and devas with passions and devoid of natures for enlightenment, hence destined to remain in the six paths of transmigration; a doctrine of the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana school.

無念 Without a thought; without recollection; absence of false ideas or thoughts, i.e. correct ideas or thoughts; apart from thought (nothing exists).

無想 Without thought, absence of thinking.

無想天 無想界; 無想處 avṛha, the thirteenth brahmaloka, the fourth in the fourth dhyāna, where thinking, or the necessity for thought, ceases.

無想定 The concentration in which all thinking ceases, in the desire to enter Avṛha, v. 無想天; such entry is into 無想果.

無想門 parinirvāṇa.

無愛 Without love, or craving, or attachment.

無意 Absence of objective thought, of will or intention; absence of idea, the highest stage of dhyāna.

無慚 ahrīka, without shame, shameless.

無憂 aśoka, 'without sorrow, not feeling or not causing sorrow.' M. W.

無憂王 v. 阿 King Aśoka.

無憂樹 jonesia aśoka Roxb., the tree under which Śākyamuni is said to have been born.

無憂伽藍 Aśokārāma, a vihāra in Pāṭaliputra in which the 'third synod was held'. Eitel.

無我 anātman; nairātmya; no ego, no soul (of an independent and self-contained character), impersonal, no individual independent existence (of conscious or unconscious beings, anātmaka). The empirical ego is merely an aggregation of various elements, and with their disintegration it ceases to exist; therefore it has nm ultimate reality of its own, but the Nirvāṇa Sūtra asserts the reality of the ego in the transcendental realm. The non-Buddhist definition of ego is that it has permanent individuality 常一之體 and is independent or sovereign 有主宰之用. When applied to men it is 人我, when to things it is 法我. Cf. 常 11.

無所 Nothing, nowhere.

無所不能 Nothing (he) cannot do, omnipotent.

無所不至 Nowhere (it) does not reach.

無所住 apratiṣṭhita. No means of staying, non-abiding.

無所得 Nowhere, or nothing obtainable, the immaterial universal reality behind all phenomena.

無所有 avidyamāna, non-existing; nothing existing, the immaterial.

無所有處 The third region in the realm of formlessness.

無所有處定 akiñcanāyatana. The contemplation of the state of nothingness, or the immaterial, in which ecstasy gives place to serenity.

無所著 Not bound by any tie, i.e. free from all influence of the passion-nature, an epithet of Buddha.

無所觀 The contemplation of the immaterial reality behind all phenomena.

無擇地獄 idem 無間地獄 q.v.

無數 asaṃkhyeya, numberless.

無方 No place, nowhere; unlimited to place or method, i.e. Buddha's power.

無明 avidyā, ignorance, and in some senses Māyā, illusion; it is darkness without illumination, the ignorance which mistakes seeming for being, or illusory phenomena for realities; it is also intp. as 痴 ignorant, stupid, fatuous; but it means generally, unenlightened, unillumined. The 起信論 distinguishes two kinds as 根本: the radical, fundamental, original darkness or ignorance considered as a 無始無明 primal condition, and 枝末 'branch and twig' conditions, considered as phenomenal. There is also a list of fifteen distinctions in the Vibhāṣā-śāstra 2. avidyā is also the first, or last of the twelve nidānas.

無明使 One of the ten lictors, messengers or misleaders, i.e. of ignorance, who drives beings into the chain of transmigration.

無明住地 The fifth of the five 住地, i.e. the fundamental, unenlightened condition; the source or nucleus of ignorance; also ignorance as to the nature of things, i.e. of their fundamental unreality.

無明惑 The illusion arising from primal ignorance which covers and hinders the truth of the via media; one of the 三惑 of Tiantai; in the 別教 it is overcome by the bodhisattva from the first 地 stage, in the 圓教 in the first 住 resting-place.

無明業愛 ajñānakarmatṛṣṇā. Ignorance, karma, desire— the three forces that cause reincarnation.

無明法性一體 avidyā and the bhūtatathatā are of the same nature, as are ice and water; the ice of avidyā is the water of all things, the source out of which all enlightenment has come.

無明流 Unenlightenment, or ignorance, the cause of the stream of transmigration.

無明漏 The stream of unenlightenment which carries one along into reincarnation.

無明熏習 v. 四熏習.

無明父 Ignorance as father and desire as mother produce the ego.

無明結 The bond of ignorance which binds to transmigration.

無明網 The snare of ignorance.

無明藏 The storehouse of ignorance, from which issues all illusion and misery.

無明見 Views produced by ignorance, ignorant perception of phenomena producing all sorts of illusion.

無有 Non-existent and existent; also, nonexistent, have not, there is none, etc.

無根 Without root; without organs; without the organs of sex.

無根信 Faith produced not of oneself but by Buddha in the heart.

無極 Limitless, infinite.

無極之體 The limitless bodies of those in the Pure Land; the state of one who has attained nirvāṇa.

無比 Without comparison, no comparing, incomparable.

無比法 Incomparable truth or law, an incorrect tr. of abhidharma.

無比身 The incomparable body (of the Buddha).

無減 The undiminished powers of a bodhisattva after attaining Buddhahood; i.e. undiminished power and zeal to save all beings, power of memory, wisdom, nirvāṇa, and insight attained through nirvāṇa; cf. 智度論 26; also for a list of twenty-two cf. 唯識論 10.

無漏 anāsrava. No drip, leak, or flow; outside the passion-stream; passionless; outside the stream (of transmigratory suffering); away from the downflow into lower forms of rebirth.

無漏因 Passionless purity as a cause for attaining nirvāṇa.

無漏實相 Reality as passionless or pure.

無漏後身 (無漏最後身) The final pure or passionless body.

無漏慧 無漏智 Passionless, or pure, wisdom, knowledge, or enlightenment.

無漏根 The three roots which produce pure knowledge, 三無漏根 q.v.

無漏果 The result of following the way of 戒, 定, and 慧, i.e. purity, meditation, and wisdom, with liberation from the passions and from lower incarnation.

無漏法 The way of purity, or escape from the passions and lower transmigration.

無漏法性 The pure, passionless dharma-nature.

無漏道 The way of purity, or deliverance from the passions, i.e. 戒定慧 supra; the fourth of the four dogmas 滅 cessation, or annihilation of suffering.

無漏門 āsravakṣaya-jñāna, entry into spiritual knowledge free from all faults, the last of the 六通 q.v.

無爲 Non-active, passive; laisser-faire; spontaneous, natural; uncaused, not subject to cause, condition, or dependence; transcendental, not in time, unchanging, eternal, inactive, and free from the passions or senses; non-phenomenal, noumenal; also intp. as nirvāṇa, dharma-nature, reality, and dharmadhātu.

無爲法 asaṃskṛta dharmas, anything not subject to cause, condition, or dependence; out of time, eternal, inactive, supra-mundane. Sarvāstivādins enumerate three: ākāśa, space or ether; pratisaṃhyā-nirodha, conscious cessation of the contamination of the passions; apratisaṃhyā-nirodha, unconscious or effortless cessation.

無爲法身 asaṃskṛta dharmakāya, the eternal body of Buddha not conditioned by cause and effect.

無爲湼槃 (無爲湼槃界) The realm of the eternal, unconditioned nirvāṇa, the Pure Land.

無爲生死 The birth-and-death of saints, i.e. without my action; transformation.

無爲空 asaṃskṛta śūnyatā, the immaterial character of the transcendent.

無爲自然 Causeless and spontaneous, a tr. of nivṛtti.

無爲舍 The nirvāṇa home.

無熱 anavatapta, heatless.

無熱天 The Anavatapta, or Atapta heaven, without heat or affliction 熱惱; the second of the 五淨天 in the fourth dhyāna heaven.

無熱池 The lake without heat, or cold lake, called Mānasarovara, or Mānasa-saro-vara, 'excellent mānasa lake,' or modern Manasarovar, 31° N., 81° 3 E., 'which overflows at certain seasons and forms one lake with' Rakas-tal, which is the source of the Sutlej. It is under the protection of the nāga-king Anavatapta and is also known by his name. It is said to lie south of the Gandha-mādana mountains, and is erroneously reputed as the source of the four rivers Ganges, Indus, Śītā (Tārīm River), and Oxus.

無生 Not born, without being born or produced; uncreated; no rebirth; immoral; nirvāṇa as not subject to birth and death, or reincarnation, and which negates them; the condition of the absolute.

無生之生 A life that is without birth, an immortal life, a nirmāṇakāya, or transformation appearance of a Buddha in the world.

無生寳國 The precious country beyond birth-and-death, the immortal paradise of Amitābha.

無生忍 The patient rest in belief in immortality, or no rebirth.

無生智 The final knowledge attained by the arhat, his release from the chain of transmigration; cf. 十智. Also, the knowledge of the bodhisattva of the assurance of immortality, or no rebirth.

無生法 The law of no-birth, or immorality, as the fundamental law of the 眞如 and the embodiment of nirvāṇa.

無生法忍 idem 無生忍.

無生藏 The scriptures which deal with the absolute, e.g. the 中論 Mādhyamikaśāstra.

無生身 The immortal one, i.e. the dharmakāya.

無生門 The doctrine of reality as beyond birth, or creation, i.e. that of the bhūtatathatā; the gate or school of immortality.

無生際 The uncreate, or absolute; the region of the eternal.

無畏 abhaya. Fearless, dauntless, secure, nothing and nobody to fear; also vīra, courageous, bold.

無畏山 Abhayagiri, Mount Fearless in Ceylon, with an ancient monastery where Faxian found 5,000 monks.

無畏授 勤授 Vīradatta, 'hero-giver,' a prominent layman, contemporary with Śākyamuni.

無畏施 abhayapradāna. The bestowing of confidence by every true Buddhist, i.e. that none may fear him.

無畏藏 Storehouse of fearlessness, said of members of the esoteric sect.

無疑 Undoubted, without doubt.

無盡 Inexhaustible, without limit. It is a term applied by the 權教 to the noumenal or absolute; by the 實教 to the phenomenal, both being considered as infinite. The Huayan sūtra 十地品 has ten limitless things, the infinitude of living beings, of worlds, of space, of the dharmadhātu, of nirvāṇa, etc.

無盡意 Inexhaustible intention, or meaning, name of Akṣayamati, a bodhisattva to whom Śākyamuni is supposed to have addressed the Avalokiteśvara chapter in the Lotus Sūtra.

無盡海 The Buddha-truth as inexhaustible as the ocean.

無盡燈 The one lamp which is yet limitless in the lighting of other lamps; the influence of one disciple may be limitless and inexhaustible; also limitless mirrored reflections; also an altar light always burning.

無盡緣起 法界緣起 Unlimited causation, or the unlimited influence of everything on all things and all things on everything; one of the Huayan 四種緣起.

無盡藏 The inexhaustible treasury.

無相 animitta; nirābhāsa. Without form, or sign; no marks, or characteristics; nothingness; absolute truth as having no differentiated ideas; nirvāṇa.

無相佛 nirlakṣana-buddha; alakṣanabuddha; the Buddha without the thirty-two or eighty marks, i.e. Nāgārjuna.

無相好佛 See無相佛, Upagupta, the fourth patriarch.

無相宗 無相大乘; 無相教; 無相空教 The San-lun or Mādhyamika school because of its 'nihilism'.

無相福田衣 The garment of nothingness for cultivating the field of blessing, i.e. the robe, which separates the monk from earthly contamination.

無相菩提 The enlightenment of seclusion, obtained by oneself, or of nirvāṇa, or nothingness, or immateriality.

無相解脫門 The nirvāṇa type of liberation, cf. 三三昧.

無知 Ignorant; ignorance; absence of perception. Also, ultimate wisdom considered as static, and independent of differentiation.

無礙 apratihata. Unhindered, without obstacle, resistless, without resistance, permeating everywhere, all pervasive, dynamic omnipresence which enters everywhere without hindrance like the light of a candle.

無礙人 The unhindered one, the Buddha, who unbarred the way to nirvāṇa, which releases from all limitations; the omnipresent one; the one who realizes nirvāṇa-truth.

無礙光 The all-pervasive light or glory, that of Amitābha.

無礙大會 cf. 無蓋大會.

無礙智 The omniscience of Buddha.

無種性 The nature without the seed of goodness and so unable to escape from the stream of transmigration.

無種闡提 An icchanti, or evil person without the Buddha-seed of goodness.

無等 asama; unequal, unequalled; the one without equal Buddha.

無等等 asamasama; of rank unequalled, or equal with the unequalled, Buddha and Buddhism.

無等等乘 The unequalled vehicle, Mahāyāna.

無等覺 The unequalled enlightenment possessed by Buddhas.

無緣 Causeless, without immediate causal connection, uncaused, underived, independent.

無緣三昧 anilambha or 'unpropped samādhi', in which all mental functions cease to connect with environment and cease to function.

無緣乘 The vehicle, or method, of the subjective mind, by which all existence is seen as mental and not external.

無緣乘心 the sixth of the ten 住 stages.

無緣塔 無緣塚 A stūpa, or funeral monument not connected with any one person, a general cemetery.

無聞比丘 A monk who refuses instruction, untutored, self-confident.

無聲漏 The silent clepsydra, incense in the shape of ancient characters used to indicate the time.

無能 Unable, without power.

無能勝 ajita. Invincible, unsurpassable, unconquerable; especially applied to Maitreya, cf. 阿逸多; also to various others.

無自性 asvabhāva; without self-nature, without a nature of its own, no individual nature; all things are without 自然性 individual nature or independent existence, being composed of elements which disintegrate.

無色 arūpa, formless, shapeless, immaterial.

無色有 Existence in the formless or immaterial realm.

無色界 Arūpaloka, or Arūpadhātu, the heavens without form, immaterial, consisting only of mind in contemplation, being four in number, which are defined as the 四空天 Catūrūpabrahmaloka, and given as: 空無邊處 Ākāśānantyāyatana, 識無邊處 Vijñānānantyāyatana, 無所有處 Akiñcanyāyatana, 非想非非想處 Naivasaṃjñānāsaṃjñāyatana.

無色貪 The desire in the world without form of holding on to the illusion of contemplation.

無著 Unattached, not in bondage to anything. Name of Asaṅga, brother of Vasubandhu, and others.

無著天親宗 The school of Asaṅga and Vasubandhu, i.e. the 法相宗 q.v.

無著行 Unfettered action, power to overcome all obstacles.

無蓋 That which cannot be covered or contained, universal; also that which includes all, a characteristic of the pity of Buddha, hence無蓋大悲, uncontainable, or superlative, pity.

無表 avijñapti. Unconscious, latent, not expressed, subjective, e.g. 'the taking of a religious vow impresses on a man's character a peculiar bent,' Keith. This is internal and not visible to others. It has a 'quasi-material' basis styled 無表色 or 無作色 which has power to resist evil. It is the Sarvāstivādin view, though certain other schools repudiated the material basis and defined it as mental. This invisible power may be both for good and evil, and may perhaps be compared to 'animal magnetism' or hypnotic powers. It means occult: power whether for higher spiritual ends or for base purposes.

無表戒 The inward invisible power received with the commandments during ordination.

無表業 The invisible power conferred at ordination, cf. 無作表 supra.

無見頂相 The uṣṇīṣa, or lump, on Buddha's head, called 'the invisible mark on the head', because it was supposed to contain an invisible sign; perhaps because it was covered.

無言 Without words, silent, speechless.

無言說道 The way, or teaching, without speech; the school which teaches that speaking of things is speaking of nothing, or the non-existent; the acquisition of truth through contemplation without the aid of words.

無記 ? avyākṛta, or avyākhyāta. UnrecordabIe (either as good or bad); neutral, neither good nor bad; things that are innocent or cannot be classified under moral categories. Cf. 三性.

無諍 Without strife, debate, or contradiction; passionless; abiding in the 'empty' or spiritual life without debate, or without striving with others.

無諍三昧 The samādhi in which there is absence of debate or disputation, or distinction of self and other.

無遮 Unconcealing, unconfined; illimitable. Buddha-grace, -mercy, or -love; cf. 無蓋.

無遮會 (無遮大會) pañca(vārṣika)pariṣad; the 五年大會 quinquennial assembly, for having all things in common, and for confession, penance, and remission.

無邊 ananta; endless, boundless, limitless, infinite, e.g. like space.

無邊世界 The infinite world, i.e. space; also infinite worlds; the numberless worlds in infinite space.

無邊法界 The infinite world of things; the realm of things infinite in number; the infinite universe behind all phenomena.

無邊身 The immeasurable body of the Buddha: the more the Brahman measured it the higher it grew, so he threw away his measuring rod, which struck root and became a forest.

無量 apramāṇa; amita; ananta; immeasurable, unlimited, e.g. the 'four infinite' characteristics of a bodhisattva are 慈悲喜捨 kindness, pity, joy, and self-sacrifice.

無量光 apramāṇābha. Immeasurable, or infinite light or splendour.

無量光佛 Amitābha, v. 阿.

無量光天 The heaven of boundless light, the fifth of the brahmaloka s.

無量光明 Amitābha.

無量光明土 Amitābha's land of infinite light.

無量壽 Boundless, infinite life, a name for Amitābha, as in無量壽佛; 無量壽如來; 無量壽王.

無量壽經 The Sukhāvatīvyūha-sūtra is tr. as the Amitāyus sūtra, and there are other treatises with similar titles, cf. 觀無量壽經, etc.

無量尊 The infinite honoured one, Amitābha.

無量慧 Infinite wisdom, a term applied to a Buddha.

無量意 anantamati, boundless mind, intention, will, or meaning.

無量淨 (無量淨天) Apramāṇaśubha, boundless purity, the second of the heavens in the third dhyāna heavens of form.

無量淸淨佛 The Buddha of boundless purity, Amitābha.

無量義 Infinite meaning, or the meaning of infinity; the meaning of the all, or all things.

無量義處三昧 The anantanirdeśapratiṣṭhāna samādhi, into which the Buddha is represented as entering before preaching the doctrine of infinity as given in the Lotus Sūtra.

無量覺 Infinite enlightenment, name of Amitābha.

無門宗 The unsectarian, Chan or meditative sect, so called because it claimed to derive its authority directly from the mind of Buddha.

無間 avīci, uninterrupted, unseparated, without intermission.

無間地獄 The avīci hell, the last of the eight hot hells, in which punishment, pain, form birth, death continue without intermission.

無間業 The unintermitted karma, or unintermitted punishment for any of the five unpardonable sins; the place of such punishment, the avīci hell; also styled ānantarya.

無際 Unlimited, boundless.

無餘 aśesa. Without remainder, no remnant, final; applied to the section of the Vinaya regarding expulsion for unpardonable sin from the monkhood; also to final nirvāṇa without remainder of reincarnation.

無餘湼槃 (無餘依湼槃) anupadhiśeṣa, the nirvāṇa state in which exists no remainder of the karma of suffering; it is also the nirvāṇa of arhat extinction of body and mind, described as 無餘灰斷.

無餘記 Complete or final prediction, e.g. to Buddhahood, as contrasted with partial prediction.

無煩 Free from trouble, the thirteenth brahmaloka, the fifth region of the fourth dhyāna.

無齒大蟲 A toothless great creature, i.e. a toothless tiger.

To do; to make; to effect; to be; because of; for.

有爲無爲 Action and inaction; active and passive; dynamic and static; things and phenomena in general are 有爲; nirvāṇa quiescence, the void, etc., are 無爲.

名爲 Its name is (so-and-so).

爲善 To do good, be good, because of the good, etc.

爲利 For gain, or profit.

爲己 For self.

以爲 To take to be, consider as, etc.

A hog, pig.

猪頭和尚 Pig-head monk, because of his meditative or dormant appearance.

The monkey; 3-5 p. m.

獼猴 The larger monkey, mischievous, restless, like the passions.

A monkey; doubtful; if, so; like, as; yet, still; to scheme.

猶若 As if.

猶未定 Still unsettled, uncertain.

琵琶 The pipa, a Chinese stringed musical instrument somewhat resembling a guitar.

琥珀 Amber; intp. of aśmagarbha, v. 阿, one of the saptaratna; cf. 七寳.

琰魔 Yama, the lord of Hades; v. 夜.

琰魔界 Yamaloka, the hells under the earth.

琰魔王廳 Yama's judgment hall.

琰魔使 Yama's messengers.

琰魔卒 Yama's lictors.

琰母那 閻牟那Yamunā, the River Jumna.

Barbarian, foreign; a time, a turn.

番僧 Foreign monk, especially from India or the west; also a temple warden or watchman.

Draw, paint, picture, sketch; devise, fix.

畫水 Liked drawing a line across water, which leaves no trace, unlike畫石 sculpture in stone, which remains.

畫餠 Pictured biscuits, a term of the Intuitive School for the scriptures, i.e. useless as food.

畫像 Portraits, paintings of images, maṇḍalas.

疎 Open, wide apart; distant, coarse; estrange; lax, careless; to state report; commentary; also used for 蔬 vegetarian food.

疏勒 Shule, a xian or district in Western Kashgaria and a Han name for Kashgar.

疏所緣緣 A distant circumstance, or remote cause, one of the four conditional causes in the 唯識 school.

疏頭 Written incantations, spells, or prayers burnt before the spirits.

Ascend, advance, start; attain, ripen; to note, fix.

登時 At once.

登住 The advance of the bodhisattva to the 十住 q.v.

登地 idem 十地 q.v.

登座 To ascend the throne, or pulpit, etc.

To shoot forth, send, issue; start, initiate; expound; prosper.

發光 To send forth light, radiate.

發心 Mental initiation or initiative, resolve, make up the mind to; to start out for bodhi, or perfect enlightenment; to show kindness of heart, give alms.

發心供養 To make an offering with pious intent.

發思八, v. 八 Bāṣpa.

發意 To resolve on, have a mind to; similar to 發心.

發戒 To issue to, or bestow the commandments on a disciple.

發生 To produce, grow, initiate, prosper.

發眞 To exhibit the truth, tell the truth; to manifest the 眞如 or innate Buddha.

發講 To commence expounding, to expound.

發起 To spring up, begin, develop, stimulate.

發露 To reveal, manifest, confess.

發願 To vow, resolve.

To rob; a robber, bandit, pirate, e.g. 盜賊, 強盜, 海盜, etc.

Hard, obstinate.

硬軟 Hard and soft.

硨磲 musāragalva; musālagarbha. One of the saptaratna 七寳; M. W. says coral; others cornelian, or agate.

A youth, boy, girl, virgin.

童子 kumāra, a boy, youth, son; a prince; a neophyte; a bodhisattva as son of the Tathāgata.

童眞 A term for a monk, who should have the child-nature of simplicity.

童眞住 The stage of youth in Buddhahood, the eighth of the 十住.

童籠磨 Druma, a tree in general; a king of the kinnaras, or gandharvas, the celestial musicians.

A bamboo fishing-trap.

筌魚 Trap and fish, a difficult passage in a book and its interpretation.

得魚忘筌 Having caught the fish, the trap may be forgotten, i.e. it is of secondary importance; also ingratitude.

A pen.

筆受 To receive in writing; to record, write down from dictation.

A treatise, book, memo, tablet, card; a plan, scheme; question; whip; etc.

策修 To stimulate to cultivation of the good; to keep oneself up to the mark.

A bamboo hawser, to draw out, to respond, reply, return thanks.

答香 To stick in incense sticks, as a monk does in acknowledgement of those of worshippers.

答摩 tamas, darkness, gloom, grief, anger, suffering.

答哩磨 idem 達磨 dharma.

答秣蘇伐那 Tāmasavana, a monastery 'Dark forest', possibly that of Jālandhara where the 'fourth synod' under Kaniṣka held its sessions; 'at the junction of the Vipāṣā and Śatadru,' i.e. Beas and Sutlej. Eitel.

A raft.

筏喩 Raft parable. Buddha's teaching is like a raft, a means of crossing the river, the raft being left when the crossing has been made.

筏蘇蜜呾羅 (or 伐蘇蜜呾羅 or 婆蘇蜜呾羅) (or 筏蘇蜜呾多羅); 婆須蜜; 和須蜜多; 世友 Vasumitra, described as a native of northern India, converted from riotous living by Micchaka, 'was a follower of the Sarvāstivādaḥ school,' became president of the last synod for the revision of the Canon under Kaniṣka, q.v., was seventh patriarch, and 'wrote the Abhidharma-prakaraṇa-pāda-śāstra' (Eitel).

筏蘇盤豆 v. 婆 Vasubandhu.

筏蘇枳 Vāsuki, or 和須吉; lord of snakes, or nāgas.

筏蹉子 Vātsīputra, founder of the 犢子部 v. 跋.

To pair; parallel, equal, of like order; a class, grade, rank; common; to wait; sign of plural. In Buddhist writings it is also used for 'equal everywhere', 'equally everywhere', 'universal'.

等一大車 The highest class great cart, i.e. universal salvation; cf. Lotus Sūtra 3.

等一切諸佛 The third of the 十迴向 q.v.

等供 Synchronous offering, also 等得, i.e. the simultaneous beginning of a meal when the master of ceremonies cries that the meal is served.

等侶 Of the same class, or company; fellows, equals.

等味 Of equal flavour, of the same character.

等妙 The two supreme forms of Buddha-enlightenment 等覺 and 妙覺, being the 51st and 52nd stages of the Mahāyāna 階位. A Buddha is known as等妙覺王, king of these two forms of universal and supernatural illumination.

等引 samāhita, body and mind both fixed or concentrated in samādhi.

等心 Equal mind; of the same mental characteristics; the universal mind common to all.

等慈 Universal or equal mercy toward all beings without distinction.

等持 Holding oneself in equanimity, a tr. of samādhi, as also is 三等持, i.e. samādhi-equilibrium; also of samāpatti, v. 三摩鉢底 and 等至.

等智 Common knowledge, which only knows phenomena.

等正覺 samyak-saṃbodhi; complete perfect knowledge; Buddha-knowledge; omniscience; the bodhi of all Buddhas; cf. 等覺; 三藐.

等活 saṃjīv. Revive, re-animate; resurrection.

等活地獄 The first of the eight hot hells, in which the denizens are chopped, stabbed, ground, and pounded, but by a cool wind are brought back to life, to undergo renewed torment. Also 更活.

等流 niṣyanda, outflow, regular flow, equal current; like producing like; the equality of cause and effect; like causes produce like effects; of the same order.

等流果 Like effects arise like causes, e.g. good from good, evil from evil; present condition in life from conduct in previous existence; hearing from sound, etc.

等流相續 Of the same nature, or character; connected as cause and effect.

等無間緣 Uninterrupted continuity, especially of thought, or time.

等空 Equal with space, universal.

等至 A name for fixation of the mind, or concentration in dhyāna; an equivalent of samāpatti.

等衆生界 The universal realm of living beings.

等覺 samyak-saṃbodhi; absolute universal enlightenment, omniscience, a quality of and term for a Buddha; also the 51st stage in the enlightenment of a bodhisattva, the attainment of the Buddha, enlightenment which precedes 妙覺.

等觀 The beholding of all things as equal, e.g. as 空 unreal, or immaterial; or of all beings without distinction, as one beholds one's child i.e. without respect of persons.

等諦 Ordinary rules of life; common morality.

等身 A life-size image or portrait.

等願 The universal vows common to Buddhas.

Congee, gruel.

粥飯僧 A rice-gruel monk, or gruel and rice monk, i.e. useless.

Maize, millet.

粟散 Like scattered millet.

粟散王 Scattered kings, or rulers who own allegiance to a supreme sovereign, as 粟散國 means their territories.

. To give.

給孤 (給孤獨) To give to orphans and widows; a benefactor; almsgiver; e.g. Anāthapiṇḍika, v. 阿那.

Intertwine, twist, intermingle.

絞飾 Adorned or robed in grey, a mixture of black and yellow.

To lay a warp, wind, weave [紝].

絍婆 任婆 nimba, the Neemb tree, which has a small bitter fruit like the 苦棟; its leaves in India are 'chewed at funeral ceremonies'. M. W.

Continuous; fibres, veins.

聯絡 Connected, linked.

Purple, dark red.

紫姑 The goddess of the cesspool.

紫磨 Pure gold, hence 紫磨金; also 紫磨忍辱 the Buddha's image in attitude of calmness and indifference to pleasure or pain.

紫衣 紫袈; 紫服 The purple robe, said to have been bestowed on certain monks during the Tang dynasty.

To cut off, sunder, terminate, end; decidedly, superlatively.

絶大 Superlatively great.

絶學 To cease study, beyond the need of study, a hint being enough.

絶對 Beyond compare, supreme.

絶待 Final, supreme, special.

絶待眞如 bhūtatathatā as absolute, apart from all phenomena and limiting terms; or as being, in contrast to the bhūtatathatā as becoming.

絶食 To cut of food, cease to eat.

Knot, tie, bond; bound; settle, wind up; to form. The bond of transmigration. There are categories of three, five, and nine bonds; e.g. false views, the passions, etc.

結使 The bondage and instigators of the passions.

結印 A binding agreement sealed as a contract, employed by the esoteric sects.

結嘆 A sigh of praise at the close of a passage of a sūtra.

結夏 The end of the summer retreat.

結戒 Bound by the commandments.

結業 The karma resulting from the bondage to passion, or delusion.

結河 The river of bondage, i.e. of suffering or illusion.

結漏 Bondage and reincarnation because of the passions.

結生 The bond of rebirth.

結界 A fixed place, or territory; a definite area; to fix a place for a monastery, or an altar; a determined number, e.g. for an assembly of monks; a limit. It is a term specially used by the esoteric sects for an altar and its area, altars being of five different shapes.

結病 The disease of bondage to the passions and reincarnation.

結經 The end of a sūtra; also its continuation.

結縛 To tie and knot, i.e. in the bondage of the passions, or delusion.

結緣 To form a cause or basis, to form a connection, e.g. for future salvation.

大通結緣 The basis or condition laid 84,000 kalpas ago (by Mahābhijña-jñānābhibhū 大通智勝佛 in his teaching of the Lotus scriptures to 16 disciples who became incarnate as 16 Buddhas) for the subsequent teaching of the Lotus scriptures by Śākyamuni, the last of the 16 incarnations, to his disciples.

結緣衆 The company or multitude of those who now become Buddhists in the hope of improved karma in the future.

結冑 To make the sign of the vajra armour and helmet, i.e. of Vairocana, in order to control the spirits— a method of the esoteric sects.

結解 Bondage and release; release from bondage.

結講 Concluding an address, or the addresses, i. e. the final day of an assembly.

結賊 Binders and robbers, the passions, or delusion.

結跏趺坐 (結跏) The Buddha's sitting posture with legs crossed and soles upward, left over right being the attitude for subduing demons, right over left for blessing, the hands being placed one above the other in similar order. Also, said to be paryaṅkabandha, or utkuṭukāsana, sitting on the hams like ascetics in meditation.

結集 The collection and fixing of the Buddhist canon; especially the first assembly which gathered to recite the scriptures, Saṅgīti. Six assemblies for creation or revision of the canon are named, the first at the Pippala cave at Rājagṛha under Ajātaśatru, the second at Vaiśālī, the third at Pāṭaliputra under Aśoka, the fourth in Kashmir under Kaniṣka, the fifth at the Vulture Peak for the Mahāyāna, and the sixth for the esoteric canon. The first is sometimes divided into two, that of those within 'the cave', and that of those without, i.e. the intimate disciples, and the greater assembly without; the accounts are conflicting and unreliable. The notable three disciples to whom the first reciting is attributed are Kāśyapa, as presiding elder, Ānanda for the Sūtras and the Abhidharma, and Upāli for the Vinaya; others attribute the Abhidharma to Pūrṇa, or Kāśyapa; but, granted the premises, whatever form their work may have taken, it cannot have been that of the existing Tripiṭaka. The fifth and sixth assemblies are certainly imaginary.

結願 Concluding the vows, the last day of an assembly.

To desire; praise; surplus.

羨那 senā, an army.

To cover, put on; cause; place; complete; ought, must.

著衣 To don clothes.

著鐙 Put on (the Buddha-)armour.

The legendary Emperor Shun, 2255-2205 B.C.

舜若 śūnya, empty, unreal, incorporeal, immaterial, 空 q.v.

舜若多 śūnyatā; emptiness, unreality, i.e. 空性 of the nature of the void.

Chrysanthemum; aster.

菊燈 A chrysanthemum-shaped lamp used in temples.

Duckweed; floating.

萍沙 Bimbisāra, see 頻.


采蔬 Vegetarian food.

采頭 The monk who has charge of the 采蔬 vegetarian food department.

Hut, thatched cottage, small temple, nunnery; translit. aṃ, āṃ.

菴乜呢必滅堪 oṃ-maṇi-padme-hūṃ, cf. 唵.

菴園 The Āmravana garden.

菴婆女 (菴婆羅女) Āmradārika, Āmrapālī, Ambapālī; the guardian of the āmra tree; a female who presented to Śākyamuni the Āmravana garden; another legend says she was born of an āmra tree; mother of Jīvaka, son of Bimbisāra.

菴婆羅多迦 āmrātaka, a celestial fruit; similar to 菴羅.

菴婆利沙 Ambarīṣa, name of a king.

菴弭羅 āmla; amlikā, the tamarisk indica.

菴摩勒 amalā, emblica officinalis, like the betel nut, used as a cure for colds.

菴摩羅 (or 菴沒羅) amala, spotless, stainless, pure, white. āmra, cf. 阿末羅 and infra; the term is variously used, sometimes for pure, at others for the amalā, at others for the āmra, or mango.

菴摩羅識 Pure knowledge, 眞如 knowledge, v. 阿末羅識.

菴沒羅 v. supra.

菴羅 āmra, the mango, though its definition in Chinese is uncertain; v. supra 菴摩羅.

菴羅園 (菴羅樹園or 菴羅衞園) Āmravana, Āmrapālī, Āmrāvatī, v. supra.

菴羅女 Ditto.

菴華 The āmra flower.

kusuma; puṣpa; padma; a flower, blossom; flowery; especially the lotus; also 花, which also means pleasure, vice; to spend, waste, profligate. 華 also means splendour, glory, ornate; to decorate; China.

華光 Padmaprabha, Lotus-radiance, the name by which Śāriputra is to be known as a Buddha.

華光大帝 The Chinese god of fire, Aśvakarṇa, see 阿, 'mentioned in a list of 1,000 Buddhas' and who 'is reported to have lived here in his first incarnation'. Eitel.

華嚴 avataṃsa, a garland, a ring-shaped ornament, M. W.; the flower-adorned, or a garland; the name of the Huayan sūtra, and the Huayan (Jap. Kegon) school; cf. 健.

華嚴一乘 The one Huayan yāna, or vehicle, for bringing all to Buddhahood.

華嚴三昧 The Buddha-samādhi of an eternal spiritual realm from which all Buddha-activities are evolved.

華嚴三王 The three Huayan kings, Vairocana in the centre with Samantabhadra and Mañjuśrī left and right.

華嚴宗 The Huayan (Kegon) school, whose foundation work is the Avataṃsaka-sūtra; founded in China by 帝心杜順 Dixin Dushun; he died A.D. 640 and was followed by 雲華智嚴 Yunhua Zhiyan; 賢首法藏 Xianshou Fazang; 淸涼澄觀 Qingliang Chengguan; 圭峯宗密 Guifeng Zongmi, and other noted patriarchs of the sect; its chief patron is Mañjuśrī. The school was imported into Japan early in the Tang dynasty and flourished there. It held the doctrine of the 法性 Dharma-nature, by which name it was also called.

華嚴時 The first of the 'five periods' as defined by Tiantai, according to which school this sūtra was delivered by Śākyamuni immediately after his enlightenment; but accounts vary as to whether it was on the second or third seventh day; all these claims are, however, devoid of evidence, the sūtra being a Mahāyāna creation.

華嚴經 Avataṃsaka-sūtra, also 大方廣佛華嚴經. Three tr. have been made: (1) by Buddhabhadra, who arrived in China A.D. 406, in 60 juan, known also as the 晉經 Jin sūtra and 舊經 the old sūtra; (2) by Śikṣānanda, about A.D. 700, in 80 juan, known also as the 唐經 Tang sūtra and 新經 the new sūtra; (3) by Prajñā about A.D. 800, in 40 juan. The treatises on this sūtra are very numerous, and the whole are known as the 華嚴部; they include the 華嚴音義 dictionary of the Classic by 慧苑 Huiyuan, about A.D. 700.

華天 The Huayan and Tiantai Schools.

華報 Flower recompense, i.e. flowers to him who cultivates them, and fruit corresponding to the seed sown, i.e. retribution for good or evil living.

華山 Mt. Hua in Shensi, one of the Five Sacred Mountains of China; v. also 九華山.

華座 The lotus throne.

華德菩薩 Padmaśrī, Lotus-brilliance Bodhisattva, tr. as Lotus-virtue, name of Śubhavyūha, v. 妙, when incarnated as a member of Śākyamuni's retinue.

華手 The hands folded lotus-fashion.

華方 The flowery region, the south.

華梵 China and India.

華氏城 Kusumapura, Puṣpapura; the city of flowers, or of the palace of flowers, also known as Pāṭaliputra, the modern Patna. It was the residence of Aśoka, to whom the title of 華氏 is applied. He there convoked the third synod.

華王世界 The world of the lotus-king, that of Vairocana.

華目 Eyes like the blue lotus, i.e. pure.

華翳 Flowery films, motes, specks, muscæ volitantes.

華胎 The lotus womb in which doubters and those of little virtue are detained in semi-bliss for 500 years before they can be born into the Pure Land by the opening of the lotus.

華臺 The lotus dais, seat, or throne.

華蓋 A flowery umbrella, a canopy of flowers.

華藏 Lotus-treasury.

華藏界 (華藏世界) The lotus-store, or lotus-world, the Pure Land of Vairocana, also the Pure Land of all Buddhas in their saṃbhogakāya, or enjoyment bodies. Above the wind or air circle is a sea of fragrant water, in which is the thousand-petal lotus with its infinite variety of worlds, hence the meaning is the Lotus which contains a store of myriads of worlds; cf. the Tang Huayan sūtra 8, 9, and 10; the 梵網經 ch. 1, etc.

華藏八葉 The maṇḍala of the Garbhadhātu.

華藏與極樂 The Lotus-world and that of Perfect Joy (of Amitābha and others); they are the same.

華鬘 kusuma-māla, a wreath, or chaplet of flowers.

華齒 puṣpadantī. Flowery or ornate teeth, name of a rākṣasī.

A kind of fragrant grass.

菩提 bodhi; from budh; knowledge, understanding; perfect wisdom; the illuminated or enlightened mind; anciently intp. by 道, later by 覺 to be aware, perceive; for saṃbodhi v. 三.

菩提分 bodhyaṅga, a general term for the thirty-seven 道品, more strictly applied to the 七覺支 q.v., the seven branches of bodhi-illumination. Also 菩提分法.

菩提場 A place, plot, or site of enlightenment, especially Śākyamuni's under the bodhi-tree.

菩提子 bodhi-seeds, or beads, the hard seeds of a kind of Himalayan grass, also of a tree at Tiantai, used for rosaries.

菩提寺 bodhi-vihāra, temple of or for enlightenment, a name used for many monasteries; also 菩提所.

菩提心 The mind for or of bodhi; the awakened, or enlightened mind; the mind that perceives the real behind the seeming, believes in moral consequences, and that all have the Buddha-nature, and aims at Buddhahood.

菩提樹 bodhidruma, bodhitaru, bodhivṛkṣa; the wisdom-tree, i.e. that under which Śākyamuni attained his enlightenment, and became Buddha. The Ficus religiosa is the pippala, or aśvattha, wrongly identified by Faxian as the palm-tree; it is described as an evergreen, to have been 400 feet high, been cut down several times, but in the Tang dynasty still to be 40 or 50 feet high. A branch of it is said to have been sent by Aśoka to Ceylon, from which sprang the celebrated Bo-tree still flourishing there.

菩提樹神 The goddess-guardian of the Bo-tree.

菩提流志 Bodhiruci, intp. as 覺愛, a monk from southern India whose original name 達磨流支 Dharmaruci was changed as above by order of the Empress Wu; he tr. 53 works in A.D. 693—713.

菩提流支 Bodhiruci, intp. as 道希, a monk from northern India who arrived at Loyang in A.D. 508 and tr. some 30 works; also 菩提留支, 菩提鶻露支.

菩提薩埵 bodhisattva, a being of enlightenment: 'one whose essence is wisdom': 'one who has bodhi or perfect wisdom as his essence,' M. W. Also 菩提索多 v. 菩薩.

菩提達磨 Bodhidharma, commonly known as Damo, v. 達; reputed as the founder of the Chan (Zen) or Intuitional or Mystic School. His original name is given as 菩提多羅 Bodhitara.

菩提道場 bodhimaṇḍa, the bodhi-site, or plot or seat which raised itself where Śākyamuni attained Buddhahood. It is said to be diamond-like, the navel or centre of the earth; every bodhisattva sits down on such a seat before becoming Buddha.

菩提門 The gate of enlightenment; name for a cemetery.

菩薩 bodhisattva, cf. 菩提薩埵. While the idea is not foreign to Hīnayāna, its extension of meaning is one of the chief marks of Mahāyāna. 'The Bodhisattva is indeed the characteristic feature of the Mahāyāna.' Keith. According to Mahāyāna the Hinayanists, i.e. the śrāvaka and pratyekabuddha, seek their own salvation, while the bodhisattva's aim is the salvation of others and of all. The earlier intp. of bodhisattva was 大道心衆生 all beings with mind for the truth; later it became 大覺有情 conscious beings of or for the great intelligence, or enlightenment. It is also intp. in terms of leadership, heroism, etc. In general it is a Mahayanist seeking Buddhahood, but seeking it altruistically; whether monk or layman, he seeks enlightenment to enlighten others, and he will sacrifice himself to save others; he is devoid of egoism and devoted to helping others. All conscious beings having the Buddha-nature are natural bodhisattvas, but require to undergo development. The mahāsattva is sufficiently advanced to become a Buddha and enter nirvāṇa, but according to his vow he remains in the realm of incarnation to save all conscious beings. A monk should enter on the arduous course of discipline which leads to Bodhisattvahood and Buddhahood.

菩薩乘 One of the 'five vehicles', which teaches the observance of the six pāramitās, the perfecting of the two 利, i.e. 自利利他 the perfecting of self for perfecting others, and the attaining of Buddhahood.

菩薩五智 The fivefold knowledge of the bodhisattva: that of all things by intuition, of past events, of establishing men in sound religious life, of the elements in or details of all things, of attaining everything at will.

菩薩僧 The bodhisattvasaṅgha, or monks, i.e. Mahāyāna, though there has been dispute whether Hīnayāna monks may be included.

菩薩十住 菩薩十地 Ten stages in a bodhisattva's progress; v. 十.

菩薩大士 bodhisattva-mahāsattva, a great bodhisattva, e.g. Mañjuśrī. Guanyin, etc. v. infra.

菩薩性 bodhisattva nature, or character.

菩薩戒 The rules are found in the sūtra of this name, taken from the 梵網經.

菩薩摩訶薩 bodhisattva-mahāsattva. mahāsattva is the perfected bodhisattva, greater than any other being except a Buddha.

菩薩聖衆 The bodhisattva saints who have overcome illusion, from the first stage upwards, as contrasted with ordinary bodhisattvas.

菩薩藏 The Mahāyāna scriptures, i.e. those of the bodhisattva school.

菩薩行 The way or discipline of the bodhisattva, 自利利他, i.e. to benefit self and benefit others, leading to Buddhahood.

菩薩道 see 菩薩行.

śūnya. Empty, vacant; unreal, unsubstantial, untrue; space; humble; in vain.

虛假 Baseless, false.

虛僞 Unreal, deceptive.

虛堂 Xutang, name of a noted monk of the Song dynasty.

虛妄 vitatha. Unreal and false, baseless; abhūta, non-existent.

虛妄法 Unreal things or sensations, such as those perceived by the senses.

虛妄輪 The unreal wheel of life, or transmigration.

虛心 With humble mind, or heart.

虛無 Empty, non-existent, unreal, incorporeal, immaterial.

虛無身 The immaterial Buddha-body, the spirit free from all limitations.

虛空 śūnya; empty, void, space; ākāśa, in the sense of space, or the ether; gagana, the sky, atmosphere, heaven; kha, space, sky, ether, 虛 is defined as that which is without shape or substantiality, 空 as that which has no resistance. The immaterial universe behind all phenomena.

虛空住 Ākāśapratiṣṭhita, abiding in space, the fifth son of Mahābhijña, a bodhisattva to the south of our universe.

虛空天 The four heavens of desire above Meru in space, from the Yama heaven upwards.

虛空孕 The womb of space, ākāśagarbha, idem虛空藏 infra.

虛空法身 The dharmakāya as being like space which enfolds all things, omniscient and pure.

虛空無爲 ākāśa, one of the asaṃskṛta dharmas, passive void or space; two kinds of space, or the immaterial, are named, the active and passive, or phenomenal and non-phenomenal (i.e. noumenal). The phenomenal is differentiated and limited, and apprehended by sight; the noumenal is without bounds or limitations, and belongs entirely to mental conception.

虛空界 The visible vault of space.

虛空眼 The eye of space, or of the immaterial; name of the mother of Buddhas in the garbhadhātu group.

虛空神 Śūnyatā, the god of space.

虛空華 Spots before the eyes, Muscœ volitantes.

虛空藏 Ākāśagarbha, or Gaganagarbha, the central bodhisattva in the court of space in the garbhadhātu group; guardian of the treasury of all wisdom and achievement; his powers extend to the five directions of space; five forms of him are portrayed under different names; he is also identified with the dawn, Aruṇa, and the 明星 or Venus.

虛空身 The body which fills space, Vairocana.

虛言 Empty words, baseless talk.

虛誑語 Untrue or misleading talk, which is against the fourth commandment.

A leech.

蛭數 idem 底沙 Tiṣya.

Bivalves, clams.

蛤唎觀音 One of the thirty-three forms of Guanyin, seated on a shell.

All, the many; a company of at least three.

衆僧 saṃgha, all the monks, an assembly of at least three monks.

衆合 (衆合地獄); 衆磕 The third of the eight hot hells, Saṃghāta, where two ranges of mountains meet to crush the sinners.

衆園 衆寮 saṃghārāma, a monastery, a nunnery; originally only the surrounding park.

衆徒 The whole body of followers; also the monks, all the monks.

衆會 An assembly (of all the monks).

衆生 sattva; all the living, living beings, older tr. 有情 sentient, or conscious beings; also many lives, i.e. many transmigrations.

衆生世間 The world of beings from Hades to Buddha-land; also all beings subject to transformation by Buddha.

衆生垢 The common defilement of all beings by the false view that the ego has real existence.

衆生忍 Patience towards all living beings under all circumstances.

衆生想 The false notion that all beings have reality.

衆生本性 The original nature of all the living, i.e. the bhūtatathatā in its phenomenal aspect.

衆生根 The nature, or root, of all beings, cf. 衆生本性.

衆生濁 The fourth of the five periods of decay, sattvākaṣāya, when all creatures are stupid and unclean.

衆生無始無終 As all beings are par of the 法身 dharmakāya they have neither beginning nor end.

衆生界 The realm of all the living in contrast with the Buddha-realm.

衆生相 衆生見 The concept that all beings have reality.

衆祐 Protector or Benefactor of all, an old intp. of Bhagavat.

衆聖 All saints, all who have realized the Buddha-truth.

衆苦 All the miseries of existence, the sufferings of all.

衆道 The way of all; all the three yāna, or vehicles of salvation.

衆香國土 The country of all fragrance, i. e. the Pure Land, also the sūtras.

A street (especially with shops), a market.

街方 The busy mart of life.

To rip, split, crack.

裂裳 The torn robe (of Buddhism), i.e. split into eighteen pieces, like the Hīnayāna sects.

Look, see, behold.

視那 jina, victor, idem 耆那.

觝突 To butt against, gore, as an angry bull.

Impose on, deceive, feign, pretend.

奸詐 Fraudulent, crafty, to cheat.

Explain, open up the meaning, define.

註疏 Notes and comments.

Criticize, discuss.

評註 Criticize, comment on.

評論 Discuss.

譏評 Censure, criticize.

An expression, phrase, word.

詞無礙智 pratimsaṃvid, v. 四.

To blame, reprove, scold; ridicule; translit. ha, ka, kha, ga, and similar sounds.

訶佛罵祖 To scold a Buddha and abuse an elder.

訶利 訶梨; M004373里 hari, tawny, a lion.

訶利底 Hāritī; also 訶利帝 (or 訶哩帝); 呵利底; 呵利帝 (or 呵利陀); 阿利底 Ariti; intp. as captivating, charming; cruel; dark green, yellow, etc.; mother of demons, a rākṣasī who was under a vow to devour the children of Rājagṛha, but was converted by the Buddha, and became the guardian of nunneries, where her image, carrying a child and with children by her, is worshipped for children or in children's ailments.

訶利底母 or 南 idem.

訶利枳舍 004373里鷄舍 Harikeśa, yellow-haired, lion's mane, name of a yakṣa.

訶悉多 hasta, an arm, a hand.

訶梨勒 harītakī, the yellow Myrobalan free and fruit, used for medicine; also 訶梨怛鷄 (or 訶梨得枳), 訶子, etc.

訶梨跋摩 Harivarman, tawny armour, and 師子鎧 lion armour; a Brahman who '900 years' after the Nirvāṇa, appeared in Central India and joined the Sarvāstivādin and Satyasiddhi school by the publication of the Satyasiddhi śāstra (tr. as the 成實論 by Kumārajīva, 407-418).

訶羅訶羅 halahala, etc., a deadly poison.

gaja; hastin; also nāga; an elephant; v. 像 14.

象主 The southern division of India, v. 四主.

象堅山 Pīlusāragiri, a mountain southwest of Kapiśā, on the top of which Aśoka erected a stūpa, the Pīlusāra-stūpa.

象墮阬 hastigarta, 'elephant's hole,' i.e. the hollow formed by the elephant's fall, when Śākyamuni flung aside a dead elephant put in his path by Devadatta.

象尊國 The elephant-honouring country, India.

象教 The teaching by images or symbols i.e. Buddhism, v. 像教.

象牙 Elephant's tusk, ivory.

象王 Gajapati, Lord of Elephants, a term for Śākyamuni; also the fabulous ruler of the southern division of the Jambudvīpa continent.

象軍 Hastikāya, the elephant corps of an Indian army.

象頭山 Gayāśiras, tr. as elephant-head mountain, name of two mountains, one near Gayā, the other said to be near the river Nairañjanā, 150 li away.

象駕 The elephant chariot, or riding forward, i.e. the eastward progress of Buddhism.

象鼻 Elephant's trunk; a wrong way of wearing a monk's robe.

Two; translit. ni.

貳吒 Akaniṣṭha, not the smallest, i.e. the highest of the brahmalokas, v. 阿迦.

To make offerings in congratulation; congratulate; translit. h, cf. 訶.

賀捺娑 haṃsa, a goose.

賀羅馱 (or 賀邏馱) hrada, a lake, pool, ray of light.

賀野紇哩嚩 (or 賀演屹哩嚩) Hayagrīva, the horse-necked one, a form of Viṣṇu and of Guanyin.

To spend, lavish, waste, squander; expense: translit. vi, ve, in vidyā, v. 明; viṇā, a lute, v. 批; Veda, the Vedas, v. 韋.

Honourable, dear, precious.

貴賤 Dear and cheap; noble and base; your and my.

To buy, purchase.

買林 Vikrītavana, a 'monastery 200 li north-west of the capital of Cashmere'. Eitel.

To stick, attach to; make up, add.

貼嚫 dakṣiṇa, right-hand, south, dexterity; donations, offerings, etc.

vikrama. Leap over, surpass; exempt from; to save.

超世 Surpassing the world, superior to anything in the world.

超八 Surpassing the eight other schools, as does the teaching of the Lotus and Nirvāṇa Sūtras, according to Tiantai.

超日王 Vikramāditya, 'a celebrated Hindu king,' 57 B.C., who drove out the Śakas or Scythians, ruled all northern India, was one of the wisest of Hindu kings and a great patron of literature. M. W.

超越 Surpassing, supreme; to pass over, be exempt from.

超過 samatikram, to go beyond, cross over, transgress.

To step over, pass over, surpass, exceed; similar to 超, with which it is often connected.

越喜三昧 The samādhi of Yaśodharā, wife of Śākyamuni and mother of Rāhula, which causes all kinds of joy to self and others.

越罪 Exceeding sin, or transgression of the law, particularly of esoteric law or monastic vows.

越闍 vajra, cf. 金剛.

To sit cross-legged 跏趺坐, v. 結.

Trudge, tread on, travel; heel, base; a summary; translit. pa, ba, bha, va; cf. 波, 婆, 簸.

跋伽仙 (or 跋伽婆) Bhārgava, Bhagava, Bhaga, the ascetic under whom Śākyamuni practiced the austere life.

跋利沙 varṣās, cf. 雨 the rains.

跋折羅 vajra, v. 金剛 diamond; thunderbolt.

跋折羅吒訶沙 Vajrāṭṭahāsa, i.e. Śiva, one of the guardians, the laughing Mahārāja.

跋捺羅婆娜 Bhādrapada, the sixth Indian month.

跋提 Bhadra, or Bhadrika, v. 跋提梨迦; used also for Vatī, the river Hiraṇyavatī, or Gunduck.

跋提梨迦 (or 跋提唎迦) Bhadrika, also 婆提 or婆帝, one of the first five disciples, said to be a son of king Amṛtodana.

跋摩 Harivarman, and his school, v. 訶.

跋日羅 vajra, v. 金剛.

跋渠 varga, a class, group, cf. 伐.

跋濫摩 婆羅門 Brāhmaṇa, Brahman, the caste, or character, i.e. pure.

跋盧沙 Varuṣa, now Attock, east of Peshawar.

跋祿羯呫婆 Bharukaccha, an ancient state in Gujarat, near Baruch, on the Narbudda.

跋祿迦 An ancient state in east Turkestan, the present Aksu. Eitel.

跋私弗多羅 Vātsīputra, 犢子 founder of the sect of this name, one of the Vaibhāṣika schools.

跋窣堵 vastu, real, substance; intp. as the Vinaya, or part of it; may be tr. by 事, 物, 本, 有.

跋羅娑馱 prāsāda, a temple, palace, assembly hall.

跋羅攙 Tallakṣana (Julien), 10 octilllions; a 大跋羅攙 is 100 octillions, v. 洛叉.

跋羅縷支 Bhadraruci, a monk of west India, of great subtlety and reasoning power; he opposed an arrogant Brahman, who, defeated, sank alive into hell.

跋藍 Bala, or Mudrābala, 10 septillions; 大跋藍 100 septillons, v. 洛.

跋路婆陀 (or 跋路娑陀) prāsāda, v. 跋羅婆馱.

跋達羅 bhadra, good, auspicious, gracious, excellent, virtuous; an epithet for every Buddha; the present 賢劫 Bhadrakalpa.

跋邏末羅耆釐 Bhramaragiri (Beal), a monastery built by Sadvaha for Nāgārjuna on this mountain, 300 li south-west of Kośala.

跋那 Varaṇa, v. 伐, a province of Kapiśā, v. 障.

跋陂 Bhadrapāla, name of 賢護 a bodhisattva.

跋陀 Bhadra, v. 跋提, 跋達羅.

跋陀婆 Bhadrapāla, v. 跋陂.

跋陀羅 Bhādrapadā, the 壁 constellation in Pegasus and Andromeda. Bhadrā, a female disciple of Śākyamuni. Guṇabhadra, v. 求, a nāga-king; a tree.

跋陀羅樓支 Bhadraruci, v. 跋羅縷支.

跋陀羅耶尼 Bhadrayāniyāh, v. 小乘, one of the eighteen Hīnayāna sects.

跋陀羅迦卑梨耶 Bhadrakapilā, also 跋陀迦毘羅 a female disciple of Śākyamuni.

跋闍 Vṛji, the modern Vraja or Braj, west of Delhi and Agra; also given as Vaiśālī, cf. 毘, where the second assembly met and where the ten unlawful acts permitted by the Vṛjiputra monks were condemned.

跋闍羅 vajra, v. 金剛.

跋闍羅波膩 Vajrapāṇi, 'thunderbolt handed' (M. W.), v. 金剛手.

跋難陀 Upananda, a disciple who rejoiced over the Buddha's death because it freed the disciples from restraint. A nāga king.

躭摩栗底 Tāmralipti, Tamlook, v. 多摩.

軻地羅 khadira, the acacia catechu; the mimosa; also 軻梨羅; 珂梨羅; 朅梨羅; 佉陀羅 (or 佉達羅); 佉提迦; 朅達羅.

軻地羅山 The Khadira circle of mountains, the fifth of the seven concentric mountain chains of a world.

軻梨 朅地洛迦 (or 朅達洛迦) Khadiraka, idem 軻地羅山.

Advance, progress, enter.

進具 To reach the age (20) and advance to full ordination.

精進 vīrya, zeal, unchecked progress.

To get away from; retire, be at ease, indulgence, excess.

逸多 Ajita, Maitreya, v. 阿逸多.

To reach, catch up, until, when, wait for.

逮夜 The night previous to a fast day, or to any special occasion.

Metropolis, imperial city or domain; a district, ward, territory. All.

都史多 (or 都史天) the Tuṣita heaven, v. 兜.

都吒迦 Joyful sound, united voices; (derivation uncertain).

都監寺 都總 The director or second in command of a monastery.

都市王 The ruler of the eighth hot hell.

都率天 Tuṣita, see 都史多.

都貨羅 Tukhāra, the 月支 Yuezhi country; '(1) A topographical term designating a country of ice and frost (tukhāra), and corresponding to the present Badakchan which Arab geographers still call Tokharestan. (2) An ethnographical term used by the Greeks to designate the Tocharoi or Indo-Scythians, and likewise by Chinese writers applied to the Tochari Tartars who driven on by the Huns (180 B.C.) conquered Trans-oxania, destroyed the Bactrian kingdom (大夏) 126 B.C., and finally conquered the Pundjab, Cashmere, and the greater part of India. Their greatest king was Kanichka.' Eitel.

To deal in spirits, or alcoholic liquor.

酤酒戒 The commandment against dealing in alcoholic liquor.

Curd, butter; crisp. It is described as produced by churning milk or treating it with herbs. Milk produces 酪, then 生酥, then 熟酥, then 醍醐.

酥燈 A lamp burning butter-oil.

pramāṇa. Measure, capacity, length, ability; to measure, deliberate; a syllogism in logic, v. 比量. A syllogism, consisting of 宗 pratijñā, proposition; 因 hetu, reason; 喩 udāharaṇa, example; but the syllogism varies in the number of its avayava, or members. There are other divisions from 2 to 6, e.g. 現量 and 比量 direct or sense inferences, and comparative or logical inferences; to these are added 聖教量 arguments based on authority; 譬喩量 analogy; 義准 postulation, or general assent; and 無體 negation, or non-existence.

量果 Conditioned by various external objects, different types of consciousness arise (ālambana-pratyaya). The 法相宗 held that the percipient mind is conditioned by existing things, and when the two are in conjunction the ultimate consequence of any action may be known.

量等身 The immanence of the Tathāgata in all things, phenomenal and noumenal, he being the all in all.

A voucher, banknote, paper-money, taxes; to pinch up, take up; to seize all, sequestrate; to copy, transcribe, extract.

Hook, barb; also 鉤.

鉤召法 vaśīkaraṇa, the method in esoteric practice of summoning and influencing the beneficent powers.

鉤鈕 To knot, tie, e.g. a girdle; to button.

鉤菩薩 The bodhisattva guardian with the trident, one of the four with barb, noose, chain or bell.

Dull, blunt, stupid.

鈍使 The five envoys of stupidity, i.e. of the lower passions, in contrast with the higher 五利使; the 使 is intp. as 煩惱 kleśa, the afflicters, or passions; the five are 貪, 瞋, 痴, 慢, 疑 greed, hate, stupidity, arrogance, doubt.

鈍根 鈍機 Of dull capacity, unable to receive Buddha-truth.

A crevice, interval, space, room; separate, intermission; between, during, in; to divide, interfere, intervene.

間斷 To interrupt interfere and stop.

間色 Intermediate colours, i.e. not primary colours.

間隔 Interval, intermission, but it is chiefly used for during, while, the period of an event. Cf. 無間 avīci.

To bar, a barrier; to shut out; trained.

閑居十德 Ten advantages of a hermitage given in verse, i.e. absence of sex and passion; of temptation to say wrong things; of enemies, and so of strife; of friends to praise or blame; of others' faults, and so of talk about them; of followers or servants, and so no longing for companions; of society, and so no burden of politeness; of guests, and so no preparations; of social intercourse, and so no trouble about garments; of hindrance from others in mystic practice.

閑文字 閑塵境 Words, or expressions to be shut out; unnecessary words.

閑處 A shut-in place, a place of peace, a hermitage, a Buddhist monastery.

閑道人 One well-trained in the religion; a practitioner.

To open, begin, institute, unfold, disclose; dismiss; write out; unloose; to heat, boil.

開三顯一 To explain the three vehicles, and reveal the reality of the one method of salvation, as found in the Lotus Sūtra.

開元 The Kaiyuan period of the Tang emperor Xuanzong, A.D. 713-741; during which the monk 智昇 Zhisheng in 730 issued his 'complete list of all the translations of Buddhist books into the Chinese language from the year A.D. 67 up to the date of publication, embracing the labours of 176 individuals, the whole amounting to 2,278 separate works, many of which, however, were at that time already lost.' Wylie. Its title was開元釋教錄. He also issued the 開元釋教錄略出, an abbreviated version.

開光 Introducing the light, the ceremony of 'opening the eyes' of an image, i.e. painting or touching in the pupil; also 開眼.

開具 To make an inventory.

開化 To transform the character by instruction; to teach.

開士 The hero who is enlightened, or who opens the way of enlightenment, an epithet of the bodhisattva; also applied to monks.

開山 To establish a monastery; to found a sect.

開廢 idem 開遮.

開心 To open the heat; to develop the mind; to initiate into truth.

開悟 To awaken, arouse, open up the intelligence and bring enlightenment.

開本 To commence; the very beginning; at the beginning; to explain the beginning.

開枕 To display the pillows, i.e. retire to bed.

開法 To found a sect or teaching, e.g. as Buddha founded Buddhism; the method of opening, or beginning.

開演 To lecture, explain at length, expound.

開甘露門 To open the ambrosial door, i.e. provide for hungry ghosts.

開發 To star, begin, send forth.

開白 To start from the bare ground; to begin a ceremony.

開示悟入 The four reasons for a Buddha's appearing in the world: to open up the treasury of truth; to indicate its meaning; to cause men to apprehend it; and to lead them into it.

開祖 The founder of a sect, or clan.

開葷 開素 To abandon vegetarianism, as is permitted in case of sickness.

開覺 To arouse, awaken; to allow the original Buddha-nature to open and enlighten the mind.

開解 To expound, explain.

開道者 The Way-opener, Buddha; anyone who opens the way, or truth.

開遮 The adversatives, permit 開 or prohibit 遮; also 開廢.

開靜 To break the silence, i.e. rouse from sleep.

開顯 To open up and reveal; to expose the one and make manifest the other. It is a term used by Tiantai, i.e. 開權顯實, to expose and dispose of the temporary or partial teaching, and reveal the final and real truth as in the Lotus Sūtra.

開齋 To break the fast, breakfast.

The side on which the sun shines, the sun, heat, this life, positive, masculine, dynamic, etc.

陽光 The sun's light, also idem陽燄 sun flames, or heat, i.e. the mirage causing the illusion of lakes.

A hawk, also used for hamsa, a wild goose.

雁塔 The Wild Goose pagoda, name of a famous monastery.

雁宇 A term for a monastery.

雁行 To pass in V-shaped formation like wild geese.

samudāya. To assemble, collect together, aggregate, accumulate.

集會 To assemble, an assembly.

集會所 A place of assembly.

集衆 To assemble all, or everybody.

集諦 samudaya, the second of the four dogmas, that the cause of suffering lies in the passions and their resultant karma. The Chinese 集 'accumulation' does not correctly translate samudaya, which means 'origination'.

集起 A term for citta, the mind, and for ālayavijñāna, as giving rise to the mass of things.

megha. Cloud, cloudy, abundant.

雲兄水弟 雲衆水衆 Brothers or men of the clouds and waters, fellow-monks.

雲宗 idem 白雲宗.

雲堂 The assembly hall of a monastery, because of the massed congregation.

雲心 Clouded heart, depressed.

雲水 雲兄水弟; 雲衲; 雲納 Homeless or roaming monks.

雲海 Many as the clouds and the waters of the ocean.

雲版 A sort of cloud-shaped gong, struck to indicate the hour.

雲雷音王 Megha-dundubhi-svara-rāja, or 雲雷音宿王華智 Jaladhara-garjita-ghoṣa-susvara-nakṣatra-rāja-saṅkusumitā-bhijña. A Buddha 'having a voice musical as the sound of the thunder of the clouds and conversant with the appearance of the regents of the nakshatras'. M.W. A Buddha possessing the wisdom of the Thunder-god and of the flowery stars.

雲自在王 Meghasvara-rāja, ruler of the cloud drums, a son of Mahābhijñābhibhu.

雲門 The Cloud-gate monastery in Guangdong, from which 文偃 Wenyan derived his title; his name was 張雪峯 Zhang Xuefeng; he lived early in the tenth century and founded the 雲門宗 (雲門禪宗), v. 三句.

雲集 Flocking like clouds, a great assembly.

雲鼓 A drum ornamented with clouds for calling to midday meals.

Accord with, comply, yield, obey, agreeable; v. 逆 to resist.

順世 To accord with the world, its ways and customs; to die.

順上分結 The five ties in the higher realm which hold the individual in the realms of form and formlessness: desire for form, desire for formlessness, restlessness, pride, and ignorance.

順下分結 The five ties in the lower realm which hold the individual in the realms of desire, i.e. desire, resentment, egoism, false tenets, and doubt.

順分 To follow out one's duty; to accord with one's calling; to carry out the line of bodhisattva progress according to plan.

順化 To accord with one's lessons; to follow the custom; to die.

順忍 The third of the five bodhisattva stages of endurance, i.e. from the fourth to sixth stage.

順次 According to order or rank, one after another, the next life in Paradise to follow immediately after this without intervening stages.

順流 Going with the stream, i.e. of transmigration, custom, etc.

順牙 śūnya, v. 空.

順逆 To go with, or resist, e.g. the stream to reincarnation, or to nirvāṇa.

To expect, wait for, wait on; necessary, must; moment, small, translit. for su; cf. 蘇.

須夜摩 Suyāma, also須炎摩 (or須燄摩), intp. as Yama, the ruler of the Yama heaven; and in other similar ways.

須大拏 Sudāna, see 須達拏.

須彌 Sumeru, also 須彌樓; 彌樓; 蘇彌樓; 修迷樓; later 蘇迷盧; the central mountain of every world, tr. as 妙高; 妙光, etc., wonderful height, wonderful brilliancy, etc.; at the top is Indra's heaven, or heavens, below them are the four devalokas; around are eight circles of mountains and between them the eight seas, the whole forming nine mountains and eight seas.

須彌座 須彌壇 A kind of throne for a Buddha.

須彌相 Merudhvaja, or Merukalpa, name of the universe of 須彌燈王佛, in the northwest, twelfth son of Mahābhijñā.

須彌頂 Merukūṭa, second son of Mahābhijñā, whose name is 須蜜羅天 Abhirati.

須扇多 Suśānta, a Buddha of this name, 'very placid,' M.W.; entirely pure; also 須延頭 ? Suyata.

須摩提 (or 須摩題) Sumati, of wonderful meaning, or wisdom, the abode of Amitābha, his Pure Land.

須摩那 Sumanā, also 修摩那 (or 蘇摩那); 須曼那; a plant 4 or 5 feet high with light yellow flowers, the 'great flowered jasmine'. M.W.

須梨耶 Sūrya, the sun.

須湼蜜陀 sunirmita, but suggestive in meaning of nirmāṇarati, heavens or devas of joyful transformation.

須眞 ? Sucinti; or Sucintā, or Sucitti, name of a deva.

須臾 A kṣaṇa, a moment.

須菩提 Subhuti, also 須扶提; 須浮帝; 蘇補底 (or 蘇部底); one of the ten chief disciples, said to have been the best exponent of śūnya, or the void 解空第一; he is the principal interlocutor in the Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra. There are two later personages of this name.

須跋陀羅 (須跋陀) Subhadra; the last convert of the Buddha, 'a Brahman 120 years old.'

須達多 (須達); 蘇達多 Sudatta, well-given, intp. as a good giver, beneficent; known as 給獨 benefactor of orphans, etc. His name was Anāthapiṇḍaka, who bestowed the Jetavana vihāra on the Buddha.

須達天 Sudṛśās, the 善現天; seventh brahmaloka, eighth of the dhyāna heavens.

須達拏 Sudāna, also須大拏; 須提梨拏; 蘇達拏, a previous incarnation of the Buddha, when he forfeited the throne by almsgiving; it is confused in meaning with 善牙 Sudanta, good teeth.

須達梨舍那 Sudarśan 須帶a, the heaven of beautiful appearance, the sixteenth brahmaloka, and seventh of the fourth dhyāna.

須陀 śūdra, the fourth caste, cultivators, etc., cf. 首; also sudhā, nectar.

須陀洹 srota-āpanna; also 須陀般那; 窣路多阿半那(or 窣路陀阿半那) (or 窣路多阿鉢囊); intp. by 入流, one who has entered the stream of holy living, also 逆流, one who goes against the stream of transmigration; the first stage of the arhat, that of a śrāvaka, v. 聲聞.

須陀摩 (須陀須摩) Sudhāman, a king mentioned in the 智度論4.


黃壚 A grave, idem黃沓.

黃幡 Yellow paper streamers hung on a grave.

黃教 黃帽教 The yellow sect of Lamaism, founded in 1417 by 宗喀巴 Tsoṅ-kha-pa, Sumatikīrti, who overthrew the decadent sect, which wears red robes, and established the sect that wears yellow, and which at first was: noted for the austere life of the monks; it is found chiefly in Tibet, Mongolia, and Ili.

黃昏 Evening.

黃楊木禪 The yellow poplar meditation. The yellow poplar grows slowly, and in years with intercalary months is supposed to recede in growth; hence the term refers to the backwardness, or decline of stupid disciples.

黃檗 Huangbo, Phallodendron amurense, a tree which gave its name to a monastery in Fujian, and to a sect founded by 希運 Xiyun, its noted abbot of the Tang dynasty.

黃泉 The yellow springs, the shades.

黃葉 Yellow willow leaves, resembling gold, given to children to stop their crying; the evanescent joys of the heavens offered by Buddha to curb evil.

黃衣 Yellow robes (of the monks), but as yellow is a prime colour and therefore unlawful, the garments are dyed a mixture, yellowish-grey.

黃金 The yellow metal, i.e. gold.

黃金宅 Golden abode, i.e. a monastery, so called after the Jetavana vihāra, for whose purchase the site was 'covered with gold'.

黃門 Eunuchs, paṇḍakas, v. 般 10.

黃面 The yellow-faced Laozi, i.e. Buddha, because his images are gold-colour.

黃龍寺 Huanglong, the Yellow Dragon monastery in Kiangsi after which 慧南 Huinan was called.

kāla; kṛṣṇa; black; dark.

黑分 黑月 kṛṣṇapakṣa, the darkening, or latter half of the month, the period of the waning moon.

黑夜神 Kālarātri, also 黑夜天; 黑闇天; 闇夜天; one of the three queens of Yama, who controls midnight.

黑天 Mahākāla, the black deva, a title of Śiva, the fierce Rudra, a black or dark-blue deity with eight arms and three eyes.

黑業 Black karma, or evil deeds, which produce like karmaic results.

黑漆桶 Black varnish tub, blank ignorance.

黑白 Black and white, evil and good; also the two halves of the month, the waning and waxing moon.

黑繩 kālasūtra, the black-rope or black-bonds hell.

黑蚖 The black adder, or venomous snake, i.e. kleśa, passion, or illusion.

黑衣 黑袈 Black, or dark monastic garments.

黑闇 Black, dark, secluded, shut off; in darkness, ignorant.

黑風 Black wind, i.e. a dark storm.

黑齒 Maṭutacaṇḍī, black teeth, name of one of the rākṣasī.

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