A Dictionary Of Chinese Buddhist Terms

With Sanskrit And English Equivalents And A Sanskrit-pali Index

by William Edward Soothill | 1937 | 324,264 words

For about a thousand years, Buddhism dominated the thought of China and her thinkers were occupied with Buddhist philosophy. This dictionary serves as a resource to the interpretation of Chinese culture, as well as an important reference for the comparative study of Sanskrit and Pali originals. The author provides a key for the students which to u...

Part 11 - Eleven Strokes

Dry, dried up, clean; heaven, male, masculine, enduring, continual. Translit. gan and h.

乾屎橛 A stick used in India as 'toilet paper', in China paper, straw, or bamboo.

乾慧地 The dry or unfertilized stage of wisdom, the first of the ten stage.

乾栗陀耶 乾栗馱 hṛdaya, heart, soul, mind, core.

乾城 (乾達城) gandharva city, infra.

乾闥婆 乾沓婆 or 乾沓和; 健達婆(or 健闥婆); 健達縛; 健陀羅; 彦達縛 gandharva or gandharva kāyikās, spirits on Gandha-mādana 香 山 the fragrant or incense mountains, so called because the Gandharvas do not drink wine or eat meat, but feed on incense or fragrance and give off fragrant odours. As musicians of Indra, or in the retinue of Dhṛtarāṣtra, they are said to be the same as, or similar to, the Kinnaras. They are, or according to M.W., Dhṛtarāṣtra is associated with soma, the moon, and with medicine. They cause ecstasy, are erotic, and the patrons of marriageable girls; the Apsaras are their wives, and both are patrons of dicers.

香山 the fragrant or incense mountains, so called because the Gandharvas do not drink wine or eat meat, but feed on incense or fragrance and give off fragrant odours. As musicians of Indra, or in the retinue of Dhṛtarāṣtra, they are said to be the same as, or similar to, the Kinnaras. They are, or according to M. W., Dhṛtarāṣtra is associated with soma, the moon, and with medicine. They cause ecstasy, are erotic, and the patrons of marriageable girls; the apsaras are their wives, and both are patrons of dicers.

乾闥婆城 A Gandharva city, i. e. a mirage city.

乾闥婆王 The king of the Gandharvas, named Citraratha (M W. ), but tr. as Druma, a tree.

乾陀 Yugamhdhara, cf. 踰乾陀羅, the first of the concentric mountains of a world; also name of a tree.

乾陀羅 (or 乾陀越 or 乾陀衞 or 乾陀婆那) Gandhāra, an ancient kingdom in the north of the Punjab, 'Lat. 35° 5N., Long. 71°16E. ' ( Eitel); famous as a centre of Buddhism. Śākyamuni, in a former life, is said to have lived there and torn out his eyes to benefit others, 'probably a distortion of the story of Dharmavivardhana, who as governor of Gandhāra was blinded by order of a concubine of his father, Aśoka. ' Eitel. M. W. associates Gandhāra with Kandahar. Also, name of a fragrant tree, and of a yellow colour.

乾陀訶提 Gandhahastin, 'fragrant elephant, ' name of a Bodhisattva.

To stop, rest, settle, delay.

停心 To fix or settle the mind in meditation, cf. 五停心觀.

An image; a mate; unexpectedly.

偶像 An image, an idol.

[偷] Remiss; to steal; stealthy.

偸婆 stūpa, cf. 塔.

偸盜 Steal, rob; one of the ten sins.

偸蘭 (偸蘭遮耶), 薩偸羅; 因蘭 sthūlātyaya, a great transgression, one of the major transgressions of a monk or nun.

gāthā, metrical hymn or chant, often occurring in sutras and usually of 4, 5, or 7 words to the line. Also 偈他 cf. 伽陀.

偈讚 To sing in verse the praises of the object adored.

偈頌, 偈陀 Hymn, chant; to hymn.

Sturdy, strong, hard, bold; unwearied; translit. ga, gha.

健勇坐 The heroic posture of the Buddha with his feet on his thighs soles upward.

健南 ghana, a mass, also 健男; 鍵南 (or 蹇南 or 羯南) ; it is intp. as a hard, solid lump, the human embryo formed from the fourth to the seventh day.

健拏驃訶 Gandha-vyuha, tr. by 華嚴 q. v.

健陀 健杜; 健達 gandha, smell, scent; a tree producing incense; the first and last also mean (as do 乾陀 and 乾馱) kaṣāya, a colour composed of red and yellow, the monk's robe, but the sounds agree better with kanthā, the patch-robe. Also used for skandha, v. 塞建陀, the five constituents; also for gandharvas, v. 乾闥婆.

健陀倶知 gandhakuṭī, the house of scent, or incense, a temple.

健陀摩陀摩羅 Gandhamādanamāla, the hill of intoxicating perfume.

健達縛 Gandharva, v. 乾.

健馱梨 ? gandhārī, a spell that gives power to fly.

健馱羅 Gandhāra, v. 乾陀羅.

To borrow, pretend, assume, suppose; unreal, false, fallacious. In Buddhism it means empirical; nothing is real and permanent, all is temporal and merely phenomenal, fallacious, and unreal; hence the term is used in the sense of empirical, phenomenal, temporal, relative, unreal, seeming, fallacious, etc. The three fundamental propositions or 三諦 are 空假中 the void, or noumenon; the empirical, or phenomenal; and the mean.

假合 假和合Phenomena, empirical combinations without permanent reality.

假合之身 The empirical body.

假名 Unreal names, i. e. nothing has a name of itself, for all names are mere human appellations.

假名世間 The world of unreal names, i. e. the phenomenal world of sentient beings.

假名有 Things which exist only in name, i. e. all things are combinations of other things and are empirically named.

假名菩薩 One who may be called a bodhisattva because he has attained the 十信 q. v.

假實 False and true, unreal and real, empirical and real, etc.

假我 The empirical ego of the five skandhas.

假有 The phenomenal, which in reality no more exists than turtle's hair or rabbit's horns.

假色 Invisible, or internal form, i. e. spiritual form.

假觀 The meditation on relative truth, or phenomenal and therefore illusory existence, in comparison with 空 and 中 q. v.

假設 prajñapti; ordinary teaching, doctrines derived from the phenomenal.

假門 The sects which rely on externals, i. e. on 'works' for salvation, in contrast with faith in Amitābha.

To or on one side, deflected, one-sided, biased, partial, prejudiced.

偏圓 Partial and all-embracing, relative and complete, e. g. Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna, also the intermediate schools (between Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna) and the perfect school of Tiantai.

偏執 To hold firmly to a one-sided interpretation; bigoted.

偏小 The partial and minor teaching of the Buddha during the first twelve years of his ministry.

偏小情 The partial or narrower Hīnayāna idea that though the ego is unreal, things are real.

偏教 權教 Partial or relative teaching; Tiantai regarded its own teachings the complete, or final and all-embracing teaching of the Buddha, while that of the 法相, 三論, etc., was partial and imperfect; in like manner, the three schools, 藏,通 and 別, piṭaka,intermediate, and separate, were partial and imperfect.

偏眞, 偏空, 單空The Hīnayāna doctrine of unreality, a one-sided dogma in contrast with the transcendental reality of Mahāyāna.

偏衫 The monk's toga, or robe, thrown over one shoulder, some say the right, other the left.

偏袒 Bare on one side, i. e. to wear the toga, or robe, over the right shoulder, baring the other as a mark of respect.

偏門 A side door, one through which offenders are expelled.

Helmet, hood; pocket, bag; translit. tu.

兜夜 The Tuṣita and the Yama heavens.

兜婆 A stūpa.

兜沙 tuṣāra, frost.

兜牟盧 tumburu, probably gandharvas.

兜樓婆 妬路婆 ? turuṣka; olibanum; Indian incense.

兜率陀 (兜率 or 兜率哆); 兜術; 珊都史多, 珊覩史多; 鬭瑟多 Tuṣita, from tuṣ, contented, satisfied, gratified; name of the Tuṣita heaven, the fourth devaloka in the 欲界 passion realm, or desire realm between the Yama and Nirmāṇarati heavens. Its inner department is the Pure Land of Maitreya who, like Śākyamuni and all Buddhas, is reborn there before descending to earth as the next Buddha; his life there is 4,000 Tuṣita years (each day there being equal to 4000 earth-years) 584 million such years.

兜率天子 The prince, i. e. Śākyamuni, whose light while he was in Tuṣita shone into hell and saved all its occupants to that heaven; hence he is also called 地獄天子 Prince of Hades.

兜羅 妬羅 (or 堵羅 or 蠧羅) tūla, floss, e. g. willow-floss, wild silk; cotton, also called兜羅綿 (or 兜羅M016820); also a tree producing such floss.

减 Diminish, decrease, abate, reduce, abbreviate; opp. 增.

減劫 The decreasing kalpas in which the period of life is gradually reduced, as the 增減 are the kalpas of increase; together they form twenty kalpas, ten diminishing and ten increasing; but there are other definitions.

減費 To cut down one's personal expenditure (for the sake of charity).

To aid, assist, second; a deputy

副寮 Deputy in a monastery.

To investigate, examine, collate.

勘辨 To examine and define.

Rein; extort, force; a left stroke; to draw in.

勒沙 lākṣā, lac; a reddish colour, probably cochineal.

勒沙婆 Ṛṣabha, described as one of three famous ṛṣi, before the days of Śākyamuni, of the Nirgrantha type of naked ascetics.

勒那摩提 勒那婆提 ? Ratnamati, a monk from Central India, circa A. D. 500, who translated three works of which two remain.

Move, stir, motion, mutable; movement arises from the nature of wind which is the cause of motion.

動不動法 The mutable and the immutable, the changing and the unchanging, the kamadhātu, or realms of metempsychosis and the two higher realms, rupadhātu and arupadhātu. Cf. 不動.

A privy, cesspool; also called 西淨; 東淨; 東司; 雪隱; 後架; 起止處, etc. Ucchuṣma, v. 烏, is the guardian spirit of the cesspool.

Reflect on, counsel, visit superior. An assembly a gathering for the purpose of meditation, preaching, worship. Read shen, the twenty-first constellation, α, β, γ, δ, ε, ζ, η, and k in Orion.

早參 Morning assembly.

晩參 evening assembly.

小參 a special meeting; a discussion following an address.

參前 Before the evening assembly.

參後 參退 after the evening assembly.

參問 To seek instruction— generally as a class.

參堂 The initiation to the services of one newly ordained.

參禪 To inquire, discuss, seek religious instruction.

參詣 To approach the gods or Buddhas in worship.

參請 To request instruction, or discussion.

參頭 One versed in the ceremonies and capable of leading others.

To open, begin, inform.

啓白 idem 表白 To inform, make clear, especially to inform the Buddhas.

To cry out, sing.

唱名 To cry out names; to call (on) the name (of Buddha).

唱寂 To cry out nirvāṇa, as the Buddha is said to have done at his death.

唱導 To preach to people and lead them to conversion.

唱禮 To announce the ceremonial duty.

唱衣 To cry for sale the robes of a deceased monk, or person.

唱道師 A preacher; the president of a monastic assembly.

唱食 To give the 'blessing' at meals.

oṃ; auṃ; 'a word of solemn affirmation and respectful assent (sometimes translated by yes, verily, so be it, and in this sense compared with Amen). 'M. W. It is 'the mystic name for the Hindu triad', and has other significations. It was adopted by Buddhists, especially by the Tantric school, as a mystic spell, and as an object of meditation. It forms the first syllable of certain mystical combinations, e. g. 唵?呢叭 061971 吽 oṃ maṇi padme huṃ, which is a formula of the Lamaistic branch, said to be a prayer to Padmapani; each of the six syllables having its own mystic power of salvation from the lower paths of transmigration, etc.; the formula is used in sorcery, auguries, etc.; other forms of it are 唵?呢鉢頭迷吽; 唵麽抳鉢訥銘吽.

eḍa, dumb; eḍamūka, deaf and dumb, unable to express oneself; translit. a, v. 阿.

啞咓囉孤答尼耶 Aparagodana, the Western continent, see 阿.

啞子得夢 A dumb man who has had a dream — but cannot tell it.

啞密哩達 amṛta, ambrosia v. 阿.

啞撇釋該而 abhiṣeka, 'consecrate me by sprinkling, ' said in prayer.

啞曷囉啞曷囉馬麻藹由而傘塔囉尼 āhāra āharaṇam āyuḥ, saṃtāraṇe 'Give me, give me old age, oh protector'.

啞法 The doctrine of a deaf and dumb person, which he cannot proclaim.

啞羊 (啞羊僧) A dumb sheep (monk), stupid, one who does not know good from bad, nor enough to repent of sin.

To ask, inquire, question; to adjudicate, sentence.

問法印 The manual sign indicating the putting of a question.

問訉 To make inquiry; ask about another's welfare, orally or by folding the hands; interrogate; try a case.

To consult arrange; trade, a merchant; translit. śaṇ, saṃ, śa, śā.

商佉 商迦 śaṅkha, 餉佉 (or 傷佉, 勝佉, 儴佉, ?佉, 霜佉) ; 勝伽; 企羅; 償起羅 A conch, shell.

商羯羅 Śaṅkara, 'auspicious' (M. W. ), a name for 'Śiva', and intp. as 骨鏁 bone-chains; name of 商羯羅阿闍梨 Śaṅkaracarya, the celebrated Indian philosopher of the eighth century A. D. who is known as a great opponent of Buddhism.

商諾迦縛婆 (商諾縛婆) ; 商那和修; 舍那和修 (or 舍那波私) Sanakavisa; Sanavasa; a younger brother of Ānanda. Also an arhat, whom Eitel gives as the third patriarch, a native of Mathurā, and says: 'A Tibetan tradition identifies him with Yaśas, the leader of the II Synod. ' Because of his name he is associated with a hemp or linen garment, or a covering with which he was born.

商賈 A trader, one of the vaiśya caste.

商量 To consult, discuss together, e. g. as master and pupil.

eva. Affirmative, yes; to answer, respond; said to interpret mātratā, and is defined as discrimination, decision, approval. It is also used for only, alone, but.

唯名 nāma-mātra; name only.

唯境無識 Realism as opposed to 唯識無境 Idealism; implying that the four elements are real and permanent.

唯心 Idealism, mind only, the theory that the only reality is mental, that of the mind. Similar to 唯識q. v. and v. Lankavatara sutra.

唯心偈 The eight-line verse of the older 華嚴 sutra, which summarizes the idealistic idea.

唯色 All things are matter, because mind and matter are identical, for matter is mind.

唯識 vijñānamatra(vada) cittamatra. Idealism, the doctrine that nothing exists apart from mind, 識外無法.

唯識中道 The madhya, or medial doctrine of idealism as held by the 法相 Dharmalakṣana school, that all things are of mind, evolution, and are neither in themselves real nor unreal.

唯識修道五位 The five stages of attaining enlightenment in the idealistic sect: stage of reason and speculation; of asceticism; of apprehension of truth; of practice of contemplation from the first to the tenth stage; of complete comprehension of truth.

唯識圓教 The third of the three divisions of the Buddha's teaching as defined by Tao-hsuan of Nan-shan, the perfect doctrine of idealism.

唯識宗 The Dharmalakṣana sect 法相宗, which holds that all is mind in its ultimate nature.

唯識家 Same as 唯識宗.

唯識觀 The three subjects of idealistic refection: that the ego and things are realities; that things are produced by cause and circumstance; that the bhūtatathatā is the only reality. Also called 唯識三性觀, cf. 三性.

唯識論 Vijnaptimatrāṣiddhi-śāstra, also called the 成唯識論.

唯識二十論 Vidyamatrāṣiddhi-vimsakakarikaśāstra; another is the 唯識三十論 Vidyamatrāṣiddhitridasakarika-śāstra. There are numerous commentaries and treatises on the subject. See de la Vallée Poussin's version.

A country, a nation; national.

國僧正 National superintendent of the clergy, an office which at one time existed.

國土 A country, land, native land, abode of a race, or races.

國土世間 The world of countries on which people depend for existence.

國土身 The Buddha as Buddhakṣetra, or abode of the living; the world as the body of Vairocana.

國師 Imperial preceptor a title conferred on certain Buddhist monks, especially on 慧能 Hui-neng, q. v.

國王 A king, prince, i. e. one who has attained to his present high estate consequent on keeping all the ten commandments in a previous incarnation; and being protected by devas 天, he is called 天子 deva son, or Son of Heaven.

Frontier, limit; region; tomb.

域心 域懷 The limits of the mind, natural endowment.

域龍 Dignāga, Diṅnāga, a celebrated Buddhist philosopher 陳那, author of a famous treatise on logic.

A heap, a pile.

堆壓地獄 The hell of crushing, also 衆合地獄, the third great hell in which sinners are crushed to death.

prāsāda. A hall, temple, court.

堂頭 The head of the hall, the abbot of a monastery.

堂主 The head of a hall on specific occasion.

堂司 The controller of the business in a monastery.

堂塔 Temples and monasteries in general.

堂達 The distributor of the liturgies, etc.

dṛḍha. sthira : firm, firmly fixed, reliable.

堅固 Firm and sure.

堅固意 Firm-willed, name of a bodhisattva in the Garbhadhatu.

堅固慧 Strong in wisdom, ditto.

堅林 (堅固林) The grove of Sala trees, in which Sakyamuni died.

堅牢 Firm and stable ; that which is stable, the earth.

堅牢地神 (or 堅牢地天, or 堅牢地祇) The earth-goddess, or deity, or spirits.

堅實 Firm and solid.

堅實心 With firm heart.

堅意 堅慧 Sthiramati of firm mind, or wisdom. An early Indian monk of the Mahāyāna; perhaps two monks.

堅智 Firm knowledge, or wisdom, a name of Vajrapāṇi.

堅法 The three things assured to the faithful (in reincarnation)—a good body, long life, and boundless wealth.

堅滿菩薩 Dhṛtiparipūrṇa, the firm and complete Bodhisattva, who is to be Buddha Padma-vṛṣabha-vikrāmin, attending on Padmaprabha.

堅誓師子 The firmly vowing lion, i.e. Sakyamuni in a previous incarnation.

grah, grabh ; graha. To seize, grasp, hold on to, maintain; obstinate.

執事 To manage, control ; a manager.

執受 Impressions, ideas grasped and held.

執取相 Retention of memories of past joys and sorrows as if they were realities and not illusions, one of the 六麤 in the Awakening of Faith.

執師子國 Siṃhala, Ceylon.

執心 The mind which clings to (things as real).

執情 The foolish passion of clinging to the unreal.

執持 To hold firmly.

執持識 adana-vijñāna, a name for the ālaya-vijñāna.

執曜 graha, the planets, nine or seven.

執著 To cling to things as real ; used for abhiniveśa.

執見 Views obstinately held, with consequent delusion; bigoted.

執金剛神 vajrapāṇi, vajradhara. Any deva-holder of the vajra. (1) Indra, who in a former incarnation took an oath to defend Buddhism, was reborn as king of the yakṣas, hence he and his yakṣas carry vajras. (2) Mañjuśrī as the spiritual reflex of the Dhyāni Buddha Akṣobhya. (3) A popular deity, the terror of all enemies of Buddhist believers, specially worshipped in exorcisms and sorcery by the Yoga school.

執障 The holding on to the reality of self and things and the consequent hindrance to entrance into nirvana.

A woman; a wife.

婦人 "Nothing is so dangerous to monastic chastity as woman"; she is the root of all misery, hindrance, destruction, bondage, sorrow, hatred, blindness, etc.

Licentious, lewd ; adultery, fornication: similar to 淫 q.v.

婬怒癡 The three poisons of sexual desire, anger, and ignorance (or heedlessness).

婬戒 The commandment against adultery.

婬欲 Sexual desire.

婬火 The fire of sexual passion. 婬羅綱 Its net.

A dame, mother, wife, granny, crone ; translit. pa, ba, va, pha, bha, and similar labial sounds.

婆利 vaḍiśa, valiśa, or vakrī, a hook, bent.

婆利師 varṣās, v. 雨, the rainy season of retreat.

婆利師迦 婆利史迦羅 v. 婆師迦.

婆利耶 bhāryā, a wife.

婆利質羅 (婆利質多羅) ? Pārijāta, v. 波, a tree in Indra's heaven.

婆利闍多迦 pārijātaka, a deva flower.

婆叉 Vākṣu; Vaṅkṣu; the Oxus ; Vaṅkṣu is also a small branch of the Ganges, idem 縛芻.

婆伽 bhāga, a portion division, fraction.

婆伽婆 (帝) bhagavat, or 婆伽梵; 婆伽伴 ; 婆誐鑁; 薄伽梵 bhagavān, "fortunate," "excellent," "revered, sacred," "the holy one" (M.W.); generally intp. by 世尊 world-honoured, but there are other intps.; an epithet of a Buddha.

婆哩野 bhāryā, a dependent, a wife; also 婆利耶 (or 婆梨耶) ; 婆利廋.

婆喝那 vāhana, 10 quadrillions. 大婆喝那 100 quadrillions.

婆嚩誐帝 bhagavat, v. 婆伽.

婆城 A gandharva city, a mirage, an illusion city, v. 乾沓婆.

婆婆伽利 Pāpakārin; evil-doer, name of a prince.

婆差優婆差 upāsaka-upāsikā , male and female disciples dwelling at home; lay disciples.

婆師波 Vāṣpa, Bāṣpa; one of the first five disciples, Daśabala-Kāśyapa, identified with Mahākāśyapa; also 婆師婆 (or 婆濕婆) 婆沙波.

婆師 (婆師迦) vārṣika, the flower that blooms in the rains, the aloe, agallochum; also 婆利師 (婆利師迦) q.v.; 婆利史迦羅; 婆使迦; 婆師波利 varṣākāla, varṣipālī.

婆捺囉婆捺麽洗 Bhādrapadamāsa, the sixth month, middle of August to middle of September; the third and fourth nakṣatras or lunar mansions, pūrva and uttara; also 跋婆捺囉娜; 跋陀娜婆娜; 婆達羅鉢陀.

婆提 Bhadrika, one of the first disciples; cf. 跋. Also vana, a grove; or vanī.

婆斯仙 One of the fire devas and his 后 wife in the Garbhadhātu group; perhaps Vasu.

婆梨 vāri; water; fluidity; also 婆利; 波利.

婆樓那 Varuṇa, v. 水天.

婆檀陀 bhadanta, 大德, laudable, praiseworthy, blessed, of great virtue-a term of respect for a buddha, or for monks, especially of the Hīnayāna school.

婆毘吠伽 Bhāvaviveka, a learned monk who retired from the world to await the coming of Maitreya, v. 西域記 10.

婆沙 v. 毘 Vibhāṣā.

婆沙波 婆敷 Bāṣpa, v. 婆師波.

婆珊婆演底 vasanta-vayantī, spring-weaving, but the description is of a guardian of the night or of sleep.

婆瘦 vāyu, wind, god of the wind. Also 婆牖; 縛叟.

婆盧枳底濕伐羅 Avalokiteśvara, see 觀音.

婆私吒 (婆私) Vasiṣṭha, a brahman who is said to have denied the eternity of nirvana, and maintained that plants had lives and intelligence; Nirvana Sutra 39. One of the seven ancient ṛṣis of Brahmanic mythology, one of the champions in the Ṛg Veda of the priesthood. Name of a brahman whose mother lost her six sons, she became mad, wandered naked, met the Buddha, was restored and became a disciple. Also 婆吒; 私婆吒; 婆私瑟搋 or 婆私瑟柁.

婆稚 bandhi, or bali, the origin and meaning are obscure, defined as 'bound' and also as round, full-orbed, complete. Bandhiasura, an asura -king. Also, 婆梨; 跋稚; 跋塀; 跋移; 末利.

婆羅 pāla; keeper, guardian, warden; vihārapāla, warden of a monastery. bala; power, strength, especially the 五力 five powers, pañca bālani, i.e. 五根; also the 十力 daśabala, ten powers. Name of the sister of Ānanda who offered milk to Śākyamuni. bāla; 'young,' 'immature,' 'simpleton, fool,' 'hair' (M.W.); ignorant, unenlightened, see bālapṛthagjana, below.

婆羅吸摩補羅 Brahmapura. "An ancient kingdom of Northern India, the dynastic title of which was entailed upon the female line exclusively"; hence styled 女國. Said to be Garhwal.

婆羅奢 phalasa, the breadfruit tree; intp. as a tree with red flowers.

婆羅必栗託仡那 婆羅必哩他仡那; 婆羅必利他伽闍那 bālapṛthagjana, low, foolish people; natural-minded, as children, of common intelligence and ideas, a man in his natural state, unilluminated, unenlightened.

婆羅捨佉 鉢羅奢佉 praśākha, a fetus of five to seven days.

婆羅提木叉 pratimokṣa, v. 波.

婆羅捺寫 Vārāṇasī, an ancient kingdom and city, noted (A.D. 640) as the headquarters of Śivaism; Bemares; cf. 波.

婆羅訶 (婆羅) Balāhaka, a king of horses, or possessing horses.

婆羅賀磨 or 婆羅賀摩 Brahmā; 婆羅賀磨拏; 婆羅欱末拏 Brāhmaṇa; see below.

婆羅那馱 Varanāda, a bellowing yakṣa.

婆羅門 跋濫摩; 沒囉憾摩 Brāhmaṇa; Brāhmanical; Brāhman; 淨行; 婆志 of pure life or mind; the highest of the four castes, those who serve Brahma, his offspring, the keepers of the Vedas.

婆羅門國 Brāhmaṇarāṣtra, the realm of the brahmans, India.

婆羅門城 A city of brahmans, from which the Buddha returned with his begging bowl empty.

婆羅門書 brahman writing; the alphabet.

婆羅門邑 Brāhmaṇapura, "a city northeast of the capital of Mālava." Eitel.

婆耶 payas; liquid, fluid, juice, water.

婆致迦 sphātika, v. 水玉.

婆舍斯多 Basiasita (Sk. Vāsi-Asita) or Naśaśata, the twenty-fifth Patriarch who laboured in Central India; the date of his death is given as A.D. 325.

婆舍跋提 Vaśavartin, the sixth desire-heaven, the abode of Māra, the god of lust, sin, and death; its occupants avail themselves of the merits of others for their own pleasure; it is also called the abode of Śikhin (Brahma) as lord of fire; also 他化自在天 and 婆羅尼密婆舍跋提 Paranirmitavaśavartin.

婆藪 vasu 婆萸; good; rich; sweet; dry; according to Monier-Williams, eight personifications of natural phenomena; eight; the sun, etc.; father of Kṛṣṇa; intp. as the first to offer slain sacrifices to Heaven, to have been cast into hell, but after countless kalpas to have become a disciple of Buddha. Also called Vasudeva. Also name of certain devas, e.g. Viṣṇu; and other beings whom men serve, e.g. a father.

婆藪槃豆 婆藪槃陀; 婆藪盤豆; 婆修盤頭; 伐蘇畔徒; 筏蘇畔徒 or筏蘇盤豆 Vasubandhu, known as 天親 q.v., and 世親 kinsman of devas, or of the world.

婆訶 vāha; it means bearing, carrying, a beast of burden, but is used in the sense of a large grain-container of twenty bushels 斛; supernatural life, or adbhuta, is compared to a vāha full of hemp seed, from which one seed is withdrawn every century. Also婆訶摩.

婆誐 bhaṅga, breaking, fracture, fragment, broken. Also 婆伽; 薄伽.

婆蹉 vatsa, a calf, offspring, a term of endearment for a child. The founder of the Vātsīputrīyāḥ school.

婆蹉婆 A term for śakra.

婆蹉富羅 (婆蹉富多羅) The above school, a branch of the Sarvāstivādins, v. 犢.

婆蹉那婆 vatsanābha, a strong poison, "from the root of a kind of aconite." M.W.

婆那 vana, a wood, grove; also 飯那; 嚩泥.

婆里旱 balin, intp. 力士 a strong man, hero.

婆闍羅波尼婆里旱 Vajrapāṇibalin, the powerful one with the thunderbolt, one of the two gate-guardians.

婆陀 baddha, bound, tied, fettered, fixed; also 縛馱; also an abbrev. for 阿波陀那 avadāna.

婆雌子部 Vātsīputra, also 婆麤富羅, v. 婆蹉 and 犢子.

婆須蜜 (婆須蜜多) Vasumitra, v. 筏蘇密呾羅.

婆頗裟 prabhāsa, light, bright.

To oppress, wrong; a grievance; enmity.

寃親 Enmity and friendship.

寃親平等心 A mind that knows neither enmity nor friendship, no discrimination of persons.

To go or put under cover, lodge, confide to, deliver, convey, transfer; to enter, put in a list.

寄庫 To convey to the treasury, i.e. as paper money or goods are transferred to credit in the next world not only of the dead, but also by the living in store for themselves.

Closed in; close together; intimate; quiet, still; secret, occult, esoteric; fine, small; contrasted with 顯 open, exoteric. Cf. 祕.

密付 To pass down esoterically, or by word of mouth.

密印 The esoteric digital sign of a buddha or bodhisattva indicative of his vow.

密咒 A dhāraṇī, or esoteric incantation.

密號 The esoteric name of Vairocana; also any 'true word' (Shingon) or esoteric spell.

密嚴國 密嚴淨土 The Pure Land of Vairocana; also in the Huayan Sutra called the 華藏 world; the doctrine is found in this sutra.

密因 The esoteric, occult, recondite cause.

密字 The esoteric letter of Vairocana, or of a buddha or bodhisattva.

密宗 The esoteric, mantra, Shingon, or 'True word' sect, especially prevalent in Japan, where its two chief texts are 毘盧遮那成佛經 and 金剛頂經 founded by Kōbō Daishi, it developed the two maṇḍalas of the Garbhadhātu and Vajradhātu, q.v.

密家 idem the last.

密教 idem, also esoteric teaching in general; the two classes are divided into the密教 esoteric or Yoga school, and 顯教 the open schools or teaching, comprising all the sects of Buddhism, except the esoteric sect. The密教三藏 Tripiṭaka of the esoteic sect are, as its sutra, the 大毘盧舍那金剛頂經; as its vinaya, the 蘇婆呼經根本部; as its śāstras, the 莊嚴菩提心經, etc., q.v.

密機 The motive power, or fundamental element, in the esoteric; the opportunity of learning a mantra.

密法 Esoteric methods.

密灌 The baptism of the esoteric sect.

密經 The foundation texts of the esoteric school, i.e. the 大日經 and 金剛頂經 and various sutras, especially but not exclusively those with mantras; another group is the first two and the 蘇悉地經.

密義Esoteric meaning, or doctrine.

密藏 The esoteric canon.

密衆 The followers of the esoteric school.

密行 Esoteric practice, or discipline, the origin of which is attributed to Rāhula.

密語 Occult, or esoteric expressions.

密迹 密跡 Secret or invisible tracks.

密迹金剛力士 Vajrapāṇi, guardian of buddhas, driving away all yakṣa disturbers, a form of Indra; his dhāraṇīs have been twice translated into Chinese, v. B.N. The 密奢兜 esoteric 'Cintya' is a mantra said to have been used by all the seven buddhas down to and including Śākyamuni.

宿 A halting-place; to pass the night, sojourn, stay; early, former; left over; nakṣatra, the constellations.

宿世 A former existence.

宿作 The deeds of a former life.

宿作外道 One of the ascetic sects who sought release from penalties for the deeds of a former life by severe austerities now.

宿住 pūrva-nivāsa, former abidings, or habitations, hence宿住通 (宿住隨念智證通), i.e. Buddha-knowledge of the former incarnations of himself and others.

宿債 The unrepaid debts from, or sins of, former incarnations.

宿哈 idem 婆訶 svāhā.

宿命 Previous life, or lives; v. 宿住.

宿命力 Buddha-power to know all previous transmigrations.

宿命明 The knowledge of the arhat of his own and other previous transmigrations.

宿命通 (宿命智通) pūrvanivāsānusmṛti-(jñāna); buddha-knowledge of all forms of previous existence of self and others; one of the 六通 (六神通).

宿善 Good deeds done in previous existence.

宿因 Good or evil cause in previous existence.

宿執 The character acquired in a previous existence and maintained.

宿執開發 The present fruition of the meritorious character developed in previous existence.

宿報 The consequence of deeds done in former existence.

宿夜 To stay the night; the previous night, e.g. the night before any special service.

宿忌 The night before a fast-day.

宿意 A former intention, or vow.

宿曜 The twenty-eight constellations and seven luminaries.

宿根 宿植 The root of one's present lot planted in previous existence.

宿業 Former karma, the karma of previous existence.

宿王戲 nakṣatra-rāja-vikrīḍita, the play of the star-king, or king of the constellations, one of the samādhi in the Lotus Sutra.

宿王華 Nakṣatra-rāja-saṅkusumitābhijña, king of the star-flowers, a bodhisattva in the Lotus Sutra.

宿福 Happy karma from previous existence.

宿緣 Causation or inheritance from previous existence.

宿習 The practices, habits, or deeds of or inherited from former existence.

宿願 The vow made in a former existence.

宿願力 The power of an ancient vow.

praśama; vivikta; śānti. Still, silent, quiet, solitary, calm, tranquil, nirvāṇa.

寂光 Calm and illuminating as are Truth and Knowledge; the hidden truth illuminating.

寂光土 (寂光) The land (of buddhas) where is calm illumination.

宿命智 buddha-knowledge of the transmigratory forms of all beings.

寂定 Tranquil concentration; contemplation in which disturbing illusion is eliminated.

寂岸 The shore of peace, nirvāṇa.

寂常 Peace eternal, eternal nirvāṇa.

寂忍 Calmness and endurance, quiet patience.

寂念 Calm thoughts; to calm the mind; contemplation.

寂業師子 The lion of nirvāṇa, Śākyamuni.

寂滅 Calmness and extinction, nirvāṇa.

寂滅忍 nirvāṇa-patience; the patience of the nirvāṇa (the suppression of all passion).

寂滅法 The nirvāṇa-method.

寂滅無二 Nirvāṇa as absolute without disunity or phenomena.

寂滅相 Nirvāṇa considered independently of the phenomenal.

寂滅道場 (寂場) The place where a buddha attains the truth of nirvāṇa, especially where Śākyamuni attained it.

寂災 To quell calamities (by spells, or ceremonies).

寂然 In calmness, quietude, silence; undisturbed.

寂然界 The Hīnayāna nirvāṇa-realm or border.

寂照 nirvāṇa-illumination; ultimate reality shining forth.

寂照慧 Buddha-wisdom which comprehends nirvāṇa reality and its functioning.

寂用湛然 Character (nirvāṇa-like) and function concomitant in the absolute and relative, in being and becoming, etc.

寂種 The nirvāṇa class, i.e. the Hinayanists who are said to seek only their own salvation.

寂靜 Calm and quiet; free from temptation and distress; nirvāṇa.

寂靜法 Ceremonies for restoring peace from calamity.

寂靜行 Hīnayāna discipline to ensure nirvāṇa.

寂靜門 Nirvāṇa, or the absolute 一切諸法, as the door of release from trouble and suffering.

寂默外道 Ascetics vowed to silence who dwell among tombs or in solitude.

Single; special; solely.

專心 With single mind; whole-heartedly.

專念 To fix the mind, or attention, upon; solely to invoke (a certain buddha).

專想 To think wholly, or only, of or upon.

專精 Solely and purely (to advance in the Way).

Screen: to exclude, expel, turn away.

屛莎 Bimbisāra, v. 苹.

Lofty, distinguished.

崛山 Vulture peak, abbrev. for 耆閣崛山.

崛多 Abbrev. for Upagupta, cf. 優.

Lofty, eminent, honourable; to reverence, adore.

崇信 Reverence and faith, to revere and trust.

崇敬 To reverence and respect.

崑崙 Kunlun, or Pulo Condore Island, or islands generally in the southern seas, hence崑崙子 or崑崙奴 is a native of those islands of black colour, and崑崙國 is described as Java, Sumatra, etc.

崑崙山 The Kunlun range north of Tibet, the 香山 dhamādana.

A girdle, belt, bandage, tape, appendage; connect; implicate; take along.

帶刀卧 帶刀睡 To take one's sword to bed, which being worn on the left side compels the wearer to sleep on the right, or proper side.

帶塔尊 帶塔德菩薩 Maitreya, bearer of the pagoda.

nitya; śāśvata. Prolonged, constant, always, unceasing, permanent, perpetual, ever, eternal; normal, ordinary, regular.

常不輕 Sadāparibhūta, the monk who never slighted others, but assured all of buddhahood, a former incarnation of Śākyamuni; Lotus Sutra 20.

常住 Permanent, always abiding, eternal.

常住一相 The eternal unity or reality behind all things.

常光 The unceasing radiance of the Buddha's body, represented as a halo.

常力 Unfailing powers.

常啼菩薩 v. 薩陀.

常境 The eternal realm.

常寂 Eternal peace, nirvāṇa.

常寂光土 The realm (of spirit) where all are in perpetual peace and glory; Tiantai's fourth Buddhakṣetra.

常恒 Constantly.

常念 Always remembering; always repeating.

常智 Knowledge sub specie aeternitatis, not conditioned by phenomena, abstract.

常樂我淨 The four pāramitās of knowledge: eternity, bliss, personality, purity, the four transcendental realities in nirvāṇa, v. Nirvāṇa Sutra.

常沒 Ever drowning in the sea of mortality.

常波羅蜜 The first of the four pāramitās, eternity.

常眼 The ordinary physical eye.

常立勝幡 An-avanāmita-vaijayanta. With ever erect victorious banner; name of Ānanda's future buddha-realm.

常行 Constantly doing, or practicing; ordinary procedure.

常見 The view that (personality) is permanent.

常身 The eternal Buddha-body, the dharmakāya.

常途 Regular ways, or methods.

常道 Eternal Tao; the way of eternity; regular ways, the regulation path.

A thatched hut, shelter, place of retirement from the world; a small temple; especially a nunnery, hence庵室; 庵寺 generally applies to such, and庵主 is the abbess.

A multitude; all; the; a concubine; so that; nearly so.

庶類 The common people.

庶迦羅 (庶迦) cakra, a wheel, hence Cakravartī or wheel-king.

At ease, in repose; undisturbed; well, hale.

康居 Samarkand, or Soghdiana, cf. 西域記 1.

康僧鎧 or 康僧會 Saṅghavarman, also said to be Saṅghapāla; an Indian monk supposed to be of Tibetan descent; but Saṅghapāla is described as the eldest son of the prime minister of Soghdiana, and is probably a different person. Saṅghavarman tr. at the White Horse Temple, Luoyang, in A.D. 252; inter alia the 無量壽經 is accredited to him, but a more reliable tradition of the Canon ascribes the tr. to Dharmarakṣa A.D. 308.

Remove, flit.

徙多 v. 私 Śītā.

To follow, agree with, obey; from; followers, secondary.

從地踊出 Springing out of the earth, chapter 15 in the Lotus Sutra.

從容 Of calm demeanour, easy and natural, unperturbed.

從僧 A 'half-monk', a neophyte.

prāp; prāpta. To get, obtain, attain to; got, obtained, etc.

得入 To attain entry, e.g. to buddha-truth.

得勝 To obtain the victory.

得大勢 勢至 (大勢至) Mahāsthāmaprāpta, he who has obtained great power, or stability, who sits on the right of Amitābha, controlling all wisdom.

得度 To obtain transport across the river of transmigration, to obtain salvation; to enter the monastic life.

得意 To obtain one's desires, or aims; to obtain the meaning (of a sutra).

得戒 To obtain the commandments; to attain to the understanding and performance of the moral law.

得戒沙彌 A monk who is restored, or not unfrocked, on confession of his sin.

得果 To obtain the fruit of deeds or life.

得眼林 Āptanetravana, the forest of recovered eyes.

得繩 The cord, or bond, of attaining; the bondage of possessing.

得羅盧迦 trailokya, 三界 q.v.

得藏 Śrīgarbha, idem 淨眼 Vimalanetra.

得脫 To attain to deliverance (from the miseries of reincarnation).

得道 To obtain the way, or the religion; by obedience to the commandments, practice of meditation, and knowledge, to attain enlightenment.

得髓 To obtain the marrow, the secret, the essence.

Confused, stupefied.

惛沈 Sunk in stupor.

To care for, regard, compassionate, pity; spare.

惛囊 To be as careful of (the monastic law as of) the skin-floats when swimming a river.

To reflect on; but, only; verbal particle; of. 唯.

惟予頗羅 or惟于頗羅 Bṛhatphala 廣果, 'great fruit,' or abundant merits; the twelfth brahmaloka, or second region of the fourth dhyāna.

The feelings, passions, desires, affections, sensations; sentient; affinities; affairs, facts. Particular affections, duties, or affairs.

情塵 The six guṇas or objects of sensation of the six organs of sense; sensation and its data; sensation-data; passion-defilement.

情有 The realm of feeling, i.e. any world of sentience or feeling, especially this world as empirically considered; 有情 is to have consciousness, the conscious, or sentient.

情有理無 Empirically or sentiently existing, in essence or reality non-existent.

情欲 The passions, desires.

情猿 The passions like an ape, never still.

情見 The perverted views produced by passion or affection.

Investigate thoroughly; fully, minutely; all; translit. si, sa, s, sr.

悉伽羅 śṛgāla, 野干 a jackal.

悉他薜攞 悉替耶 sthavira, an elder, a term applied to a monk of 20-50 years of age and of ten years' standing; the Sthaviranikāya悉他陛攞尼迦耶 or 上坐部 q.v., one of the four branches of the Vaibhāṣika school.

悉利 idem 室利 q.v. 悉地 siddhi, accomplishment, complete attainment, perfection, proof, truth, final emancipation, supreme felicity, magical or supernatural powers; cf. M.W. As supernatural power it is used to end calamities, subdue demons, etc.

悉多頞他 Siddhārtha, see below.

悉底 siddhi, see above.

悉怛多般怛羅 sitātapatra, a white umbrella, or canopy.

悉曇 悉檀; 悉談 siddha(m), accomplished, finished, v. siddhi above; and next.

悉曇章 siddhavastu, the first of twelve chapters of a syllabary attributed to Brahmā, originating the thirty-six letters of the alphabet, later said to be expanded to as many as fifty-two.

悉檀 悉談 siddhānta, an established conclusion, proved fact, axiom, dogma, at text or authoritative work, cf. M.W.; intp. as 成就 complete, and incorrectly as the Buddha's unstinted gift of the 四法 q.v.

悉耻羅末底 Sthiramati, one of the 唯識 writers.

悉達多 (悉達) Siddhārtha, Sarvāthasiddha, also悉多 (悉多頞他); 悉陀 the realization of all aims, prosperous; personal name of Śākyamuni.

悉阤 idem 私多.

To dig.

掘倫 ? Kulun, i.e. Pulo Condore, also called 崑崙.

掘具羅 A kind of western incense.

捫打勒 maṇḍala, v. 曼.

To press down; a pen-stroke to the right; translit. na.

捺地迦葉波 Nadī-Kāśyapa, also 那提 a brother of Mahā-Kāśyapa, to be reborn as Buddha Samanta-prabhāsa.

捺落迦 or 那落迦 naraka, hell, the hells, v. 地獄; 捺落迦 sometimes refers to the place of torment, and 那落迦 nāraka to the sufferer there.

捺謨 捺麻 namaḥ, v. 南.

To hold in both hands, offer, receive: a double handful.

捧物 To bear or offer gifts in both hands.

To sweep.

掃地 To sweep the floor, or ground, an act to which the Buddha is said to have attributed five kinds of merit; v. 毘奈耶雜事.

To feel for, explore, investigate, search; to spy, inquire into.

探水 To sound the depth of water, the lower part of a staff, i.e. for sounding depth.

To shake, change, arrange; to fall.

掉悔 Discontent and regret, ambition and repining.

掉散 Unsteady in act, word, and thought; unreliable.

掉擧 Ambitious, unsettled.

To push away, recede from, decline, resign, push, put, put of; investigate.

推功歸本To put off minor merit for the sake of fundamentals.

推究 To search out, investigate.

推却 To decline.

To pick, gather, choose.

採花 採華 To pick flowers.

採菽氏 Bean-picker, a tr. of the name of Maudgalyāyana, from mudga, kidney-beans.

To cover (with the hand), screen, shut up.

掩土 To bury, inter.

掩室 To shut (oneself) in a room, as did the Buddha for meditation.

掩色 To cover the form, or face, i.e. the death of the Buddha, or a noted monk, referring to the covering, of the face.

To hang, suspend.

掛子 A peg for a garment.

掛搭 掛褡; 掛單 One who hangs up all his possessions, i.e. a wandering monk who stays for the night in a monastery.

掛眞 To hang up a picture (of a Buddha, etc.).

掛絡 掛落; 掛羅 A short garment, or cover; a waistcoat.

掛錫 To hang up one's staff, similar to掛搭; to dwell in a place.

To receive, take; join on; graft.

接引 To receive and lead, to welcome.

接待 To receive and treat, or wait upon.

接生 To receive the living; also to receive at birth as a midwife does.

接足作禮 To embrace the (Buddha's) feet in reverence or pleading, or to extend the arms in that posture.

To give, confer, deliver, communicate to, hand down.

授事 karmadāna, the director of duties, the one who gives out the work.

授手 To proffer the hand, to come in person to welcome the dying, as e.g. does Guanyin in certain cases.

授決 To give decisions, idem授記.

授衣 To give out winter garments in the ninth month.

授記 和伽羅 vyākaraṇa, vyākarā; the giving of a record, prediction; foretelling; the prophetic books of the Canon predicting the future glory of individuals and groups of disciples, both final and temporary, and the various stages of progress. There are several classifications, v. 二 and 八記. Cf. 憍.

upekṣā, neglect, indifference, abandoning, M.W. To relinquish, renounce, abandon, reject, give. One of the chief Buddhist virtues, that of renunciation, leading to a state of "indifference without pleasure or pain" (Keith), or independence of both. v. 舍. It is defined as the mind 平等 in equilibrium, i.e. above the distinction of things or persons, of self or others; indifferent, having abandoned the world and all things and having no affections or desires. One of the seven bodhyaṅgas. Translit. sa, śa, s(r).

捨囉梵 śarāva, a shard, an earthenware vessel.

捨心 The mind of renunciation.

捨念淸淨地 The pure land or heaven free from thinking, the fifth of the nine brahmalokas in the fourth dhyāna region.

捨攞馱 śraddhā, faith, confidence, trust, belief.

捨受 The state of renunciation, or indifference to sensation.

捨家棄欲 To leave home and cast off desire, i.e. to become a monk.

捨無量心 upekṣā, one of the four forms of the unsparing or unlimited mind, complete abandonment, absolute indifference, renunciation of the mental faculties.

捨身 Bodily sacrifice, e.g. by burning, or cutting off a limb, etc.

To save, rescue, prevent from ill.

救世To save the world; a saviour of the world, i.e. 救世者 or 救世尊; 救世菩薩 Buddhas and bodhisattvas as world-saviours, especially 救世觀世音 Guanyin, also called 救世圓滿 complete saviour of the world.

救世輪 The wheel of salvation.

救世闡提 The world-saving icchanti, q. v., the bodhisattva who defers entry into Buddhahood to fulfil his vow of saving all beings.

救拔 To save and drag out of suffering, e.g. hell.

救脫 To save and set free; to be saved and freed.

救苦 To save from suffering, to save the suffering.

救護 To save and protect.

Clever, active, ingenious, witty.

敏倶理 ? Hingulā, an Indian name doubtfully intp. as Korea.

聰敏 Wise, clever.

Subvert, defeat, ruin, spoil, destroy.

敗壞菩薩 Bodhisattvas who defeat their proper end of becoming buddha, and who are reborn in lower positions, e.g. as kings or princes, of as dragon-kings, etc.

敗根 敗種 Spoiled roots, or seed, i.e. Hīnayānists who do not seek buddhahood, but are content with the rewards of asceticism.

pravacana, to teach, instruct, inculcate; śāśana, teaching, precept, doctrine; āgama, sect, school, church.

教主 The founder of a religion, e.g. the Buddha.

教令 To instruct, command; the commands of a sect or school.

教內 Within instruction; in the sect or church; especially those who receive normal instruction from the written canon, opposite of 教外.

教典 The sacred books of a religion, or sect.

教判 The various divisions of teaching or doctrine, such as the Tiantai theory of the five periods of Śākyamuni's life, the four classes of doctrine, the four styles of teaching, etc.

教勅 The commands of a master or father.

教化 To transform by instruction; teach and convert; to cause another to give alms.

教外 Outside the sect, or school, or church; also not undergoing normal instruction i.e. the intuitive school which does not rely on texts or writings, but on personal communication of its tenets, either oral or otherwise, including direct contact with the Buddha or object of worship, e.g. 'guidance'.

教導 To instruct and lead.

教授 To instruct, give instruction.

教授師 教授阿闍梨 An ācārya, or instructor, preceptor.

教會 An assembly, for instruction; a congregation; a church.

教理 The fundamental principles of a religion; its doctrines, or dogmas, e.g. the four truths, the tweIve nidānas, the eightfold noble path.

教理行果 The fruit or results arising from the practice of a religion.

教相 The particular teaching of a sect.

教網 The teaching (of Buddha) viewed as a net to catch and save mortals.

教義 The meaning of a teaching, or doctrine.

教行 Instruction and conduct; teaching and practice; also the progress of the teaching, or doctrine.

教行證 Teaching, practice and its realization, its evidential results.

教觀 Teaching and meditation; the Buddha's doctrine and meditation on it; also教觀二門.

教語 The words of Buddhism; words of instruction.

教證 Teaching and evidence, doctrine and its evidential results, or realization.

教迹 The vestiges, or evidences of a religion; e.g, the doctrines, institutions, and example of the teachings of Buddha and the saints.

教道 To teach a way, or religion; a taught way contrasted with an intuitional way; the way of teaching.

教門 A religion, a sect, different religious teachings.

教體 The body, or corpus of doctrine; the whole teaching.

droṇa, a tub, or wooden vessel; a measure of capacity. A square wooden vessel, a bushel, a picul.

斛飯 droṇodana, cf. 途.

Revolve, turn round, whirl.

旋嵐 A whirlwind, cyclone.

旋火輪 A whirling wheel of fire, a circle yet not a circle, a simile of the seeming but unreal, i.e. the unreality of phenomena.

旋陀羅尼 A spell which endows with extensive powers of evolution; also varied involutions of magical terms.

Day, daytime, daylight.

晝暗林 The grove of daylight darkness, a cemetery.

Dawn, morning.

晨朝 The morning period, the first of the three divisions of the day.

The last day of the moon; night; dark, obscure; unlucky.

昏晦 Obscure, dark.

Sunset, evening, twilight; late.

晩參 The evening service.

晩粥 The evening gruel, which being against the rule of not eating after midday is styled medicine.

Clear; to meet; to explain.

晤恩 Wusi, founder of the 山外 external school of the Tiantai, died A.D. 986.

Company, class; used as the plural of pronouns, etc.

曹山 Caoshan in Jiangsu, where the Caodong sect曹洞宗, a branch of the Chan school, was founded by Dongshan 洞山; Caoshan was the name of the second patriarch of this sect.

曹溪 Caoqi, a stream, south-east of Shaozhou, Guangdong, which gave its name to 慧能 Huineng.

Long, prolonged, extended, widespread.

曼供 Offerings of mandārava flowers, cf. below.

曼勝尊 A title of a buddha.

曼怛羅 or 曼特羅 v. below and 滿怛羅 are also used for mantra, an incantation, spell, magical formula, or muttered sound.

曼殊室利 or 曼殊尸利 Mañjuśrī, v. 文殊, and the 曼殊室利經.

曼殊沙 曼殊顏 mañjūṣaka, the " Rubia cordifolia, the roots of which yield the madder of Bengal called Munjeeth", Eitel.

曼荼羅 曼怛羅; 曼特羅; 曼陀羅; 曼拏羅; 蔓陀囉; 滿荼邏 maṇḍala, a circle, globe, wheel ring; "any circular figure or diagram" (M.W.); a magic circle; a plot or place of enlightenment; a round or square altar on which buddhas and bodhisattvas are placed; a group of such, especially the garbhadhātu and vajradhātu groups of the Shingon sect; these were arranged by Kōbō Daishi to express the mystic doctrine of the two dhātu by way of illustration, the garbhadhātu representing the 理 and the 因 principle and cause, the vajradhātu the 智 and the 果 intelligence (or reason) and the effect, i.e. the fundamental realm of being, and mind as inherent in it; v. 胎 and 金剛. The two realms are fundamentally one, as are the absolute and phenomenal, e.g. water and wave. There are many kinds of maṇḍalas, e.g. the group of the Lotus Sutra; of the 觀經; of the nine luminaries; of the Buddha's entering into nirvana, etc. The real purpose of a maṇḍala is to gather the spiritual powers together, in order to promote the operation of the dharma or law. The term is commonly applied to a magic circle, subdivided into circles or squares in which are painted Buddhist divinities and symbols. Maṇḍalas also reveal the direct retribution of each of the ten worlds of beings (purgatory, pretas, animals, asuras, men, devas, the heavens of form, formless heavens, bodhisattvas, and buddhas). Each world has its maṇḍala which represents the originating principle that brings it to completion. The maṇḍala of the tenth world indicates the fulfilment and completion of the nine worlds.

曼荼羅教 maṇḍala doctrine, mantra teaching, magic, yoga, the True word or Shingon sect.

曼陀羅 or 曼阤羅; 漫陀羅 mandāra(va), the coral-tree; the erythrina indica, or this tree regarded as one of the five trees of Paradise, i.e, Indra's heaven; a white variety of Calotropis gigantea. Name of a noted monk, and of one called Mandra.

曼首 idem 文殊.

To look at, or for; expect, hope; towards; the full moon.

失望 To lose hope.

盼望 To hope for.

The plum.

梅呾利耶 (梅呾利); 梅呾利曳那; 梅呾囉曳尼; 梅呾黎; 梅呾麗藥; 昧怛履曳 v. 彌勒 Maitreya, friendly, benevolent; the expected Buddhist Messiah.

pattra; 梖多葉 the palm-leaves used for writing; the梖多樹 is erroneously said to be the borassus flabelliformis, described as 60 or 70 feet high, not deciduous, the bark used for writing.

A ladder, stairs.

梯隥 Ladder rungs, or steps, used for the 漸教 school of gradual revelation in contrast with the 頓教 full and immediate revelation.

A tub, bucket, barrel.

桶頭 The monk who looks after these things in a large establishment.

The pear.

梨耶 v. 阿 ārya.

梨車 黎車; 離車; 栗呫媻 Licchavi, the ancient republic of Vaiśālī, whose people were among the earliest followers of Śākyamuni.

梁皇懺 The litany of Liang Wudi for his wife, who became a large snake, or dragon, after her death, and troubled the emperor's dreams. After the litany was performed, she became a devi, thanked the emperor, and departed.

Brahman (from roots bṛh, vṛh, connected with bṛṃh, "religious devotion," "prayer," "a sacred text," or mantra, "the mystic syllable om"; "sacred learning," "the religious life," "the Supreme Being regarded as impersonal," "the Absolute," "the priestly or sacerdotal class," etc. M.W. Translit.

梵摩 梵覽摩 or 梵覽磨; 勃?摩; 婆羅賀摩; 沒羅憾摩; intp. as Brahmā, see 梵天; and brahman, or priest; it is used both in a noble and ignoble sense, ignoble when disparaging brahman opposition; it is intp. by 淨 pure, also by 離欲淸淨 celibate and pure.

梵世界 The brahmaloka of the realm of form; also 梵世天.

梵乘 The brahmayāna, i.e. the noblest of the vehicles, that of the bodhisattva.

梵僧 A monk from India. Also a monk who maintains his purity.

梵典 Buddhist sutras, or books.

梵刹 brahmakṣetra, Buddha-land; a name for a Buddhist: monastery, i.e. a place of purity.

梵唄 Buddhist hymns, cf. 唄. They are sung to repress externals and calm the mind within for religious service; also in praise of Buddha.

梵土 brahman-land, India.

梵壇 or 梵怛 brahmadaṇda, brahma-staff 梵杖, the brahma (i.e. religious) punishment (stick), but the derivation is uncertain; the explanation is "to send to Coventry" a recalcitrant monk, the forbidding of any conversation with him, called also 默擯 exclusion to silence.

梵天 Brahmadeva. Brahmā, the ruler of this world. India. brahmaloka, the eighteen heavens of the realm of form, divided into four dhyāna regions (sixteen heavens in Southern Buddhism). The first three contain the 梵衆天 assembly of brahmadevas, i.e. the brahmakāyika; the 梵輔天 brahmspurohitas, retinue of Brahmā; and 大梵天 Mahābrahman, Brahman himself.

梵天外道 brahmadeva heretics; the brahmans consider Brahmā to be the Creator of all things and the Supreme Being, which is heresy with Buddhism.

梵天后 The queen, or wife of Brahmā.

梵天女 A devi in the garbhadhātu group.

梵天王 Brahmā v. above, and cf. 梵王. 梵天界 His realm.

梵夾 Palm-leaf scriptures; also 梵筴; 梵篋; 梵挾; 經夾.

梵女 A noble woman, a woman of high character.

梵學 The study of Buddhism; the study of Brahmanism.

梵宇 A sacred house, i.e. a Buddhist monastery, or temple.

梵字 Brahma letters; saṃskṛtam; Sanskrit: also梵書 The classical Aryan language of India, systematized by scholars, in contradistinction to prākrit, representing the languages as ordinarily spoken. With the exception of a few ancient translations probably from Pali versions, most of the original texts used in China were Sanskrit. Various alphabets have been introduced into China for transliterating Indian texts, the devanāgarī alphabet, which was introduced via Tibet, is still used on charms and in sorcery. Pali is considered by some Chinese writers to be more ancient than Sanskrit both as a written and spoken language.

梵室 A dwelling where celibate discipline is practised, a monastery, temple.

梵宮 Brahmā's palace; a Buddhist temple.

梵富樓 brahmapurohita, the ministers, or assistants of Brahmā; the second brahmaloka; the second region of the first dhyāna heaven of form. Also梵輔.

梵延 Brahmā and Nārāyaṇa.

梵德 The power, or bliss, of Brahmā.

梵心 The noble or pure mind (which practises the discipline that ensures rebirth in the realm without form).

梵志 brahmacārin. 'studying sacred learning; practising continence or chastity.' M.W. A brahmacārī is a 'young Brahman in the first āśrama or period of his life' (M. W.); there are four such periods. A Buddhist ascetic with his will set on 梵 purity, also intp. as nirvana.

梵摩 Brahmā; brahman, etc., v. 梵; 梵天, etc.

梵摩三鉢 Brahmāsahāṃpati, or Mahābrahmāsahāṃpati; Brahmā, lord of the world.

梵摩尼 Brahma-maṇi, pure pearl, or the magic pearl of Brahmā.

梵摩羅 Brahman, i.e. Brahmā; or Brahmā and Māra; or both as one.

梵摩達 Brahmadatta, a king of Kanyākubja. A king of Vārāṇaśi, father of Kāśyapa.

梵服 The kaṣāya or monk's robe; the garment of celibacy.

梵本 Sutras in the Indian language.

梵王 Brahmā, cf. 梵天. The father of all living beings; the first person of the Brahminical trimūrti, Brahmā, Viṣṇu, and Śiva, recognized by Buddhism as devas but as inferior to a Buddha, or enlightened man.

梵王宮 The palace of Brahmā.

梵宮 The realm of Brahmā; the first dhyāna heaven of the realm of form.

梵皇 The Indian Emperor, Buddha.

梵相 Brahmadhvaja, one of the sons of Mahābhijña; his Buddha domain is south-west of our universe.

梵章 Brahmavastu, a Sanskrit syllabary in twelve parts.

梵網 Brahmajāla; Brahma-net.

梵網宗 The sect of Ritsu 律宗, brought into Japan by the Chinese monk 鑑眞 Chien-chen in A.D. 754.

梵網經 Brahmajāla Sutra, tr. by Kumārajīva A.D. 406, the infinitude of worlds being as the eyes or holes in Indra's net, which is all-embracing, like the Buddha's teaching. There are many treatises on it.

梵網戒品 A name for the above, or the next.

梵網戒本 菩薩戒經 The latter part of the above sutra.

梵聲 The voice of Buddha.

梵苑 A monastery or any place where celibate discipline is practised.

梵衆 Monks, so called because of their religious practices.

梵衆天 brahmapāriṣadya (or brahmapārṣadya), belonging to the retinue of Brahmā; the first brahmaloka; the first region of the first dhyāna heaven of form.

梵行 Pure living; noble action; the discipline of celibacy which ensures rebirth in the brahmaloka, or in the realms beyond form.

梵衍那 Bayana, 'an ancient kingdom and city in Bokhara famous for a colossal statue of Buddha (entering nirvana) believed to be 1,000 feet long. ' Eitel. The modern Bamian.

梵語 Brahma language, Sanskrit, the Sanskrit alphabet; 'the language of India'; supposed to come from Brahmā.

梵身 The pure spiritual body, or dharmakāya, of the Buddha, v. 法身.

梵身天 The brahmakāyika, or retinue of Brahma.

梵輪 The brahma-wheel, the wheel of the law, or pure preaching of the Buddha; his four梵行 v. 四無量心; the first sermon at the request of Brahma; the doctrine or preaching of the Brahmans.

梵迦夷 brahmakāyikas; the Brahma-devas; v. 梵天.

梵道 The way of purity, or celibacy; the brahmanway.

梵釋 Brahmā, the lord of the form-realm, and Śakra of the desire-realm.

梵釋四天 Brahmā, Śakra, and the four Mahārājas.

梵鐘 A temple or monastery bell.

梵難 The difficulty of maintaining celibacy, or purity.

梵面佛 A Buddha with Brahma's face, said to be 23,000 years old.

梵音 (1) Brahma voice, clear, melodious, pure, deep, far-reaching, one of the thirty-two marks of a Buddha. (2) Singing in praise of Buddha.

梵響 The sound of Buddha's voice; his preaching.

梵魔 Brahmā and Māra, the former lord of the realm of form, the latter of desire or passion.

rājas, passion. Also kāma, desire, love. The Chinese word means to breathe after, aspire to, desire, and is also used as 慾 for lust, passion; it is inter alia intp. as 染愛塵 tainted with the dust (or dirt) of love, or lust. The three desires are for beauty, demeanour, and softness; the five are those of the five physical senses.

欲刺 The sharp point of desire.

欲塵 The dust, or dirt, or infection of the passions; the guṇas, or qualities, or material factors of desire regarded as forces. Also the six desires and the five guṇas 六欲五塵.

欲天 The six heavens of desire or passion, the kāmadhātu.

欲天五婬 The five methods of sexual intercourse in the heavens of desire; in the heaven of the Four Great Kings and in Trayastriṃśas the method is the same as on earth; in the Yamadevaloka a mere embrace is sufficient; in the Tuṣita heaven, holding hands; in the Nirmāṇarati heaven, mutual smiles; in the other heavens of Transformation, regarding each other.

欲心 A desirous, covetous, passionate, or lustful heart.

欲性 Desire-nature, the lusts.

欲愛 Passion-love; love inspired by desire, through any of the five senses; love in the passion realm as contrasted to 法愛 the love inspired by the dharma.

欲愛住地 One of the five fundamental conditions of the passions, v. 五住 (五住地).

欲有 The realm of desire, one of the 三有.

欲有見無明 The unenlightened condition of desire; kāma-bhava-dṛṣṭi-avidyā are the four constituents which produce 漏 q.v.

欲染 The tainting, or contaminating influence of desire.

欲樂 The joys of the five desires.

欲氣 Desire-breath, passion-influence, the spirit or influence of desire, lust.

欲泥 The mire of desire, or lust.

欲河 The river of desire, or lust (which drowns).

欲海 The ocean of desire, so called because of its extent and depth.

欲流 The stream of the passions, i.e. the illusions of cupidity, anger, etc., which keep the individual in the realm of desire; the stream of transmigration, which results from desire.

欲漏 The stream or flow of existence, evoked by desire interpenetrated by unenlightened views and thoughts; these stimulating desires produce karma which in turn produces reincarnation; v. 三漏.

欲火 The fire of desire.

欲界 kāmadhātu. The realm, or realms, of in purgatory, hungry spirits, animals, asuras, men, and the six heavens of desire. so called because the beings in these states are dominated by desire. The kāmadhātu realms are given as: 地居 Bhauma. 虛曇天 Antarikṣa. 四天王天 Caturmaharājakayika [i.e. the realms of 持國天 Dhṛtarāṣtra, east; 增長天 Virūḍhaka, south; 廣目天 Virūpakṣa, west; 多聞天 Vai śramaṇa (Dhanada), north]. 忉利天 Trayastriṃśa. 兜率天 Tuṣita. 化樂天 Nirmāṇarati. 他化自在天 Paranirmitavaśavarin.

欲箭 The arrows of desire, or lust. Also the darts of the bodhisattva 欲金剛, who hooks and draws all beings to Buddha.

欲色 The two realms of desire and form, or the passions and the sensuous.

欲苦 The sufferings of desire, or in desire-realms.

欲覺 Passion-consciousness; the consciousness of desire.

欲貪 Desire and coveting, or coveting as the result of passion; craving.

欲邪行 Adulterous conduct, prohibited in the five commandments.

欲鉤 The hook of desire; the bodhisattva attracts men through desire, and then draws them to the enlightenment of Buddha.

欲魔 The evil demon of lust.

殑伽 Gaṅgā, the Ganges; also殑河 v. 恒.

殑耆 Gaṅgā, the goddess of the Ganges.

Down, soft hair; minute, trifling, tiny.

毫眉 The white hair between Buddha's eyebrows, the毫相, i.e. one of the thirty-two signs of a Buddha.

Turbid, intermingled, confused, chaotic.

混沌 Mixed, confused, in disorder.

To drip, sprinkle, soak.

淋汗 Dripping sweat; to sprinkle or pour water on the body to cleanse it.


淚墮 Falling tears.

To scour, swill, wash, cleanse; tricky, playful.

淘汰 The fourth of the five periods of Buddha's teaching, according to Tiantai, i.e. the sweeping away of false ideas, produced by appearance, with the doctrine of the void, or the reality behind the seeming.

Add, additional, increase.

添品 Additional chapter, or chapters.

Excess, excessive; licentious, lewd; adultery, fornication.

淫欲 Sexual passion.

淫欲火 Its fire, or burning.

淫欲病 The (spiritual) disease it causes.

淫湯 A kind of rice soup, or gruel.

淫羅 The net of passion. Also 婬羅.

Shallow; superficial; light in colour; simple, easy.

淺略 Superficial, simple, not profound.

淺臘 Of few years, i.e. youthful in monastic years.

Deep, profound, abstruse.

深入 Deep entering, or the deep sense. i.e. 貪desire, covetousness, cupidity.

深奥 深妙; 深密; 深秘 Deep, profound, abstruse.

深坑 A deep or fathomless pit.

深信 Deep faith.

深心 A mind profoundly engrossed (in Buddha-truth, or thought, or illusion, etc. ).

深摩舍那 śmaśāna, v. 尸, place for disposing of the dead.

深智 Profound knowledge or wisdom.

深法 (深法門) Profound truth, or method.

深法忍 Patience, or perseverance, in faith and practice.

深淨 Profoundly pure.

深玄 Deep, abstruse, dark, deep black.

深理 Profound principle, law, or truth.

深經 深藏 The profound sutras, or texts, those of Mahāyāna.

深行 Deep or deepening progress, that above the initial bodhisattva stage.

amala. Pure, clear.

淸信士 or淸信男 and淸信女 upāsaka and upāsikā, male and female lay devotees.

淸揚 Clear and resonant.

淸明 Clear and bright; the Chinese spring festival on the 19th of the 2nd moon, when honour is paid to departed spirits.

淸梵 Pure Sanskrit; Buddha's resonant voice, or pure enunciation.

淸涼 淸凉 Clear and cool; clear, pure.

淸涼國師 Pure-minded preceptor of the State, title of the fourth patriarch of the Huayan school.

淸涼寺 A monastery at Wu-tai shan.

淸涼山 A name for Wu-tai in north Shansi; also the abode of Mañjuśrī north-east of our universe.

淸涼月 The pure moon, i.e. the Buddha.

淸涼池 The pure lake, or pool i.e. nirvana.

淸淨 pariśuddhi; viśuddhi. Pure and clean, free from evil and defilement, perfectly clean.

淸淨人 The pure and clean man, especially the Buddha.

淸淨光明身 The pure, shining body or appearance (of the Buddha).

淸淨園 Pure garden, or garden of purity, i.e. a monastery or convent.

淸淨心 A pure mind free from doubt or defilement.

淸淨智 Undefiled knowledge.

淸淨本然 Purely and naturally so, spontaneous.

淸淨業處 The state which one who has a pure karma reaches.

淸淨法 dharmavirāja, pure truth.

淸淨法界 The pure Buddha truth (realm).

淸淨法眼 The pure dharma-eye, with which the Hīnayāna disciple first discerns the four noble truths, and the: Mahāyāna disciple discerns the unreality of self and things.

淸淨眞如 One of the seven Chan-ju, q. v.

淸淨覺海 The pure ocean of enlightenment, which underlies the disturbed life of all.

淸淨解脫三昧 A samadhi free from all impurity and in which complete freedom is obtained.

淸淨識 amalavijñāna, pure, uncontaminated knowledge; earlier regarded as the ninth, later as the eighth or ālayavijñāna.

淸白 Pure and white, pure white, as Buddha-truth, or as pure goodness.

淸辯 Bhāvaviveka, a noted Buddhist philosopher circa A.D. 600, a follower of Nāgārjuna.

淸齋 Pure observance of monastic rules for food; to eat purely, i.e. vegetarian food; fasting.

vimala. Clean, pure; to cleanse, purify; chastity. In Buddhism it also has reference to the place of cleansing, the latrine, etc. Also 浄 and 净.

淨主 The donor, of chastity, i.e. of an abode for monks or nuns.

淨住 A pure rest, or abode of purity, a term for a Buddhist monastery.

淨佛 Pure Buddha, perfect Buddhahood, of the dharmakāya nature.

淨侶 The company of pure ones, i.e. monks or nuns.

淨信 Pure faith.

淨刹 The pure kṣetra, i.e. Buddha-land.

淨命 Pure livelihood, 正命, i.e. that of the monk. Also the life of a pure or unperturbed mind.

淨國 The pure land, i.e. Buddha-land.

淨圓覺心 Pure and perfect enlightened mind: the complete enlightenment of the Buddha.

淨土 Sukhāvatī. The Pure Land, or Paradise of the West, presided over by Amitābha. Other Buddhas have their Pure Lands; seventeen other kinds of pure land are also described, all of them of moral or spiritual conditions of development, e.g. the pure land of patience, zeal, wisdom, etc.

淨土宗 The Pure-land sect, whose chief tenet is salvation by faith in Amitābha; it is the popular cult in China, also in Japan, where it is the Jōdo sect; it is also called 蓮宗(蓮花宗) the Lotus sect. Established by Hui-yuan 慧遠 of the Chin dynasty (317— 419), it claims P'u-hsien 普賢 Samantabhadra as founder. Its seven chief textbooks are 無量淸淨平等覺經; 大阿彌陀經; 無量壽經; 觀無量壽經; 阿彌陀經; 稱讚淨土佛攝受經; and 鼓音聲三陀羅尼經. The淨土眞宗 is the Jōdo-Shin, or Shin sect of Japan.

淨地 Pure locality, i.e. where a chaste monk dwells.

淨域 The Pure Lands of all Buddhas.

淨天 Pure heaven, or pure devas; śrotāpannas to pratyekabuddhas are so called.

淨天眼 The pure deva eye, which can see all things small and great, near and far, and the forms of all beings before their transmigration.

淨宗 idem淨土宗.

淨家 The Pure-land sect.

淨居天 The five heavens of purity, in the fourth dhyāna heaven, where the saints dwell who will not return to another rebirth. Also Śuddhāvāsadeva, 'a deva who served as guardian angel to Śākyamuni and brought about his conversion. ' Eitel.

淨屋 House of chastity, i.e. a monastery or convent.

淨心 The pure heart or mind, which is the original Buddha-nature in every man.

淨心住 The pure heart stage, the third of the six resting-places of a bodhisattva, in which all illusory views are abandoned.

淨戒 The pure commandments, or to keep the in purity.

淨方 The Pure Land of Amitābha, v. 淨土.

淨施 Pure charity, which does not seek fame or blessing in this world, but only desires to sow nirvana-seed.

淨梵王 Brahmā, as the pure divine ruler. Also淨飯王 q.v.

淨業 Good karma; also the deeds which lead to birth in the Pure Land.

淨法界 The realm of pure dharma, the unsullied realm, i.e. the bhūtatathatā.

淨波羅蜜 The fourth pāramitā of the Nirvana Sutra, 常樂我淨 v. 常.

淨潔五欲 The five pure desires, or senses, i.e. of the higher worlds in contrast with the coarse senses of the lower worlds.

淨瑠璃世界 The pure crystal realm in the eastern region, the paradise of Yao Shih 藥師 Buddha; it is the Bhaiṣajyaguruvaiḍūrya-prabhāsa.

淨眼 The clear or pure eyes that behold, with enlightened vision, things not only as they seem but in their reality. Also Vimalanetra, second son of Śubhavyūha in the Lotus Sutra.

淨聖 Pure saint, the superior class of saints.

淨肉 Pure flesh, the kind which may be eaten by a monk without sin, three, five, and nine classes being given.

淨菩提心 Pure bhūtatathatā bodhi mind, or mind of pure enlightenment, the first stage of the practitioner in the esoteric sect.

淨華衆 The pure flower multitude, i.e. those who are born into the Pure Land by means of a lotus flower. '

淨藏 Vimalagarbha, eldest son of Śubhavyūha in the Lotus Sutra.

淨衆 Pure assembly, the company of the chaste, the body of monks.

淨行者 One who observes ascetic practices; one of pure or celibate conduct; a Brahman; also 梵志.

淨裔 Of pure descent, or line; a young Brahman; an ascetic in general.

淨覺 Pure enlightenment.

淨觀 Pure contemplation, such as the sixteen mentioned in the 無量壽經.

淨語 Pure words; words that express reality.

淨諸根 Undefiled senses; i.e. undefiled eye, ear, mouth, nose, body.

淨道 The pure enlightenment of Buddha.

淨邦 idem淨土.

淨門 Gate of purity to nirvana, one of the 六妙.

淨頭 The monk who controls the latrines.

淨飯王 Pure rice king, Śuddhodana, the father of Śākyamuni; v. 首.

淨髮 To cleanse the hair, i.e. shave the head as do the monks.

To haul, drag, influence, implicate.

牽引因 sarvatraga-hetu, 'omnipresent causes, like false views which affect every act. ' Keith.

牽道八道行城 To advance on the city from all sides as in chess 波羅塞 prāsaka, i.e. to employ the omnipresent dharmas (sarvatraga) for salvation.

A fabulous beast like a lion, of extraordinary powers.

猊下 A kind of lion-throne for Buddhas, etc.; a term of respect like 足下.

猊座 A lion-throne.

Fierce, violent; determined; sudden.

猛利 Fierce, sudden.

猛火 Fierce fire, conflagration.

A net with handle; to pursue, follow after; lead on; suddenly; generally.

率都婆 stūpa, a mound, v. 塔.

率祿勤那 Srughna. 'An ancient kingdom and city near the upper course of the Yamunā, probably the region between' Saharanpur and Srinagar. Eitel.

Appear, apparent; manifest, visible; now; present; ready.

現世 The present world.

現前 Now present, manifest before one.

現前地 The sixth of the ten stages of the bodhisattva, in which the bhūtatathatā is manifested to him.

現喩 A comparison consisting of immediate facts, or circumstances.

現圖曼陀羅 The two revealed or revealing maṇḍalas, the garbhadhātu and vajradhātu.

現在 Now, at present, the present.

現在世 The present world.

現在賢劫 The present bhadrakalpa.

現在過去未來 Present, past, and future.

現報 Present-life recompense for good or evil done in the present life.

現成 Manifest, existing, evident, ready-made, self-evident or self-existing.

現生 The present life.

現生利益 Benefits in the present life (from serving Buddha).

現相 Manifest forms, i.e. the external or phenomenal world, the 境界相, one of the三細 q.v. of the 起信論 Awakening of Faith.

現當 Present and future (i.e. 當來).

現益 Benefit in the present life.

現行 Now going, or proceeding; present or manifest activities.

現行法 Things in present or manifested action, phenomena in general.

現觀 Insight into, or meditation on, immediate presentations; present insight into the deep truth of Buddhism.

現證 The immediate realization of enlightenment, or nirvana; abhisamaya, inner realization; pratyakṣa, immediate perception, evidence of the eye or other organ.

現識 Direct knowledge, manifesting wisdom, another name of the ālayavijñāna, on which all things depend for realization, for it completes the knowledge of the other vijñānas. Also the 'representation-consciousness' or perception of an external world, one of the 五識 q.v. of the 起信論.

現過未 (or 現過當) Present, past, and future.

現起光 The phenomenal radiance of Buddha which shines out when circumstances require it, as contrasted to his noumenal radiance which is constant.

現身 The present body. Also the various bodies or manifestations in which the Buddhas and bodhisattvas reveal themselves.

現量 Reasoning, from the manifest, pratyakṣa. (1) Immediate, or direct reasoning, whereby the eye apprehends and distinguishes colour and form, the ear sound, etc. (2) Immediate insight into, or direct inference in a trance (定) of all the conditions of the ālayavijñāna.

現量相違 A fallacy of the major premise in which the premise contradicts experience, e.g. sound is something not heard, this being one of the nine fallacies of the major premise.

siddhānta; hetu. Ruling principle, fundamental law, intrinsicality, universal basis, essential element; nidāna, reason; pramāṇa, to arrange, regulate, rule, rectify.

理事 Noumena and phenomena, principle and practice, absolute and relative, real and empirical, cause and effect, fundamental essence and external activity, potential and actual; e.g. store and distribution, ocean and wave, static and kinetic.

理事無礙 Unimpeded interaction of noumenon and phenomenon, principle and practice, etc.; no barrier in either of the two. Cf. 十門.

理佛 The fundamental or intrinsic Buddha, i.e. the dharmakāya; also the Tiantai doctrine of Buddha as immanent in all beings, even those of the three lowest orders; which doctrine is also called 素法身 the plain, or undeveloped dharmakāya.

理佛性 The fundamental Buddha-nature in contrast with 行佛性the Buddha-nature in action or development.

理入 Entry by the truth, or by means of the doctrine, or reason, as 行入 is entry by conduct or practice, the two depending one on the other, cf. 二入.

理具 Wholly noumenal or all things as aspects of the absolute, a doctrine of the Tiantai 'profounder' school, in contrast with the 事造 of the 'shallower' school, which considered all things to be phenomenally produced.

理具三千 The things of a 三千大千世界 great chiliocosm considered as noumenal throughout, or all dharmakāya.

理卽 (理卽佛) The underlying truth of all things is Buddha; immanent reason; Buddhahood; the Tiantai doctrine of essential universal Buddhahood, or the undeveloped Buddha in all beings.

理在絶言 Truth is in eliminating words; it is independent of words; it does not require words to express it.

理性 Absolute nature, immutable reality, fundamental principle or character.

理惑 Illusion in regard to fundamental truth, e.g. the reality of the ego and things; as 事惑 is illusion in regard to things themselves. Also, fundamental illusion; reality and illusion.

理智 Principle and gnosis (or reason); the noumenal in essence and in knowledge; the truth in itself and in knowledge; li is also the fundamental principle of the phenomenon under observation, chih the observing wisdom; one is reality, the other the knower or knowing; one is the known object, the other the knower, the knowing, or what is known; each is dependent on the other, chih depends on lili is revealed by chih. Also knowledge or enlightenment in its essence or purity, free from incarnational influences.

理智五法 v. 五法.

理曼陀羅 The noumenal maṇḍala, i.e. the garbhadhātu in contrast with the 智 or vajradhātumaṇḍala.

理法身 The dharmakāya as absolute being, in contrast with 智法身 the dharmakāya as wisdom, both according to the older school being 無爲 noumenal; later writers treat 理法身 as noumenal and 智法身 as kinetic or active.

理法界 One of the 四界, that of the common essence or dharmakāya of all beings.

理界 The realm of li in contrast with 智界; cf. 理智.

理禪 The dhyāna of or concentration on absolute truth free from phenomenal contamination.

理觀 The concept of absolute truth; the concentration of the mind upon reality.

理論 Reasoning on, or discussion of, principles, or fundamental truth.

理身理土 The dharmakāya in the dharmakṣetra, e.g. the spiritual Vairocana in the eternal light.

理障 The hindrance caused by incorrect views of truth.

理體 The fundamental substance or body of all things.

A bottle, vase, jar, pitcher, etc.

天德甁 The vase of divine virtue, i.e. bodhi; also a sort of cornucopia.

甁沙王 Bimbisāra, v. 頻.

甁窣都渡 droṇastūpa, a stupa said to contain a jar of relics of Śākyamuni's body, surreptitiously collected after his cremation by a Brahman.

甁耆羅 Eitel gives this as Viṅgila, Viṅkila, Varaṅgala; the ancient capital of Andhra, cf. 案; but it is doubtful.

To mark off, define: abridge, outline, sketch; summarize in general; rather, somewhat.

要略 An outline of the important points.

略戒 The first period of general moral law, before the detailed commandments became necessary; i.e. the first twelve years of the Buddha's ministry.

To end, final, complete, all; translit. p, v.

畢利叉 畢洛叉; 畢剌叉 vṛkṣa is a tree; here it is described as the tree i.e. the Jonesia aśoka, a tree under which the Buddha is said to have been born.

畢利多 preta, hungry ghost.

畢力迦 (or 畢栗迦) pṛkkā, spṛkkā, a fragrant plant, said to be the trigonella corniculata.

畢勒支底迦 (畢勒支底迦佛); 畢支佛; 辟支佛; 鉢攞底迦佛 pratyeka(-buddha) . Cf. 辟. Singly, individually, one 'who lives in seclusion and obtains emancipation for himself only'. M. W. It is intp. as 獨覺 lonely (or alone) enlightenment, i.e. for self alone; also 緣覺 enlightened in the 十二因緣 twelve nidānas; or 圓覺 completely enlightened. i.e. for self.

畢境 atyanta. At bottom, finally, at last, fundamental, final, ultimate. [Note: Here, and in the following entries, 境 seems to be mistakenly used for 竟.]

畢境依 A final trust, ultimate reliance, i.e. Buddha.

畢境智 Ultimate, or final wisdom, or knowledge of the ultimate.

畢境無 Never, fundamentally not, or none.

畢境空 Fundamentally unreal, immaterial, or void, see 空.

畢境覺 The ultimate enlightenment, or bodhi, that of a Buddha.

畢舍遮 毘畢畢; 毘畢闍; 臂奢柘 piśāca, demons that eat flesh, malignant sprites or demons.

畢鉢 (畢鉢羅) pippala, one of the names of the Ficus religiosa; also the name of Mahā-Kāśyapa.

畢陵 (畢陵伽婆蹉) Pilindavatsa, who for 500 generations had been a Brahman, cursed the god of the Ganges, became a disciple, but still has to do penance, for his ill-temper.

pṛthak. Different, separate, unlike, not the same; diverse, diversity; strange; heterodox; extraordinary.

異人 Different person, another.

異口同音 Different or many mouths, but the same response, unanimous.

異品 Of different order, or class.

異因 A different cause, or origin.

異執 A different tenet; to hold to heterodoxy.

異學 Different studies; heterodoxy.

異心 Different mind; heterodox mind; amazed.

異慧 Heterodox wisdom.

異方便 Extraordinary, or unusual adaptations, devices, or means.

異熟 vipāka, different when cooked, or matured, i.e. the effect differing from the cause, e. g. pleasure differing from goodness its cause, and pain from evil. Also, maturing or producing its effects in another life.

異熟因 vipāka-hetu heterogeneous cause, i.e. a cause producing a different effect, known as 無記 neutral, or not ethical, e.g. goodness resulting in pleasure, evil in pain.

異熟果 Fruit ripening differently, i.e. in another incarnation, or life, e.g. the condition of the eye and other organs now resulting from specific sins or otherwise in previous existence.

異熟等五果 The five fruits of karma; pañcaphalāni, or effects produced by one or more of the six hetus or causes. They are as follows: (1) 異熟果 vipāka-phala, heterogeneous effect produced by heterogeneous cause. (2) 等流果 niṣyanda-phala, uniformly continuous effect. (3) 士用果 puruṣakāra-phala, simultaneous effect produced by the sahabhū-hetu and the saṃprayukta-hetu; v. 六因. (4) 增上果 adhipati-phala, aggregate effect produced by the karma-hetu. (5) 離繫果 visaṃyoga-phala, emancipated effect produced by, the six causes.

異熟生 A difference is made in Mahāyāna between 異熟 (異熟識) which is considered as ālaya-vijñāna, and 異熟生 the six senses, which are produced from the ālaya-vijñāna.

異生 pṛthagjana; bālapṛthagjana, v. 婆; an ordinary person unenlightened by Buddhism; an unbeliever, sinner; childish, ignorant, foolish; the lower orders.

異生羝羊心 Common 'butting goat', or animal, propensities for food and lust.

異相 Difference, differentiation.

異端 Heterodoxy.

異緣 ālambana-pratyaya, things distracting the attention, distracting thoughts; the action of external objects conditioning consciousness.

異見 A different view, heterodoxy.

異解 A different, or heterodox, interpretation.

異說 A different, or heterodox, explanation.

異部 Of a different class, or sect; heterodox schools, etc.

Regard, love; wife; family; relatives; retainers.

眷屬 Retinue, retainers, suite, especially the retinue of a god, Buddha, etc.

cakṣuh, the eye.

眼入 The eye entrance one of the twelve entrances i.e. the basis of sight consciousness.

眼智 Knowledge obtained from seeing.

眼根 The organ of sight.

眼界 The element or realm of sight.

眼目 The eye, eyes.

眼識 Sight-perception, the first vijñāna.

眼識界 cakṣur-vijñāna-dhātu, the element or realm of sight-perception.

Sacrifice, sacrificial.

祭文 齋文. The prayer or statement read and burnt at a funeral.

祭祠論 The Yajurveda, v. 韋.


祥月 Felicitous month, an anniversary.

祥瑞 Auspicious.

祥草 The felicitous herb, or grass, that on which the Buddha sat when he attained enlightenment.

To transplant, transpose, transmit, convey, remove.

移山 To remove mountains.

移龕 To remove the coffin to the hall for the masses for the dead on the third day after the enconffinment.

A section, chapter; finished, elegant; essay, document; rule, according to pattern.

章服 Regulation dress.

笯赤建 Nujkend, or Nujketh in Turkestan, between Taras and Khojend.

Number, degree, sign of the ordinals; only.

第一 The first, chief, prime, supreme.

第一乘 The supreme vehicle, Mahāyāna.

第一句 The first and supreme letter, a, the alpha of all wisdom.

第一寂滅 The supreme reality, nirvāṇa.

第一義 The supreme, or fundamental meaning, the supreme reality, i. e. enlightenment.

第一義悉檀 The highest siddhānta, or Truth, the highest universal gift of Buddha, his teaching which awakens the highest capacity in all beings to attain salvation.

第一義智 The highest knowledge, or wisdom.

第一義樂 The highest bliss, i.e. nirvāṇa.

第一義空 The highest Void, or reality, the Mahāyāna nirvāṇa, though it is also applied to Hīnayāna nirvāṇa.

第一義觀 The highest meditation of Tiantai, that on 中 the Mean.

第一義諦 The supreme truth, or reality in contrast with the seeming; also called Veritable truth, sage-truth, surpassing truth, nirvāṇa, bhūtatathatā, madhya, śūnyatā, etc.

第三禪 The third dhyāna, a degree of contemplation in which ecstasy gives way to serenity; also a state, or heaven, corresponding to this degree of contemplation, including the third three of the rūpa heavens.

第三能變 The third power of change, i. e. the six senses, or vijñānas, 能變 means 識.

第七仙 The seventh 'immortal', the last of the seven Buddhas, Śākyamuni.

第七情 A seventh sense; non-existent, like a 十三入 thirteenth base of perception, or a 十九界 19th dhātu.

第二月 A double or second moon, which is an optical illusion, unreal.

第二禪 The second dhyāna, a degree of contemplation where reasoning gives way to intuition. The second three rūpa heavens.

第二能變 The second power of change, the kliṣṭamano-vijñāna, disturbed-mind, consciousness, or self-consciousness which gives form to the universe. The first power of change is the ālaya-vijñāna.

第五大 A fifth element, the nonexistent.

第六陰 A sixth skandha: as there are only five skandhas it means the non-existent.

第八識 The eighth, or ālaya-vijñāna, mind-essence, the root and essence of all things.

第十八願 The eighteenth of Amitābha's forty-eight vows, the one vowing salvation to all believers.

第四禪 The fourth dhyāna, a degree of contemplation when the mind becomes indifferent to pleasure and pain; also the last eight rūpa heavens.

第耶那 v. 禪 dhyāna.

第黎多曷羅殺吒羅 Dhṛtarāṣṭra, one of the four mahārājas, the white guardian of the east, one of the lokapālas, a king of gandharvas and piśacas; cf. 提.

To continue, hand down.

紹隆 To continue (or perpetuate) and prosper Buddhist truth, or the triratna.

End, termination, final, utmost, death, the whole; opposite of 始.

終南山 Zhongnan Shan, a mountain in Shanxi; a posthumous name for Du Shun 杜順, founder of the Huayan or Avataṃsaka School in China.

終教 The 'final teaching', i.e. the third in the category of the Huayan School, cf. 五教 the final metaphysical concepts of Mahāyāna, as presented in the Laṅkāvatāra sūtra, Awakening of Faith, etc.

終歸於空 All things in the end return to the Void.

To tie; accumulate; repeatedly; to implicate, involve.

累七齋 The sevenfold repetition of masses for the dead.

累劫 Repeated, or many kalpas.

累形 The body as involved in the distresses of life.

累障 The hindrances of many vexations, responsibilities or affairs.

A violet or purplish colour, a blend of blue and red; also called紺靑 and紺璢璃, the colour of the roots紺髮 or 紺頂 of the Buddha's hair.

紺宇 紺園; 紺坊; 紺殿 Names for a Buddhist monastery.

紺睫 The Buddha's violet or red-blue eyebrows.

紺蒲 kamboja, described as a round, reddish fruit, the Buddha having something resembling it on his neck, one of his characteristic marks.

紺蒲國 The country of Kamboja.

Fine, small, minute, in detail: careful.

細四相 The four states of 生住異滅 birth, abiding, change, extinction, e.g. birth, life, decay, death.

細心 Carefully, in detail, similar to 細意議 the vijñāna of detailed, unintermitting attention.

細滑欲 Sexual attraction through softness and smoothness.

細色 Refined appearance. Cf. 徵.

A snare; impediment; cause of anxiety, anxious.

罣念 To be anxious about.

罣礙 A hindrance, impediment.

Repetition, practice, habit, skilled; u.f. 習氣 intp. vāsanā.

習因習果 The continuity of cause and effect, as the cause so the effect.

習氣 Habit, the force of habit; the uprising or recurrence of thoughts, passions, or delusions after the passion or delusion has itself been overcome, the remainder or remaining influence of illusion.

習滅 To practise (the good) and destroy (the evil).

Foot, leg.

脚布 A bath towel, foot-towel.

To take the flesh from the bones; to strip, undress, doff; to escape, avoid; let go, relinquish.

脫珍著弊 To doff jewels and don rags, as did the Buddha, on leaving home, but it is intp. as a kenosis, the putting off of his celestial body for an incarnate, earthly body.

解脫 v. 解.

脫闍 dhvaja, a banner, flag.

脫體 To strip the body, naked; to get rid of the body.

A marsh, pool, bank; high; the fifth month.

臯諦 Kuntī, name of one of the rākṣasī, a female demon.

A boat, ship.

船師 Captain, i.e. the Buddha as captain of salvation, ferrying across to the nirvāṇa shore.

船筏 A boat, or raft, i.e. Buddhism.

Jungle; wild; rude; translit. ma, cf. 摩; intp. as 無 and 空.

A small-leaved water-lily, a marshmallow; to carry bear.

荷力皮陀 v. 吠 The Ṛigveda.

荷擔 To carry, bear on the back or shoulder.

A bitter herb; weeds; to encroach; translit. da, dha, dhya, dhu.

荼吉尼 ḍākinī, also荼枳尼; 吒吉尼; 拏吉儞 yakṣas or demons in general, but especially those which eat a man's vitals; they are invoked in witchcraft to obtain power.

荼毘 闍毘 (or 闍維, or 闍鼻多); also 耶維; 耶旬 jhāpita; cremation.

荼矩磨 kuṅkuma, saffron, or turmeric, or the musk-root.

A species of grass, or sedge; cf. 娑.

莎揭哆 svāgata 善來 'well come', a term of salutation; also 善逝 'well departed'. It is a title of every Buddha; also 莎迦陀 (or 莎伽陀); 沙伽陀 (or 沙竭陀); 裟婆羯多; 蘇揭多.

沙羅樹 The Sala-tree.

沙髻 A crown of grass put on the head of 不動尊 q.v. as a servant of the Buddhas.

Not; none; no; do not; translit. ma, mu; cf. 摩.

莫伽 magha, donation, wealth; maghā, seven stars; M. W. says a constellation of five stars α, γ, ζ, η, ν Leonis.

莫訶 mahā, cf. 摩; Mahī, or Mahānada, a small river in Magadha, and one flowing into the gulf of Cambay.

莫訶僧祇尼迦耶 Mahāsāṅghika-nikāya, cf. 摩.

莫訶婆伽 The musk deer.

莫訶衍磧 The great Shamo (Gobi) desert.

莫賀延 The great Shamo (Gobi) desert; also called 'Makhai'. Eitel.

莫醯 v. 摩 Maheśvara, i. e. Śiva.

Sedate, serious, proper, stern.

莊王 v. 妙 Śubhavyūha, reputed father of Guanyin.

莊嚴 alaṃkāraka. Adorn, adornment, glory, honour, ornament, ornate; e.g. the adornments of morality, meditation, wisdom, and the control of good and evil forces. In Amitābha's paradise twenty-nine forms of adornment are described, v. 淨土論.

莊嚴劫 The glorious kalpa to which the thousand Buddhas, one succeeding another, bring their contribution of adornment.

莊嚴王 Vyūharāja, a bodhisattva in the retinue of Śākyamuni.

莊嚴王經 Vyūharāja sūtra, an exposition of the principal doctrines of the Tantra school.

莊嚴門 The gate or school of the adornment of the spirit, in contrast with external practices, ceremonies, asceticism, etc.

To dwell, abide; fix, decide, punish; a place, state. āyatana, 阿耶怛那, also tr. 入, place or entrance of the sense, both the organ and the sensation, or sense datum; hence the 十二處 twelve āyatana, i. e. six organs, and six sense data that enter for discrimination.

處不退 Not to fall away from the status attained.

處中 To abide in the via media, which transcends ideas both of existence and non-existence.

sarpa, a serpent, snake.

毒蛇 A poisonous snake.

佛口蛇心 A Buddha's mouth but a serpent's heart.

蛇繩麻 The seeming snake, which is only a rope, and in reality hemp.

蛇藥 Snake-medicine, name of the Sarpāuṣadhi monastery in Udyāna, where Śākyamuni in a former incarnation appeared as an immense snake, and by giving his flesh saved the starving people from death.

蛇行 To crawl, go on the belly.

蛇足 Snake's legs, i.e. the nonexistent.

Way or method; art; trick, plan.

術婆迦 Śubhakara, a fisherman who was burnt up by his own sexual love.

A quilt, coverlet; to cover; to suffer; sign of the passive.

被位 Covered seats for meditation.

被葉衣觀音 Guanyin clad in leaves.

袈裟 kaṣāya, the monk's robe, or cassock. The word is intp. as decayed, impure (in colour), dyed, not of primary colour, so as to distinguish it from the normal white dress of the people. The patch-robe, v. 二十五條. A dyed robe 'of a colour composed of red and yellow' (M. W. ); it has a number of poetic names, e. g. robe of patience, or endurance. Also 迦沙曳 (迦邏沙曳).

a robe.

袍休羅蘭 Bahularatna, Prabhūtaratna, abundance of precious things, the 多寳 Buddha of the Lotus Sūtra.

袍裳 袍服 Upper and lower garments.

Grant, permit, admit, promise; very.

許可 Grant, permit, admit.

To set up, establish, institute; arrange, spread; suppose; translit. ś.

設利 (設利羅) śarīra, relics, remains, see 舍.

設利弗怛羅 Śāriputra, v. 舍.

設多圖盧 Satadru, 'an ancient kingdom of northern India, noted for its mineral wealth. Exact position unknown.' Eitel. Also, the River Sutlej.

設施 Śacī, Śakti, v. 舍.

設覩嚕 Śatru, an enemy, a destroyer, the enemy, also 設咄嚕; 設都嚧; 捨覩嚧 (or 轢覩嚧); 窣覩喚; 婆訥嚕.

設賞迦 Śaśāṅka. 'A king of Karṇasuvarṇa, who tried to destroy the sacred Bodhidruma. He was dethroned by Śīladitya.' Eitel.

Goods, wares.

貨利習彌迦 Khārsmiga, an 'ancient kingdom on the upper Oxus, which formed part of Tukhāra, the Kharizm of Arabic geographers.' Eitel.

To string, thread, pass through.

貫花 A string of flowers, a term for the gāthās in sūtras, i. e. the prose recapitulated in verse.

貫首 貫頂 A superintendent, head.

Poor, in poverty.

貧女 A poor woman.

貧女寳藏 The poor woman in whose dwelling was a treasure of gold of which she was unaware, v. Nirvāṇa sūtra 7. Another incident, of a poor woman's gift, is in the 智度論 8, and there are others.

貧窮 Poor, poverty.

貧道 The way of poverty, that of the monk and nun; also, a poor religion, i.e. without the Buddha-truth.

rāga; colouring, dyeing, tint, red; affection, passion, vehement longing or desire; cf. M. W. In Chinese: cupidity, desire; intp. tainted by and in bondage to the five desires; it is the first in order of the 五鈍使 pañca-kleśa q. v., and means hankering after, desire for, greed, which causes clinging to earthly life and things, therefore reincarnation.

貪使 (貪欲使) The messenger, or temptation of desire.

貪恚痴 v. 貪欲瞋恚愚痴, 貪瞋痴.

貪惜 To begrudge; be unwilling to give.

貪愛 Desire, cupidity.

貪染 The taint of desire, or greed.

貪欲 Desire for and love of (the things of this life).

貪欲卽是道 Desire is part of the universal law, and may be used for leading into the truth, a tenet of Tiantai.

貪欲瞋恚愚痴 rāga, dveṣa, moha; desire, anger, ignorance (or stupidity), the three poisons.

貪欲蓋 The cover of desire which overlays the mind and prevents the good from appearing.

貪毒 The poison of desire.

貪水 Desire is like water carrying things along.

貪濁 The contamination of desire.

貪煩惱 The kleśa, temptation or passion of desire.

貪狼 Greedy wolf, wolfish desire or cupidity.

貪瞋痴 rāgadveṣamoha, the three poisons.

貪結 The bond of desire, binding in the chain of transmigration.

貪縛 The tie of desire.

貪習 The habit of desire, desire become habitual.

貪習因 Habitual cupidity leading to punishment in the cold hells, one of the 十因.

貪著 The attachment of desire.

貪見 The illusions or false views caused by desire.

To pardon.

赦儞娑 The son of Vaiśravaṇa, see 毘.

To sit cross-legged.

趺坐, cf. 跏.

躭摩栗底 Tamluk, v. 多.

soft, yielding.

軟語 Soft or gentle words adapted to the feelings of men.

This; these.

這裏 This place here.

這箇 This.

To roam, saunter.

逍遙自在 To go anywhere at will, to roam where one will.

To connect, continue; contiguous; and, even.

連河 The Nairaṅjanā river v. 尼; 希.

To drive, urge; expel; exorcise.

逐機頓 Immediate accordance with opportunity; 逐is used as 遂; i.e. to avail oneself of receptivity to expound the whole truth at once instead of gradually.

Haste, quick; speedily, urgent.

速得 Speedily obtain, or ensure.

速成 Speedily completed.

速疾鬼 Hurrying demons, rākṣasa.

速香 Quickly burnt inferior incense.

A road, way, method.

途慮諾檀那 (途慮檀那) Droṇodana, a prince of Magadha, father of Devadatta and Mahānāma, and uncle of Śākyamuni.

Delay, loiter; skulk; beguile.

逗會 逗機 Adaptation of the teaching to the taught.

Pass away, depart, die, evanescent.

逝多 jeta; jetṛ; v. 祇.

逝宮 The transient mansions of Brahmā and of men. Astronomical 'mansions'.

逝瑟吒 The month Jyaiṣṭha (May-June), when the full moon is in the constellation Jyeṣṭhā.

Abscond, default, owe; translit. po, pu, va.

逋利婆鼻提賀 Pūrvavideha, the eastern of the 四大洲 four continents.

逋多 (逋多羅) Potalaka, v. 補.

逋沙 puruṣa, v. 布.

逋沙他 upavasatha, a fast day.

逋盧羯底攝伐羅 Avalokiteśvara, v. 觀音.

Create, make, build. Hurried, careless.

造像 To make an image; the first one made of the Buddha is attributed to Udayana, king of Kauśāmbī, a contemporary of Śākyamuni, who is said to have made an image of him, after his death, in sandalwood, 5 feet high.

造化 To create; to make and transform.

造書天 The deva-creator of writing, Brahmā.

造花 To make flowers, especially paper flowers.

Permeate, pass through, pervade; perceive, know thoroughly; communicate; current; free, without hindrance, unimpeded universal; e.g. 神通 supernatural, ubiquitous powers. There are categories of 五通, 六通, and 十通, all referring to supernatural powers; the five are (1) knowledge of the supernatural world; (2) deva vision; (3) deva hearing; (4) knowledge of the minds of all others; (5) knowledge of all the transmigrations of self and all others. The six are the above together with perfect wisdom for ending moral hindrance and delusion. The ten are knowing all previous transmigrations, having deva hearing, knowing the minds of others, having deva vision, showing deva powers, manifesting many bodies or forms, being anywhere instantly, power of bringing glory to one's domain, manifesting a body of transformation, and power to end evil and transmigration.

通利 Intelligence keen as a blade, able to penetrate truth.

通別二序 The general and specific introductions to a sūtra; 如是我聞 being the 通序 general introduction in every sūtra.

通力 The capacity to employ supernatural power without hindrance. Buddhas, bodhisattvas, etc., have 神力 spiritual or transcendent power; demons have 業力 power acquired through their karma.

通化 Perspicacious, or influential teaching; universal powers of teaching.

通夜 The whole night, i.e. to recite or intone throughout the night.

通念佛 To call on the Buddhas in general, i.e. not limited to one Buddha.

通惑 The two all-pervading deluders見 and 思 seeing and thinking wrongly i.e. taking appearance for reality.

通慧 Supernatural powers and wisdom, the former being based on the latter.

通教 Tiantai classified Buddhist schools into four periods 藏, 通, 別, and 圓. The 藏 Piṭaka school was that of Hīnayāna. The 通Tong, interrelated or intermediate school, was the first stage of Mahāyāna, having in it elements of all the three vehicles, śrāvaka, pratyekabuddha, and bodhisattva. Its developing doctrine linked it with Hīnayāna on the one hand and on the other with the two further developments of the 別 'separate', or 'differentiated' Mahāyāna teaching, and the 圓 full-orbed, complete, or perfect Mahāyāna. The 通教 held the doctrine of the Void, but had not arrived at the doctrine of the Mean.

通明慧 The six 通, three 明, and three 慧 q.v.

通會 To harmonize differences of teaching.

通行 The thoroughfare, or path which leads to nirvāṇa.

通途 Thoroughfare, an open way.

通達 To pervade, perceive, unimpeded, universal.

通達心 通達菩提心 To attain to the enlightened mind; the stage of one who has passed through the novitiate and understands the truth.

A group, tribe, class, division, section; a board, office; school, sect; a work in volumes, a heading or section of a work.

部引陀 or 部引陁 The planet Mercury, i.e. Buddha.

部主 The founder of a sect, or school, or group.

部執 The tenets of a sect or school.

部多 bhūta, 'been, become, produced, formed, being, existing,' etc. (M. W. ); intp. as the consciously existing; the four great elements, earth, fire, wind, water, as apprehended by touch; also a kind of demon produced by metamorphosis. Also, the 眞如 bhūtatathatā.

部教 The sūtras, or canon, and their exposition.

The country, wilderness, wild, rustic, uncultivated, rude.

野寐尼 Yamani, Java.

野布施 To scatter offerings at the grave to satisfy hungry ghosts.

野干 śṛgāla; jackal, or an animal resembling a fox which cries in the night.

野狐 A wild fox, a fox sprite.

野狐禪 Wild-fox meditation, i.e. non-Buddhist ascetics, heterodoxy in general.

野盤僧 A roaming monk without fixed abode.

野葬 Burial by abandoning the corpse in the wilds.

To angle, fish.

釣語 Angling words or questions, to fish out what a student knows.

To close, stop, block.

閉尸 peśī v. A 八位胎藏 A piece of flesh; a mass; a foetus.

閉爐 To cease lighting the stove (in spring).

閉關 To shut in; to isolate oneself for meditation.

閉黎多 preta, hungry ghost, see 薜.

A mound, tomb; cf. 畢陵.

To accompany, associated with; add to, assist.

陪食 To keep one company at meals.

陪臚 陪囉嚩 Bhairava, the terrible, name of Śiva, also of Viṣṇu and other devas, also of a 金剛神.

Pottery, kiln.

陶家輪 A potter's wheel.

Arrange, marshal, spread, state; old, stale.

陳棄藥 腐爛藥 Purgative medicines.

陳那 Dignāga, Dinnāga; a native of southern India, the great Buddhist logician, circa A. D. 500 or 550, founder of the new logic, cf. 因明; he is known also as 童授 and 域龍. Also used for Jina, victorious, the overcomer, a title of a Buddha.

Shade, dark, the shades, the negative as opposed to the positive principle, female, the moon, back, secret. In Buddhism it is the phenomenal, as obscuring the true nature of things; also the aggregation of phenomenal things resulting in births and deaths, hence it is used as a translation like 蘊 q.v. for skandha, the 五陰 being the five skandhas or aggregates.

陰入界 The five skandhas, the twelve entrances, or bases through which consciousness enters (āyatana), and the eighteen dhātu or elements, called the 三科.

陰境 The present world as the state of the five skandhas.

陰妄 The skandha-illusion, or the unreality of the skandhas.

陰妄一念 The illusion of the skandhas like a passing thought.

陰幻 The five skandhas like a passing illusion.

陰界 The five skandhas and the eighteen dhātu.

陰藏 A retractable penis — one of the thirty-two marks of a Buddha.

陰錢 Paper money for use in services to the dead.

陰魔 The five skandhas considered as māras or demons fighting against the Buddha, nature of men.


雪山 雪嶺 The snow mountains, the Himālayas.

雪山大士 雪山童子The great man, or youth of the Himālayas, the Buddha in a former incarnation.

雪山部 Haimavatāḥ, the Himālaya school, one of the five divisions of the Mahāsāṅghikaḥ.

Top of the head, crown, summit, apex, zenith; highest; to rise; oppose; an official's 'button'.

頂光 The halo round the head of an image.

頂巢 Contemplation so profound that a bird may build its nest on the individual's head.

頂珠 The gem in the head-dress, or coiffure; the protuberance on the Buddha's brow.

頂生王 Mūrdhaja-rāja, the king born from the crown of the head, name of the first cakravartī ancestors of the Śākya clan; the name is also applied to a former incarnation of Śākyamuni.

頂相 The protuberance on the Buddha's brow, one of the thirty-two marks of a Buddha; also an image, or portrait of the upper half of the body.

頂石 Like a heavy stone on the head, to be got rid of with speed, e.g. transmigration.

頂禮 To prostrate oneself with the head at the feet of the one reverenced.

頂輪 A wheel or disc at the top, or on the head, idem 金輪佛頂 q.v.

頂門眼 The middle upstanding eye in Maheśvara's forehead.

matsya. Fish.

魚兎 Like a fish or a hare, when caught the net may be ignored, i.e. the meaning or spirit of a sūtra more valuable than the letter.

魚子 Spawn, vast in multitude compared with those that develop.

魚板 The wooden fish in monasteries, beaten to announce meals, and to beat time at the services.

魚母 The care of a mother-fish for its multitudinous young, e.g. Amitābha's care of all in leading them to his Pure Land.

魚鼓 Similar to魚板.

A bird.

鳥迹 The tracks left in the air by a flying bird, unreal.

鳥道 The path of the birds, evasive, mysterious, difficult, as is the mystic life. Also a fabulous island only reached by flight.

鳥鼠僧 A 'bat monk', i. e. one who breaks the commandments, with the elusiveness of a creature that is partly bird and partly mouse; also who chatters without meaning like the twittering of birds or the squeaking of rats.

鹿 mṛga; a deer; as Śākyamuni first preached the four noble truths in the Deer-garden, the deer is a symbol of his preaching.

鹿仙 Śākyamuni as royal stag: he and Devadatta had both been deer in a previous incarnation.

鹿戒 Deer morals i.e. to live, as some ascetics, like deer.

鹿苑 鹿野園 Mṛgadāva, known also as 仙人園, etc., the park, abode, or retreat of wise men, whose resort it formed; 'a famous park north-east of Vārāṇasī, a favourite resort of Śākyamuni. The modern Sārnāth (Śāraṅganātha) near Benares.' M. W. Here he is reputed to have preached his first sermon and converted his first five disciples. Tiantai also counts it as the scene of the second period of his teaching, when during twelve years he delivered the Āgama sūtras.

鹿車 Deer carts, one of the three kinds of vehicle referred to in the Lotus Sūtra, the medium kind; v. 三車.

yava. 耶婆 corn, wheat, barley, etc. Corn, especially barley; a grain of barley is the 2,688,000th part of a yojana.

Hemp, flax, linen, translit. ma, cf. 牟, 麽, etc.

麻蹉 matsya, a fish.

麻豆瞿羅 madhugola, sweet balls, or biscuits.

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