A Dictionary Of Chinese Buddhist Terms

With Sanskrit And English Equivalents And A Sanskrit-pali Index

by William Edward Soothill | 1937 | 324,264 words

For about a thousand years, Buddhism dominated the thought of China and her thinkers were occupied with Buddhist philosophy. This dictionary serves as a resource to the interpretation of Chinese culture, as well as an important reference for the comparative study of Sanskrit and Pali originals. The author provides a key for the students which to u...

Part 7 - Seven Strokes

Guess, estimate.

估衣 To estimate the value of a deceased monk's personal possessions.

估唱 to auction a deceased monk's personal possessions to the other monks.

Companion, associate; translit. pan, ban, van, cf. 畔伴僧 Associate or accompanying monks.

伴夜 伴靈 To watch with the spirit of a departed monk the night before the cremation.

伴談 v. 和南 vandana.

伴陀羅縛子尼 (or 伴陀羅縛字尼) v. 半 Pāṇḍaravāsinī.

vicāra, 毘遮羅 Investigation, consideration, search for truth; to spy; wait on.

To let down, lower.

低羅擇迦 (or 低羅釋迦) Tiladhāka, Tiladaka, or Tilaśākya. "A monastery, three yōdjanas west of Nālanda, perhaps the modern village of Thelari near Gayā." Eitel.

He, she, it; other; i.e. 他; translit. tha, e.g. in sthāna , sthāman.

Position, seat, throne.

位不退 One of the 三不退 q.v. three kinds of never receding.

位牌 The board, or record of official position.

Translit. ha, hai, a, ra, he, cf. 賀 and 曷. What? How?

何似生 How does it thus happen?

何夷摩柯 Haimaka, a king at the beginning of a kalpa, 金 by name.

何履那 hariṇa, a deer.

何羅怙羅 Rāhula, name of Śākyamuni's son, also of an asura.

何耶 Haya, the horse-head form of Guanyin.

何耶揭唎婆 Hayagrīva, Horse-neck, a form of Viṣṇu, name of a 明王 mingwang.


但空 Only non-existence, or immateriality, a term used by Tiantai to denote the orthodox Hīnayāna system. 不但空 denotes the 通教 intermediate system between the Hīnayāna and the Mahāyāna; v. 空.

但荼 單拏 daṇḍa, a staff, club.

Appearance of, seeming as, like, as; than.

似現量 A syllogism assuming e.g. that a vase or garment is real, and not made up of certain elements.

似立宗 A fallacious proposition; containing any one of the nine fallacies connected with the thesis, or pratijñā, of the syllogism.

似能破 A fallacious counter-proposition; containing one of the thirty-three fallacies connected with the thesis (pratijñā 宗), reason (hetu 因), or example (udāharaṇa 喩).

Translit. kha, also khya, ga, gha, khu, khi; cf. 呿, 喀, 吃, 呵, 珂, 恪, 轗; it is used to represent 虛空 space, empty. Skt. kha inter alia means "sky", "ether".

佉加 渴伽 khaḍga, a rhinoceros.

佉勒迦 khārī, a measure (or hamper) of grain; khārīka, equal to a khārī.

佉吒迦 khaṭaka; a manual sign, wrists together, fingers half-closed; M. W. says "the half-closed hand; the doubled fist of wrestlers or boxers".

佉啁羅 khaṭvā, a bed, couch, cot; a long, narrow bed.

佉提羅 (佉提羅迦); 佉得羅柯; 佉陀羅; 朅地洛 (or朅地洛迦 or 朅達洛 or 朅達洛迦); 朅那里酤; 羯地羅; 可梨羅; 軻梨羅; Khadiraka, or Karavīka. One of the seven concentric ranges of a world; tr. by jambu timber, or wood; also by 空破 bare, unwooded. Its sea is covered with scented flowers, and in it are four islands. It is also a tree of the Acacia order.

佉梨 khāri, or khārī. A 斛, i.e. bushel, or measure of about ten 斗; v. 佉慮; 佉勒.

佉樓 佉慮 (佉慮風吒); 佉路瑟吒 Kharoṣṭhi, tr. by "Ass's lips"; name of an ancient ṛṣi, perhaps Jyotīrasa. Also, "the writing of all the northerners," said to have been introduced by him, consisting of seventy-two characters.

佉沙 Kashgar, a country in E. Turkestan, east of the Pamirs, S. of Tianshan; the older name, after the name of its capital, is sometimes given as 疏勒 or 室利訖栗多底 Śrīkrītati.

佉盧 khāra; said to be a 斗, the tenth of a佉梨; also Khara, the name of a ṛṣi. For Kharoṣṭhi, v. above.

佉羅陀, or 佉羅帝, etc.; v. 伽.

佉羅騫馱 Kharakaṇṭha; kings of demons, kings of asuras present when Buddha preached the Lotus Sutra; also described as rumbling like thunder, or stirring up the waves of the ocean.

佉訶囉嚩阿 kha, ha, ra, va, a, the five 種子 roots, or seed-tones of the five elements, space, wind, fire, water, earth respectively.

佉陀尼 (or 佉闍尼); 珂但尼 khādanīya, to be chewed; edible; a food; defined as edibles not included in regulation meals.

sthiti. To abide, dwell, stay, stop, settle.

生住滅 birth, existence, death.

住位 Abiding place, one of the ten stages, resting and developing places or abodes of the bodhisattva, which is entered after the stage of belief has been passed; v. 十住; 十地; 地.

住劫 vivartasiddhakalpa; the abiding or existing kalpa; the kalpa of human existence; v. 劫.

住地 Dwelling-place; abiding place in the Truth, i.e. the acquirement by faith of a self believing in the dharma and producing its fruits.

住定 Fixed, certain, firmly settled.

住定菩薩 A bodhisattva firmly fixed, or abiding in certainty. After a bodhisattva has completed three great asaṁkhyeyakalpas he has still one hundred great kalpas to complete. This period is called abiding in fixity or firmness, divided into six kinds: certainty of being born in a good gati, in a noble family, with a good body, a man, knowing the abiding places of his transmigrations, knowing the abiding character of his good works.

住持 To dwell and control; the abbot of a monastery; resident superintendent; to maintain, or firmly hold to (faith in the Buddha, etc.). For住持身 v. 佛具十身.

住果 Abiding in the fruit; e.g. śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas who rest satisfied in their attainments and do not strive for Buddhahood; they are known as住果緣覺 or住果羅漢.

住相 sthiti; abiding, being, the state of existence, one of the four characteristics of all beings and things, i.e. birth, existence, change (or decay), death (or cessation).

To make, do, act, be; arise.

作佛 To become or be a Buddha; to cut off illusion, attain complete enlightenment, and end the stage of bodhisattva discipline.

作佛事 To do the works of Buddha; perform Buddhist ceremonies. 作善 To do good, e.g. worship, bestow alms, etc.

作家 Leader, founder, head of sect, a term used by the 禪 Chan (Zen) or Intuitive school.

作惡 To do evil.

作意 cittotpāda; to have the thought arise, be aroused, beget the resolve, etc.

作戒 Obedience to the commandments, external fulfillment of them; also called 表色, in contrast with 無作戒, 無表色 the inner grace; moral action in contrast with inner moral character.

作持戒 Active keeping of the commandments, active law in contrast with 止持戒 passive, such as not killing, not stealing, etc. v. 持犯.

作梵 (作梵唄) The call to order in the assembly.

作業 Karma produced, i.e. by the action of body, words, and thought, which educe the kernel of the next rebirth.

作法 Karma, which results from action, i.e. the "deeds" of body or mouth; to perform ceremonies.

作法得 To receive ceremonial ordination as a monk.

作法懺 (作法懺悔) One of the three kinds of monastic confession and repentance.

作法界 The place of assembly for ceremonial purposes.

作犯 Transgression, sin by action, active sin.

作用 Function, activity, act.

作禮 To pay one's respect by worship; to make an obeisance.

作者 kartṛ; a doer, he who does things, hence the ātman, ego, or person within; the active element, or principle; one of the sixteen non-Buddhist definitions of the soul. Also kāraṇa, a cause, maker, creator, deity.

作擧 The accusation of sin made against particular monks by the virtuous monk who presides at the pravāraṇa gathering on the last day of the summer's rest.

作願門 To make a vow to benefit self and others, and to fulfil the vow so as to be born in the Pure Land of Amitābha. The third of the five doors or ways of entering the Pure Land.

作麽 (作麽生) How? What? What are you doing?

Interchanged with 迦 q.v.; translit. ga, gha, ka, khya, g and in one case for ha.

伽彌尼 Gamini, a king whom the Buddha is said to have addressed, v. sutra of this name.

伽憊 idem 路伽憊 Lokavit.

伽梨 Abbrev. for 僧伽梨 saṅghāṭī, robe.

伽梵 伽婆 Abbrev. for bhagavan, see 婆伽婆.

伽婆達摩 Bhagavaddharma. A Western Indian monk who tr. a work on 觀自在.

伽梵波提 伽傍簸帝 Gavāṁpati. 牛主 Lord of cattle, name of an arhat; v. 憍.

伽毗黎 Kapilavastu, v. 劫.

伽羅 Abbrev. for 多伽羅tāgara putchuk, incense.

伽羅夜叉 Kālaka, a yakṣa who smote Śāriputra on the head while in meditation, without his perceiving it.

伽羅尼 羯羅拏 ghrāṇa, smell; scent.

伽羅陀 (1) Kharādīya, the mountain where Buddha is supposed to have tiered the 地藏十論經, the abode of Tizang; other names for it are 佉伽羅, 佉羅帝 (or佉羅帝提耶). (2) A bodhisattva stage attained after many kalpas.

伽耶 伽邪; 伽闍 Gayā. (1) A city of Magadha, Buddhagayā (north-west of present Gaya), near which Śākyamuni became Buddha. (2) Gaja, an elephant. (3) 伽耶山 Gajaśirṣa, Elephant's Head Mountain; two are mentioned, one near "Vulture Peak", one near the Bo-tree. (4) kāya, the body.

伽耶舍多 (or伽耶邪舍多) Gayaśāta (? Jayata), the eighteenth Indian patriarch, who laboured among the Tokhari.

伽耶迦葉 Gayākāśyapa, a brother of Mahākāśyapa, originally a fire-worshipper, one of the eleven foremost disciples of Buddha, to become Samantaprabhāsa Buddha.

伽胝 Abbrev. for saṇghāṭi, robe; v. 僧伽胝.

伽藍 僧伽藍摩; 僧藍 saṅghārāma or saṅghāgāra. (1) The park of a monastery. (2) A monastery, convent. There are eighteen伽藍神 guardian spirits of a monastery.

伽蘭他 grantha, a treatise, section, verse; the scriptures of the Sikhs.

伽車提 gacchati, goes, progresses.

伽那 gana, ghana; close, solid, thick.

伽伽那卑麗叉那 (or 伽伽那必利綺那) gaganaprekṣaṇa, beholding the sky, or looking into space.

伽那提婆 Kāṇadeva, i.e. Āryadeva, fifteenth patriarch, disciple of Nāgārjuna, v. 迦.

伽那馥力刃 A name of Nāgārjuna.

伽陀 伽他 (1) gātha = song; gāthā, a metrical narrative or hymn, with moral purport, described as generally composed of thirty-two characters, and called 孤起頌 a detached stanza, distinguished from geya, 重頌 which repeats the ideas of preceding prose passages. (2) agada as adjective = healthy; as noun = antidote. (3) gata, arrived at, fallen into, or "in a state".

Buddha, from budh to "be aware of", "conceive", "observe", "wake"; also 佛陀; 浮圖; 浮陀; 浮頭; 浮塔; 勃陀; 勃馱; 沒馱; 母馱; 母陀; 部陀; 休屠. Buddha means "completely conscious, enlightened", and came to mean the enlightener. he Chinese translation is 覺 to perceive, aware, awake; and 智 gnosis, knowledge. There is an Eternal Buddha, see e.g. the Lotus Sutra, cap. 16, and multitudes of Buddhas, but the personality of a Supreme Buddha, an Ādi-Buddha, is not defined. Buddha is in and through all things, and some schools are definitely Pan-Buddhist in the pantheistic sense. In the triratna 三寳 commonly known as 三寳佛, while Śākyamuni Buddha is the first "person" of the Trinity, his Law the second, and the Order the third, all three by some are accounted as manifestations of the All-Buddha. As Śākyamuni, the title indicates him as the last of the line of Buddhas who have appeared in this world, Maitreya is to be the next. As such he is the one who has achieved enlightenment, having discovered the essential evil of existence (some say mundane existence, others all existence), and the way of deliverance from the constant round of reincarnations; this way is through the moral life into nirvana, by means of self-abnegation, the monastic life, and meditation. By this method a Buddha, or enlightened one, himself obtains Supreme Enlightenment, or Omniscience, and according to Māhāyanism leads all beings into the same enlightenment. He sees things not as they seem in their phenomenal but in their noumenal aspects, as they really are. The term is also applied to those who understand the chain of causality (twelve nidānas) and have attained enlightenment surpassing that of the arhat. Four types of the Buddha are referred to: (1) 三藏佛the Buddha of the Tripiṭaka who attained enlightenment on the bare ground under the bodhi-tree; (2) 通佛the Buddha on the deva robe under the bodhi-tree of the seven precious things; (3) 別佛the Buddha on the great precious Lotus throne under the Lotus realm bodhi-tree; and (4) 圓佛the Buddha on the throne of Space in the realm of eternal rest and glory where he is Vairocana. The Hīnayāna only admits the existence of one Buddha at a time; Mahāyāna claims the existence of many Buddhas at one and the same time, as many Buddhas as there are Buddha-universes, which are infinite in number.

佛世 Buddha-age; especially the age when Buddha was on earth.

佛世尊 Buddha, the World-honoured, or honoured of the worlds, a tr. of bhagavat, revered.

佛世界 A Buddha-realm, divided into two categories, the pure and the impure, i.e. the passionless and passion worlds.

佛乘 The Buddha conveyance or vehicle, Buddhism as the vehicle of salvation for all beings; the doctrine of the 華嚴 Huayan (Kegon) School that all may become Buddha, which is called 一乘 the One Vehicle, the followers of this school calling it the 圓教 complete or perfect doctrine; this doctrine is also styled in the Lotus Sutra 一佛乘 the One Buddha-Vehicle.

佛乘戒 The rules and commandments conveying beings to salvation.

佛事 Buddha's affairs, the work of transforming all beings; or of doing Buddha-work, e.g. prayers and worship.

佛于逮 Pūrvavideha, v. 佛婆, etc.

佛五姓 The five surnames of Buddha before he became enlightened: 瞿曇 Gautama, a branch of the Śākya clan; 甘蔗Ikṣvāku, one of Buddha's ancestors; 日種 Sūryavaṁśa, of the sun race; 舍夷 ? Śāka; 釋迦 Śākya, the name of Buddha's clan. This last is generally used in China.

佛位 The state of Buddhahood.

佛使 A messenger of the Tathāgata.

佛供 An offering to Buddha.

佛像 Buddha's image, or pratimā. There is a statement that in the fifth century A.D. the images in China were of Indian features, thick lips, high nose, long eyes, full jaws, etc., but that after the Tang the form became "more effeminate".

佛光 The light of Buddha, spiritual enlightenment; halo, glory.

佛具 Articles used on an altar in worship of Buddha.

佛具十身 The ten perfect bodies or characteristics of Buddha: (1) 菩提身 Bodhi-body in possession of complete enlightenment. (2) 願身 Vow-body, i.e. the vow to be born in and from the Tuṣita heaven. (3) 化身 nirmāṇakāya, Buddha incarnate as a man. (4) 住持身 Buddha who still occupies his relics or what he has left behind on earth and thus upholds the dharma. (5) 相好莊嚴身 saṁbhogakāya, endowed with an idealized body with all Buddha marks and merits. (6) 勢力身 or 心佛 Power-body, embracing all with his heart of mercy. (7) 如意身 or 意生身 At will body, appearing according to wish or need. (8) 福德身 or 三昧身 samādhi body, or body of blessed virtue. (9) 智身 or 性佛 Wisdom-body, whose nature embraces all wisdom. (10) 法身 dharmakāya, the absolute Buddha, or essence of all life.

佛凡一體 Buddha and the common people are one, i.e. all are of Buddha-nature.

佛刹 buddhakṣetra. 佛紇差怛羅 Buddha realm, land or country; see also 佛土, 佛國. The term is absent from Hīnayāna. In Mahāyāna it is the spiritual realm acquired by one who reaches perfect enlightenment, where he instructs all beings born there, preparing them for enlightenment. In the schools where Mahāyāna adopted an Ādi-Buddha, these realms or Buddha-fields interpenetrated each other, since they were coexistent with the universe. There are two classes of Buddhakṣetra: (1) in the Vairocana Schools, regarded as the regions of progress for the righteous after death; (2) in the Amitābha Schools, regarded as the Pure Land; v. McGovern, A Manual of Buddhist Philosophy, pp. 70-2.

佛印 Buddha-seal, the sign of assurance, see 佛心印.

佛吼 Buddha's nāda, or roar, Buddha's preaching compared to a lion's roar, i.e. authoritative.

佛鳴 Buddhaghoṣa, the famous commentator and writer of the Hīnayāna School and of the Pali canon. He was "born near the Bo Tree, at Buddha Gayā, and came to Ceylon about A.D. 430". "Almost all the commentaries now existing (in Pali) are ascribed to him". Rhys Davids.

佛因 Buddha-cause, that which leads to Buddhahood, i.e. the merit of planting roots of goodness.

佛國 buddhakṣetra. The country of the Buddha's birth. A country being transformed by a Buddha, also one already transformed; v. 佛土 and 佛刹.

佛國記 Faxian's Record of Buddhist countries.

佛圍陀 Buddhaveda, i.e. the Tripiṭaka, the Veda of Buddhism.

佛圖澄 or 佛圖磴 or 佛圖橙 Fotuzheng, an Indian monk who came to Luoyang about A.D. 310, also known as 竺佛圖澄, noted for his magic; his name Buddhacinga, or (Eitel) Buddhochinga, is doubtful; he is also called 佛陀僧訶 Buddhasiṁha.

佛土 buddhakṣetra. 佛國; 紇差怛羅; 差多羅; 刹怛利耶; 佛刹 The land or realm of a Buddha. The land of the Buddha's birth, India. A Buddha-realm in process of transformation, or transformed. A spiritual Buddha-realm. The Tiantai Sect evolved the idea of four spheres: (1) 同居之國土 Where common beings and saints dwell together, divided into (a) a realm where all beings are subject to transmigration and (b) the Pure Land. (2) 方便有餘土 or 變易土 The sphere where beings are still subject to higher forms of transmigration, the abode of Hīnayāna saints, i.e. srota-āpanna 須陀洹; sakṛdāgāmin 斯陀含; anāgāmin 阿那含; arhat 阿羅漢. (3) 實報無障礙 Final unlimited reward, the Bodhisattva realm. (4) 常寂光土 Where permanent tranquility and enlightenment reign, Buddha-parinirvāṇa.

佛地 buddha-bhūmi. The Buddha stage, being the tenth stage of the 通 or intermediate school, when the bodhisattva has arrived at the point of highest enlightenment and is just about to become a Buddha.

佛地羅 Bodhila, a native of Kashmir and follower of the Māhāsaṅghika school, author of the 集眞論.

佛境 The (spiritual) region of Buddhas.

佛壽 Buddha's life, or age. While he only lived to eighty as a man, in his saṁbhogakāya he is without end, eternal; cf. Lotus Sutra, 壽量品, where Buddha is declared to be eternal.

佛天 Buddha as Heaven; Buddha and the devas.

佛婆提 (佛婆提訶) Pūrvavideha; 佛提媻; 毗提訶 (佛毗提訶); 布嚕婆毗提訶; 逋利婆鼻提賀; 佛于逮 The continent of conquering spirits 勝神洲; one of the four great continents, east of Meru, semi-lunar in shape, its people having faces of similar shape.

佛婆羅部 idem 犢子部 Vātsīputrīyāḥ.

佛子 Son of Buddha; a bodhisattva; a believer in Buddhism, for every believer is becoming Buddha; a term also applied to all beings, because all are of Buddha-nature. There is a division of three kinds: 外子 external sons, who have not yet believed; 度子 secondary sons, Hīnayānists; 眞子 true sons, Mahāyānists.

佛宗 Buddhism; principles of the Buddha Law, or dharma.

佛家 The school or family of Buddhism; the Pure Land, where is the family of Buddha. Also all Buddhists from the srota-āpanna stage upwards.

佛寳 See 佛寶.

佛寶, 法寳, 僧寳 Buddha, Dharma, Saṅgha, i.e. Buddha, the Law, the Order; these are the three Jewels, or precious ones, the Buddhist Trinity; v. 三寳.

佛弟子 Disciples of Buddha, whether monks or laymen.

佛影 buddhachāyā; the shadow of Buddha, formerly exhibited in various places in India, visible only to those "of pure mind".

佛後普賢 After having attained Buddhahood still to continue the work of blessing and saving other beings; also Buxian, or Samantabhadra, as continuing the Buddha's work.

佛德 Buddha-virtue, his perfect life, perfect fruit, and perfect mercy in releasing all beings from misery.

佛心 The mind of Buddha, the spiritually enlightened heart. A heart of mercy; a heart abiding in the real, not the seeming; detached from good and evil and other such contrasts.

佛心印 The seal of the Buddha heart or mind, the stamp of the universal Buddha-heart in every one; the seal on a Buddha's heart, or breast; the svastika.

佛心天子 The Son of Heaven of the Buddha-heart, a name given to Wudi of the Liang dynasty, A.D. 502-549.

佛心宗 The sect of the Buddha-heart, i.e. the Chan (Zen) or Intuitive sect of Bodhidharma, holding that each individual has direct access to Buddha through meditation.

佛性 buddhatā. The Buddha-nature, i.e. gnosis, enlightenment; potential bodhi remains in every gati, i.e. all have the capacity for enlightenment; for the Buddha-nature remains in all as wheat-nature remains in all wheat. This nature takes two forms: 理 noumenal, in the absolute sense, unproduced and immortal, and 行 phenomenal, in action. While every one possesses the Buddha-nature, it requires to be cultivated in order to produce its ripe fruit.

佛性不受羅 The Buddha-nature does not receive punishment in the hells, because it is 空 void of form, or spiritual and above the formal or material, only things with form can enter the hells.

佛性常住 The eternity of the Buddha-nature, also of Buddha as immortal and immutable.

佛性戒 The moral law which arises out of the Buddha-nature in all beings; also which reveals or evolves the Buddha-nature.

佛性眞如 The Buddha-nature, the absolute, as eternally existent, i.e. the bhūtatathatā.

佛慧 Buddha-wisdom.

佛所行讚經 Buddhacarita-kāvya Sutra; a poetic narrative of the life of Śākyamuni by Aśvaghoṣa 馬鳴, tr. by Dharmarakṣa A.D. 414-421.

佛戒 The moral commandments of the Buddha; also, the laws of reality observed by all Buddhas.

佛支提 Buddha's caitya, or stūpa, v. 支提. A Buddhist reliquary, or pagoda, where relics of the Buddha, 舍利 śarīra, were kept; a stūpa 塔婆 was a tower for relics; such towers are of varying shape; originally sepulchres, then mere cenotaphs, they have become symbols of Buddhism.

佛教 Buddha's teaching; Buddhism, v. 釋教.

佛敕 Buddha's śāsana or orders, i.e. his teaching.

佛日 The Buddha-sun which drives away the darkness of ignorance; the day of Buddha.

佛智 anuttara-samyak-sambodhi, Buddha-wisdom, i.e. supreme, universal gnosis, awareness or intelligence; sarvajñatā, omniscience.

佛月 The Buddha-moon, Buddha being mirrored in the human heart like the moon in pure water. Also a meaning similar to 佛日.

佛本行集經 Buddhacarita; a life of Śākyamuni, tr. by Jñānagupta, A.D. 587.

佛果 buddhapala; the Buddha fruit, the state of Buddhahood; the fruition of arhatship, arahattvapala.

佛栗持薩儻那 Urddhasthāna, ? Ūrdvasthāna, Vardhasthāna, or Vṛjisthāna, "an ancient kingdom, the country of the Vardaks, the Ortospana of Ptolemy, the region about Cabool (Lat. 34°32 N., Long. 68°55 E. )." Eitel.

佛樓沙 Purushapura, v. 布嚕沙.

佛槃勢羅 Pūrvaśailāḥ, or Eastern Hill; one of the five divisions of the Māhāsaṇghika school. A monastery east of Dhanakaṭaka, i.e. Amarāvatī, on the R. Godavery.

佛樹 bodhidruma; 道樹 the Bodhi-tree under which Śākyamuni obtained enlightenment or became Buddha, Ficus religiosa.

佛檀 buddha-dāna, Buddha-giving contrasted with Māra-giving; Buddha-charity as the motive of giving, or preaching, and of self-sacrifice, or self-immolation.

佛歡喜日 The Buddhist joy-day, the 15th of the 7th month, the last day of the summer retreat.

佛母 (1) The mother of the Buddha, Mahāmāyā, 摩耶 Māyā, or Mātṛkā. (2) His aunt who was his foster-mother. (3) The Dharma or Law which produced him. (4) The prajñā-pāramitā, mother or begetter of all Buddhas. (5) Other "Buddha-mothers", e.g. 准提佛母; 孔雀佛母, etc. Cf. 佛眼.

佛母眞三昧 The samādhi, meditation, or trance by means of which the Buddhas, past, present, and future, become incarnate.

佛法 buddhadharma; the Dharma or Law preached by the Buddha, the principles underlying these teachings, the truth attained by him, its embodiment in his being. Buddhism.

佛法僧 Buddha, Dharma, Saṅgha, i.e. the Buddhist Trinity.

佛法壽命 The life or extent of a period of Buddhism, i.e. as long as his commandments prevail.

佛法藏 The storehouse of Buddha-law, the bhūtatathatā as the source of all things.

佛海 Buddha's ocean, the realm of Buddha boundless as the sea.

佛滅 (佛滅度) Buddha's nirvana; it is interpreted as the extinction of suffering, or delusion, and as transport across the 苦海 bitter sea of mortality, v. 滅.

佛無礙慧 Unhindered, infinite Buddha-wisdom.

佛無差別 The identity of all Buddhas, and of their methods and purposes of enlightenment. One of the three identities, of all Buddhas, of all minds, and of all beings.

佛生日 Buddha's birthday, the 4th month, 8th day, or 2nd month, 8th day, the former having preference for celebration of his birthday in China.

佛田 Buddha field, in which the planting and cultivation of the Buddhist virtues ensure a rich harvest, especially the Buddha as an object of worship and the Order for almsgiving.

佛界 The Buddha realm, the state of Buddhahood, one of the ten realms, which consist of the six gati together with the realms of Buddhas, bodhisattvas, pratyeka-buddhas, and śrāvakas; also a Buddha-land; also the Buddha's country; cf. 佛土.

佛眼 The eye of Buddha, the enlightened one who sees all and is omniscient.

佛眼尊 A term of the esoteric cult for the source or mother of all wisdom, also called佛眼部母; 佛眼佛母; 佛母身; 佛母尊; 虛空佛.

佛知見 The penetrative power of Buddha's wisdom, or vision.

佛祖 The Buddha and other founders of cults; Buddhist patriarchs; two of the records concerning them are the佛祖統紀 and the佛祖通載 (歷代通載).

佛種 The seed of Buddhahood; bodhisattva seeds which, sown in the heart of man, produce the Buddha fruit, enlightenment.

佛種姓 Those of the Buddha-clan, Buddhists.

佛立三昧 A degree of samādhi in which the Buddhas appear to the meditator.

佛經 Buddhist canonical literature; also Buddha's image and sutras, with special reference to those purporting to have been introduced under Han Mingdi; sutras probably existed in China before that reign, but evidence is lacking. The first work, generally attributed to Mingdi's reign, is known as The Sutra of Forty-two Sections 四十二章經 but Maspero in B.E.F.E.O. ascribes it to the second century A.D.

佛臘日 The Buddhist last day of the old year, i.e. of the summer retreat.

佛舍 A Buddhist temple.

佛舍利 Buddha's śarīra. Relics or ashes left after Buddha's cremation, literally Buddha's body.

佛般泥洹經 佛臨涅槃記法住經 The Nirvana Sutra or Mahāparinirvāṇa Sutra.

佛藏 Buddha thesaurus, the sutras of the Buddha's preaching, etc., also all the teaching of Buddha.

佛見 The correct views, or doctrines, of the Buddha; Buddha doctrines.

佛記 Buddha's prediction, his foretelling of the future of his disciples.

佛說 Buddha's preaching; the Buddha said. Buddha's utterance of the sutras. There are over 150 sutras of which the titles begin with these two words, e.g. 佛說無量壽經 Aparimitāyus Sutra, tr. by Saṇghavarman A.D. 252.

佛語 The words, or sayings, of Buddha.

佛語必 The bhūtatathatā, as the mind or storehouse of Buddha's words.

佛跡 佛迹 Buddha's relic; any trace of Buddha, e.g. the imprint of his foot in stone before he entered nirvana.

佛身 buddhakāya, a general term for the trikāya, or threefold embodiment of Buddha. There are numerous categories or forms of the buddhakāya.

佛道 The way of Buddha, leading to Buddhahood; intp. as bodhi, enlightenment, gnosis.

佛部 The groups in which Buddha appears in the Garbhadhātu and Vajradhātu respectively.

佛陀 v. 佛 There are numerous monks from India and Central Asia bearing this as part of their names.

佛陀什 Buddhajīva, who arrived in China from Kashmir or Kabul, A.D. 423.

佛陀僧訶 Buddhasiṃha, a disciple of Asaṅga, probably fifth century A.D., about whose esoteric practices, lofty talents, and final disappearance a lengthy account is given in the Fan Yi Ming Yi 翻譯名義; it is also a title of 佛圖澄 q.v.

佛陀多羅 (佛陀多羅多) Buddhatrāta of Kashmir or Kabul, was a translator about 650.

佛陀扇多 Buddhaśānta, of Central India, translator of some ten works from 525-539.

佛陀提婆 Buddhadeva.

佛陀槃遮 Buddhavaca.

佛陀毱多 Buddhagupta, "a Buddhistic king of Magadha, son and successor of Śakrāditya," Eitel.

佛陀波利 Buddhapāla, came from Kabul to China 676; also Buddhapālita, a disciple of Nāgārjuna and founder of the 中論性教.

佛陀蜜多羅 Buddhamitra, the ninth patriarch.

佛陀跋陀羅 Buddhabhadra, of Kapilavastu, came to China circa 408, introduced an alphabet of forty-two characters and composed numerous works; also name of a disciple of Dharmakoṣa, whom Xuanzang met in India, 630-640.

佛陀耶舍 Buddhayaśas, of Kashmir or Kabul, tr. four works, 408-412.

佛陀難提 Buddhanandi, of Kāmarūpa, descendant of the Gautama family and eighth patriarch.

佛陀馱沙 Buddhadāsa, of Hayamukha 阿耶穆佉 author of the 大毗婆沙論.

佛陀伐那山 Buddhavanagiri, 'a mountain near Rājagṛha famous for its rock caverns, in one of which Śākyamumi lived for a time.' Eitel.

佛隴 Name of a peak at the southwest corner of Tiantai; also a name for Zhiyi 智顗 q.v.

佛頂 Śākyamuni in the third court of the Garbhadhātu is represented as the佛頂尊 in meditation as Universal Wise Sovereign. The 五佛頂q.v. Five Buddhas are on his left representing his Wisdom. The three 佛頂 on his right are called 廣大佛頂, 極廣大佛頂, and 無邊音聲佛頂; in all they are the eight 佛頂.

佛頂印 The characteristic sign on a Buddha's head, short curls, topknot, or uṣnīṣa.

佛頂咒 楞嚴咒 sitātapatroṣṇīṣa-dhāraṇī; the white-umbrella dhāraṇī in the 首楞嚴經.

佛頂骨 buddhoṣṇīṣa; the skull or cranial protuberance on the Buddha's head; one of his characteristic marks.

佛願 The vow of Buddha to save all beings.

佛馱 佛駄 Used in certain names for 佛陀 Buddha.

佛馱什 Buddhajīva.

佛馱斯那 Buddhasena.

佛馱笈多 Buddhagupta.

佛馱耶 ? Buddhāya.

佛馱耶舍 Buddhayaśas, known as the 'red-beard Vibhāṣā.'

佛馱踐陀羅 Buddhabhadra.

佛骨 A bone of the Buddha, especially the bone against whose reception by the emperor Xianzong the famous protest of Hanyu was made in 819.

Avoid; remit.

免僧 A monk whose attendance at the daily assembly is excused for other duties.

śaśa; a rabbit; also a hare. The hare in the moon, hence 懷兎者 is the moon or śaśin.

兎毛塵 The speck of dust that can rest on the point of a hare's down, one-seventh of that on a sheep's hair.

兎角 śaśa-viṣāṇa; śaśa-śṛṅga; a rabbit's horns, i.e. the non-existent; all phenomena are as unreal as a rabbit's horns.


冷暖 Cold and warm.

冷淘 Cold swill, a name for冷麪 cold dough-strings.

冷河 The cold river Sītā, v. 私多.

Smelt, melt; fascinating; translit. for ya in akṣaya.

冶受皮陀 Yajurveda, one of the four Vedas.

Cut, excise; translit. s, ś.

删地涅暮折那 Saṃdhinirmocana-sūtra, name of the 解深密經 sutra.

删提嵐 Described as a fabulous world of the past whose name is given as Śaṇḍilya, but this is doubtful.

删闍夜 (or 耶毘羅胝子); 删逝移毘刺知子 Sañjaya-Vairāṭīputra, or Saṁjayin Vairaḍīputra, one of the six founders of heretical or non-Buddhist schools, whose doctrine was that pain and suffering would end in due course, like unwinding a ball of silk, hence there was no need of seeking the 'Way'.

Divide, judge, decide.

判教 Division of the Buddha's teaching, e.g. that of Tiantai, into the five periods and eight teachings, that of Huayan into five teachings, etc.

判釋 To divide and explain sutras; to arrange in order, analyse the Buddha's teaching.

paṭu, tīkṣṇa; sharp, keen, clever; profitable, beneficial; gain, advantage; interest.

利人 To benefit or profit men, idem利他 parahita; the bodhisattva-mind is 自利利他 to improve oneself for the purpose of improving or benefiting others; the Buddha-mind is 利他一心 with single mind to help others, pure altruism; 利生 is the extension of this idea to 衆生 all the living, which of course is not limited to men or this earthly life; 利物 is also used with the same meaning, 物 being the living.

利使 The sharp or clever envoy, i.e. the chief illusion of regarding the ego and its experiences and ideas as real, one of the five chief illusions.

利劍 A sharp sword, used figuratively for Amitābha, and Mañjuśrī, indicating wisdom, discrimination, or power over evil.

利智 Keen intelligence, wisdom, discrimination; pāṭava.

利根 Sharpness, cleverness, intelligence, natural powers, endowment; possessed of powers of the pañca-indryāni (faith, etc.) or the five sense-organs, v. 五根.

利樂 Blessing and joy; the blessing being for the future life, the joy for the present; or aid (for salvation) and the joy of it.

利樂有情 To bless and give joy to the living, or sentient, the work of a bodhisattva.

利波波 離波多; 黎婆多; 頡隸伐多 Revata; Raivata. (1) A Brahman hermit; one of the disciples of Śākyamuni, to be reborn as Samanta-prabhāsa. (2) President of the second synod, a native of Sāṅkāśya. (3) A contemporary of Aśoka, mentioned in connection with the third synod. Cf. Eitel.

利益 Benefit, aid, to bless; hence 利益妙 the wonder of Buddha's blessing, in opening the minds of all to enter the Buddha-enlightenment.

利行攝 saṃgraha-vastu, the drawing of all beings to Buddhism through blessing them by deed, word, and will; one of the 四攝法 q.v.

利辯 Sharp and keen discrimination, or ratiocination, one of the seven characteristics 七種辯 of the bodhisattva.

利養 To nourish oneself by gain; gain; avarice.

利養縛 The bond of selfish greed, one of the two bonds, gain and fame.

Separate, divide, part from, other, different, differentiate, special.

別他那 Veṣṭana, 吠率努, name of a deva; the second term suggests Viṣṇu, and Veṣṭu might be a conception of Viṣṇu; the intp. 圍 suits both, for Veṣṭana means surrounding, enclosing, and Viṣṇu, pervade, encompass.

別依 Secondary texts or authorities, in contrast with 總依 the principal texts of a school.

別傳 Separately handed down; oral tradition; to pass on the teaching from mind to mind without writing, as in the Chan (Zen) or Intuitional school. Also 單傳.

別劫 antara-kalpas, small or intermediate kalpas, v. 劫.

別向圓修 The 向 of the 別教, i. e. the Separatist or Differentiating school, is the 修 of the 圓教 or Perfect school; i.e. when the 別教 Bodhisattva reaches the stage of the 十囘向, he has reached the 修 stage of the perfect nature and observance according to the 圓教 or Perfect school.

別圓 The 別教 and 圓教 schools, q. v. and 四教.

別境 Different realms, regions, states, or conditions.

別境心所 vibhāvanā; the ideas, or mental states, which arise according to the various objects or conditions toward which the mind is directed, e.g. if toward a pleasing object, then desire arises.

別報 Differentiated rewards according to previous deeds, i.e. the differing conditions of people in this life resulting from their previous lives.

別念佛 To intone the name of a special Buddha.

別惑 別見 Delusions arising from differentiation, mistaking the seeming for the real; these delusions according to the 別教 are gradually eradicated by the Bodhisattva during his first stage.

別教 The 'different' teaching of the 華嚴宗. Both the Huayan school and the Lotus school are founded on the 一乘 or One Vehicle idea; the Lotus school asserts that the Three Vehicles are really the One Vehicle; the Huayan school that the One Vehicle differs from the Three Vehicles; hence the Lotus school is called the 同教一乘 unitary, while the Huayan school is the 別教一乘 Differentiating school.

別時念佛 To call upon Buddha at special times. When the ordinary religious practices are ineffective the Pure Land sect call upon Buddha for a period of one to seven days, or ten to ninety days. Also 如法念佛.

別業 Differentiated karma (the cause of different resultant conditions); cf. 總業.

別理隨緣 The 理 li is the 眞如 bhūtatathatā, which one school says is different in operation, while another asserts that it is the same, for all things are the chen-ju .

別相 viśeṣa; differentiation; difference, one of the 六相 of the Huayan school.

別相三觀 The three views of the 別教 in regard to the absolute, the phenomenal, the medial 空假中 as separate ideas.

別衆 For a monk schismatically or perversely to separate himself in religious duties from his fellow-monks is called duṣkṛta, an offence or wickedness, v. 突吉羅.

別見 Unenlightened, or heterodox, views.

別解脫戒 Another name for the commandments, which liberate by the avoidance of evil. Also別解脫律儀.

別請 Special deference paid by singling out or inviting one member of the community; which procedure is against monastic rules.

別願 Special vows, as the forty-eight of Amitābha, or the twelve of 藥師佛 Yao Shih Fo (Bhaiṣajya), as contrasted with general vows taken by all Bodhisattvas.

Toil; translit. k, gh.

劬嬪 (劬嬪陀) Kapphiṇa, v. 劫賓那.

劬師羅 Ghoṣira, v. 具史羅.

劬毗耶 瞿波 Gopā, i. e. Yaśodharā, wife of Śākyamuni, v. 耶.

Help, aid, assist; auxiliary.

助音 To assist in singing, or intoning.

助業 Auxiliary karma, i.e. deeds or works, e.g. reciting the sutras about the Pure Land, worship, praise, and offering, as additional to direct karma 正業, i.e. faith in Amitābha, expressed by constant thought of him and calling on his name.

助道 Auxiliary means, e.g. of meditation; auxiliary discipline; any aid to faith or virtue.

刧 A kalpa, aeon, age; also translit. ka; 'a fabulous period of time, a day of Brahmā or 1, 000 Yugas, a period of four hundred and thirty-two million years of mortals, measuring the duration of the world; (a month of Brahmā is supposed to contain thirty such kalpas; according to the Mahābhārata twelve months of Brahmā constitute his year, and one hundred such years his lifetime; fifty years of Brahmā are supposed to have elapsed... ).' M. W. An aeon of incalculable time, therefore called a 大時節 great time-node. v. 劫波.

劫初 The beginning of the kalpa of formation; the kalpa of creation; also 成劫.

劫地羅 khadira v. 竭地羅.

劫婆吒 劫縛拏 kaparda, a shell, cowrie, small coin.

劫婆羅樹 v. 劫波樹 and 劫沙波裟 or 劫具, for both of which it is used.

劫布怛那 (or 劫布呾那or 劫布咀那or 劫布俎那) Kapotana, or Kebudhana; an ancient kingdom, the modern Kebud or Keshbūd, north of Samarkand.

劫布羅 karpūra, camphor, described as 龍腦香 dragon-brain scent.

劫比他 Kapittha. (1) An ancient kingdom of Central India, also called 僧佉尸 Saṃkāśya. (2) A Brahman of Vṛji who ill-treated the Buddhists of his time, was reborn as a fish, and was finally converted, by Śākyamuni, Eitel.

劫比拏 idem劫賓那.

劫比 (劫比羅) kapila; also 劫畢羅; 迦比羅 (or 迦毗羅) The meaning is 'brown', but it is chiefly used for 'the sage Kapila, founder of the classical Sāṃkhya' philosophy and the school of that name.

劫比羅天 金比羅天; 倶鞠羅天 A deva, or demon, called Kapila, or Kumbhīra, or Kubera.

劫比羅伐窣堵 (or 劫比羅伐窣都) Kapilavastu, 劫比羅國; 迦毘羅衞; 迦毗羅蘇都 (or 伽毗羅蘇都) (or 迦毗羅皤窣都) (or伽毗羅皤窣都); 迦羅 (or 迦夷 or 迦維); 伽毗黎, etc. Capital of the principality occupied by the Śākya clan; destroyed during Śākyamuni's life, according to legend; about 100 miles due north of Benares, north-west of present Gorakhpur; referred to in 西域記.

劫比舍也 Said to be 罽賓 Kashmir.

劫水 The flood in the kalpa of destruction, v. 三災.

劫波 kalpa; also劫簸; 劫跛; v. 劫. Aeon, age. The period of time between the creation and recreation of a world or universe; also the kalpas of formation, existence, destruction, and non-existence, which four as a complete period are called mahākalpa 大劫. Each great kalpa is subdivided into four asaṇkhyeya-kalpas (阿僧企耶 i.e. numberless, incalculable): (1) kalpa of destruction saṃvarta; (2)kalpa of utter annihilation, or empty kalpa 増滅劫; 空劫 saṃvarta-siddha; (3) kalpa of formation 成劫 vivarta; (4) kalpa of existence 住劫 vivartasiddha; or they may be taken in the order 成住壤空. Each of the four kalpas is subdivided into twenty antara-kalpas, 小劫 or small kalpas, so that a mahākalpa consists of eighty small kalpas. Each small kalpa is divided into a period of 増 increase and 減 decrease; the increase period is ruled over by the four cakravartīs in succession, i.e. the four ages of iron, copper, silver, gold, during which the length of human life increases by one year every century to 84,000 years, and the length of the human body to 8,400 feet. Then comes the kalpa of decrease divided into periods of the three woes, pestilence, war, famine, during which the length of human life is gradually reduced to ten years and the human body to 1 foot in height. There are other distinctions of the kalpas. A small kalpa is represented as 16,800,000 years, a kalpa as 336,000,000 years, and a mahākalpa as 1,334,000,000 years. There are many ways of illustrating the length of a kalpa, e.g. pass a soft cloth over a solid rock 40 li in size once in a hundred years, when finally the rock has been thus worn away a kalpa will not yet have passed; or a city of 40 li, filled with mustard seeds, one being removed every century till all have gone, a kalpa will not yet have passed. Cf. 成劫.

劫波婆 (or 劫波育 or 劫波羅 or 劫波薩); 劫婆羅; 劫具 (劫具婆) kārpāsa is cotton, Gossypium Herbaceum; but this refers especially to kārpāsī, the cotton tree.

劫波杯 kapāla, a bowl, skull; the drinking bowl of Śiva, a skull filled with blood.

劫波樹 kalpataru A tree in Indra's garden bearing fruit according to the seasons.

劫波羅 kapāla, a skull; also kārpāsa, see劫波娑.

劫波娑天 Yama, as ruler of time, 時分天.

劫海 The ocean of kalpas, i.e. their great number.

劫濁 The impure or turbid kalpa, when the age of life is decreasing and all kinds of diseases afflict men.

劫火 The fire in the kalpa of destruction; also 劫盡火; 劫焰; 劫燒 v. 三災.

劫灰 kalpa-ash, the ashes after the fire kalpa of destruction.

劫災 The calamity of fire, wind, and water, during the 壞劫 kalpa of destruction.

劫焰 kalpa-flames, idem 劫火.

劫燒 idem劫火.

劫簸 idem 劫波.

劫具 v. 劫波娑.

劫賓那 Kapphiṇa; also 劫比拏王; 劫庀那 (or 劫比那, or 劫譬那); or Kampilla, 金毗羅; whose monastic name was Mahā-kapphiṇa; intp. as 房宿 (born) under the constellation Scorpio; he is said to have understood astronomy and been king of Southern Kośala; he became a disciple of Śākyamuni and is to be reborn as Samantaprabhāsa Buddha.

劫跛劫跛夜帝 ? kalpa-kalpāyati, perhaps connected with klṛp, intp. as 離分別 (or 無分別) indiscriminate, undifferentiate.

卵生 aṇḍaja. Egg-born, one of the four ways of coming into existence, v. 四生.

Decline, reject; but, yet.

却入生死 To leave his perfect life to enter into the round of births and deaths, as a Bodhisattva does.

To inform; plead; accuse.

吿香 To inform by offering incense.

To suck up, inhale.

呼吸 Exhale and inhale.

Chant, hum, mutter.

吟詠 吟諷 To intone, repeat.

To blow; puff, praise.

吹光 To blow out a light, a blown-out light.

吹毛 Name of a sharp sword, or Excalibur, that would sever a falling feather; to blow hair or fur.

吹法螺 To blow the conch of the Law, the Buddha's preaching.

M020011 Translit. for hūṃ, which is interpreted as the bodhi, or omniscience, of all Buddhas.

吽吽 The lowing of oxen.

吽迦囉身 Hūṃkāra, Puxian 普賢 Samantabhadra in his minatory aspect against demons.

呌喚 Raurava; also 號呌; 呼呼. The wailing hells, the fourth of the eight hot hells, where the inmates cry aloud on account of pain.

Prince, noble, ideal man or woman; translit. kun.

君持 君遲; 軍持; 据穉迦 (or 据稚迦) kuṇḍa, kuṇḍikā, a pitcher, waterpot; washbowl.

君荼 (or 軍荼) kuṇḍa, a hole in the ground for the fire at the fire altar: the homa or fire altar.

To bark (as a dog); translit. ve, vi, vai; cf. 毘; 鞞; 衞; 別.

吠世師 吠世史迦 Vaiśeṣika, v. 衞.

吠努璃耶 vaiḍūrya, lapis lazuli.

吠嚧遮那;吠路者那 Vairocana v. 毘.

吠室囉末拏 Vaiśravaṇa, v. 鞞.

吠嵐 vairambha, v. 毘.

吠摩質怛利 vimalacitra, v. 毘.

吠率怒 Veṣṭana, v. 別.

吠瑠璃 (吠瑠璃耶) vaiḍūrya, lapis lazuli.

吠舍 鞞吠(or 毘吠);吠奢 vaiśya; the third of the four Indian castes, that of agriculture and trade.

吠舍佉 (or 薜舍佉); 鼻奢迦 Vaiśākha; the second Indian month, from 15th of 2nd to 16th of 3rd Chinese months.

吠舍釐 (or 吠舍離) Vaiśālī, v. 毘.

吠陀 Veda, v. 韋.

To hold in the mouth: cherish: restrain.

含中教 A Tiantai term for the 通教 which was midway between or interrelated with Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna.

含情 All beings possessing feeling, sentience.

含生 含靈 Living beings, all beings possessing life, especially sentient life.

含華 In the closed lotus flower, i.e. those who await the opening of the flower for rebirth in Paradise.

含識 含類 All sentient beings.

A place, locality; a temple, place of assembly, etc.

Equal, in balance, all; used for kun.

均提 Kunti, (a) said to be a devoted disciple of Śāriputra; (b) one of the attendants on Mañjuśrī.

niṣad; niṣaṇṇa; sit; rest; situated.

坐具 given as niṣīdana, an article for sitting on, said to be a cloth, or mat.

坐久成勞 To accomplish one's labour by prolonged sitting, as did Bodhidharma.

坐參 The evening meditation at a monastery (preceding instruction by the abbot).

坐堂 A sitting room, the assembly room of the monks.

坐夏 坐臘 varṣā; the retreat or rest during the summer rains.

坐夏由 A certificate of "retreat" given to a wandering monk.

坐禪 To sit in dhyāna, i.e. abstract meditation, fixed abstraction, contemplation; its introduction to China is attributed to Bodhidharma (though it came earlier), and its extension to Tiantai.

坐禪堂 The monks' assembly room.

坐證 Another term for dhyāna contemplation.

Squeeze, clip, nip; lined.

夾山 Name of a monastery and monk in 澧州 Lizhou under the Tang dynasty.

A singing-girl, courtesan.

妓樂 Female musicians and performers.

An imp; to bewitch; magical.

妖通 The power to change miraculously into trees and animals; v. 五種通.

su, sat, mañju, sūkṣma. Wonderful, beautiful, mystic, supernatural, profound, subtle, mysterious. su means good, excellent, surpassing, beautiful, fine, easy. sat means existing, real, good. mañju means beautiful, lovely, charming. Intp. in Chinese as 不可思議 beyond thought or discussion; 絕待 special, outstanding; 無比 incomparable; 精微深遠 subtle and profound.

妙中 The profound medium (madhya); the universal life essence, the absolute, the bhūtatathatā which expresses the unity of all things, i.e. the doctrine held by Tiantai as distinguished from the 別教 which holds the madhya doctrine but emphasizes the dichotomy of the 空 transcendental and 假 phenomenal.

妙假 The profound meaning of phenomena of Tiantai, that they are the bhūtatathatā (e.g. water and wave) as distinguished from the 別教 view; cf. 妙中.

妙光 Varaprabha, Wonderful Light, an ancient incarnation of Mañjuśrī.

妙光佛 Sūryaraśmi, the 930th Buddha of the present kalpa.

妙典 The classics of the wonderful dharma, i.e. Mahāyāna.

妙吉祥 Wonderful and auspicious, the meaning of Mañjuśrī, 妙 for mañju and 吉祥 for śrī; v. 文殊.

妙喜世界 The realm of profound joy, the country of Vimalakīrti 維摩居士, who is stated to have been a contemporary of Śākyamuni; v. 維摩詰經 12.

妙喜足天 The heaven full of wonderful joy, idem Tuṣita, v. 兜率天.

妙善公主 The princess of wonderful goodness, name of Guanyin as third daughter of King 莊嚴 Zhuangyan.

妙因 The profound cause, the discipline of the bodhisattva, i.e. chastity, and the six pāramitās, etc., as producing the Buddha-fruit.

妙土 The wonderful land; a Buddha's reward-land; especially the Western Paradise of Amitābha.

妙宗 Profound principles; the Lotus school.

妙幢 Ruciraketu. Name of a Bodhisattva.

妙幢相三昧 dhvajāgrakeyūra, "the ring on the top of a standard," a degree of ecstatic meditation mentioned in the Lotus Sutra.

妙德 Wonderful virtue, title of Mañjuśrī; also an intp. of the meaning of Kapilavastu, v. 劫比, etc.

妙心 The mind or heart wonderful and profound beyond human thought. According to Tiantai the 別教 limited this to the mind 眞心 of the Buddha, while the 圓教 universalized it to include the unenlightened heart 妄心 of all men.

妙意菩薩 Mānavaka, i.e. Śākyamuni in a previous incarnation as disciple of Dīpaṅkara 然燈佛.

妙應 The miraculous response, or self-manifestation of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas.

妙教 Admirable, profound teaching; i.e. that of the Lotus Sutra.

妙明 Profoundly enlightened heart or mind, i.e. the knowledge of the finality of the stream of reincarnation.

妙智 The wonderful Buddha-wisdom.

妙有 The absolute reality, the incomprehensible entity, as contrasted with the superficial reality of phenomena; supernatural existence.

妙果 Wonderful fruit, i.e. bodhi or enlightenment and nirvana.

妙樂 Wonderful music (in the Pure Land). Miao-yo, the sixth Tiantai patriarch.

妙法 saddharma, 薩達摩 (薩達刺摩) The wonderful law or truth (of the Lotus Sutra).

妙法一乘 The One Vehicle of the wonderful dharma, or perfect Mahāyāna.

妙法堂 善法堂 The hall of wonderful dharma, situated in the south-west corner of the Trāyastriṃśas heaven, v. 忉, where the thirty-three devas discuss whether affairs are according to law or truth or the contrary.

妙法宮 The palace of the wonderful Law, in which the Buddha ever dwells.

妙法燈 The lamp of the wonderful Law shining into the darkness of ignorance.

妙法船 The bark or boat of wonderful dharma, capable of transporting men over the sea of life into nirvana.

妙法華 idem妙法蓮華.

妙法藏 The treasury of the wonderful dharma.

妙法輪 The wheel of the wonderful Law, Buddha's doctrine regarded as great cakra or wheel.

妙法蓮華 法華 The wonderful truth as found in the Lotus Sutra. the One Vehicle Sutra; which is said to contain 實法 Buddha's complete truth as compared with his previous 權法 or 方便法, i.e. partial, or expedient teaching, but both are included in this perfect truth. The sutra is the Saddhamapuṇḍarīka 正法華經 or (添品妙法蓮華經) 妙法蓮華經, also known as 薩曇芥陀利經, of which several translations in whole or part were made from Sanskrit into Chinese, the most popular being by Kumārajīva. It was the special classic of the Tiantai school, which is sometimes known as the 蓮宗 Lotus school, and it profoundly influenced Buddhist doctrine in China, Japan, and Tibet. The commentaries and treatises on it are very numerous; two by Chih-i 智顗 of the Tiantai school being the妙法蓮華經文句 and the 玄義.

妙無 asat, the mystery of non-existence.

妙玄 Wonderful and profound; an abbreviation for妙法蓮華經玄義 the Tiantai commentary on the Lotus Sutra.

妙眞如性 The profound nature of the bhūtatathatā, the totality, or fundamental nature, of all things.

妙臂菩薩 Subāhu-kumāra, the Bodhisattva of the wonderful arm; there is a sutra of this name.

妙色 surūpa, 蘇樓波. The wonderful form or body, i.e. of a Buddha's saṃbhogakāya and his Buddha-land.

妙色身如來 Surūpakāya Tathāgata (Akṣobhya, the Buddha of the East), who is thus addressed when offerings are made to the hungry spirits.

妙莊王 (妙莊嚴王) Śubhavyūha, the king who is the subject and title of the twenty-seventh chapter of the Lotus Sutra. He is also reputed to be the father of Guanyin.

妙蓮華 The wonderful lotus, symbol of the pure wisdom of Buddha, unsullied in the midst of the impurity of the world.

妙行 The profound act by which a good karma is produced, e.g. faith; v. 一行一切行.

妙見 The beautiful sight, i.e. Ursa Major, or the Bodhisattva who rules there, styled 妙見大士 (or 妙見菩薩), though some say Śākyamuni, others Guanyin, others 藥師 Bhaiṣajya, others the seven Buddhas. His image is that of a youth in golden armour.

妙覺 The wonderful enlightenment of Mahāyāna, or self-enlightenment to enlighten others.

妙覺地 The stage of wonderful enlightenment, Buddhahood.

妙覺性 The profound, enlightened nature, that of Buddha, one of the 六性.

妙觀 The wonderful system of the three Tiantai meditations; v. 三諦, 三觀.

妙語藏 The storehouse of miraculous words, mantras, dhāraṇī, or magic spells of Shingon.

妙賢 Subhadra, 善賢 A monk referred to in the 西域記 Records of Western Lands.

妙趣 The wonderful destiny or metempsychosis, i.e. that of Mahāyāna.

妙車 The wonderful vehicles (mentioned in the Lotus Sutra).

妙門 The wonderful door of dharma; nirvana; the six Tiantai methods leading through meditation to enlightenment and the state of nirvana.

妙音 Wonderful sound. (1) Gadgadasvara, 妙音菩薩 (or 妙音大士) a Bodhisattva, master of seventeen degrees of samādhi, residing in Vairocanaraśmi-pratimaṇḍita, whose name heads chap. 24 of the Lotus Sutra. (2) Sughoṣa, a sister of Guanyin; also a Buddha like Varuṇa controlling the waters 水天德佛, the 743rd Buddha of the present kalpa. (3) Ghoṣa, 瞿沙 an arhat, famous for exegesis, who "restored the eyesight of Dharmavivardhana by washing his eyes with the tears of people who were moved by his eloquence." Eitel.

妙音徧滿 Universal wonderful sound, Manojña-śabdābhigarjita, the kalpa of Ānanda as Buddha.

妙音天 (妙音樂天) Sarasvatī, the wife or female energy of Brahmā. Also called 辨才天 (辨才天女) Jap. Benzaiten, or Benten; goddess of eloquence, learning, and music, bestower of the Sanskrit language and letters, and the bestower of 財 riches; also the river goddess. Sometimes considered as masculine. Honoured among the seven gods of luck, and often represented as mounted on a dragon or a serpent.

妙音鳥 The wonderful-voice bird, the kalaviṅka.

妙顯山 The mountain of marvelous appearance, i.e. Sumeru.

妙高山 (妙高山王) The wonderful high mountain, Sumeru; the king of mountains.

Filial, obedient.

孝子 A filial son.

孝服 Mourning clothes for parents.

孝順 Obedient.

Po; plants shooting; a comet.

孛伽夷 Bhagai. A city south of Khotan, formerly famous for a statue exhibiting all the thirty-two lakṣanas or marks on the body of Buddha.

Vast, spacious.

宏智 Hung-chih, posthumous name of a monk of 天童 Tiant'ung monastery, Ningpo, early in the twelfth century.

The Sung dynasty, A.D. 960-1280.

宋元入藏諸大小乘經 Sutras of the Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna admitted into the canon during the Northern and Southern Sung (A.D. 960-1127 and 1127-1280) and Yuan (A.D. 1280-1368) dynasties. B.N., 782-1081.

宋帝王 The third of the ten rulers of Hades, who presides over the Kālasūtra, the hell of black ropes.

Tail: end.

尾儞也 vibhā, to shine, illuminate, tr, by 明, a name for the Shingon sect 眞言 because of its power to dispel the darkness of delusion.

尾嚕愽乞叉 virūpākṣa, epithet for the three-eyed deva, Śiva. See also 毘流波叉.

尾嚕茶迦 Virūḍhaka idem 毘璢璃, one of the four maharāja-devas.

尿 Urine, urinate.

尿牀鬼子 A urinating ghost; a term of abuse.

尿闥 A urinal.

Rare, seldom, few; to hope for.

希奇 Rare and extraordinary.

希天施;希求施 Giving in hope of heaven, or bliss; one of the 八種布施.

希有 Rare, extraordinary, uncommon, few.

希有人 There are few, a sad exclamation, indicating that those who accept Buddha's teaching are few, or that those who do evil and repent, or give favours and remember favours, etc., are few.

希法 adbhutadharma; supernatural things, prodigies, miracles, a section of the twelve classical books.

希祀鬼 Ghosts that hope for sacrificial offerings (from their descendants).

希連河 希連禪 The river Nairañjanā, v. 尼.

希麟音義 The dictionary compiled by Hsi-lin of the Tang dynasty, supplementing the 慧琳音義 Hui-lin-yin-i. Sound and meaning accord with Hui-lin, and terms used in translations made subsequent to that work are added.

Seriatim; preface, introduction; the opening phrase of a sutra, "Thus have I heard;" an opening phrase leading up to a subject.

序王 The introduction by Chih-i to the Lotus Sutra. Introductions are divided into 序, 正, and 流通, the first relating to the reason for the book; the second to its method; and the third to its subsequent history.

Younger brother.

弟子 Disciple, disciples.

Form, figure, appearance, the body.

形像 pratimā, an image or likeness (of Buddha).

形山 The body, comparable to a mountain.

形貌 Form, appearance.

形貌欲 The desire awakened on seeing a beautiful form, one of the 六欲 six desires.

形色 saṃsthānarūpa, the characteristics of form— long, short, square, round, high, low, straight, crooked. It is also associated with rūpāvacara as personal appearance, and as a class of gods in the realm of form.

Will, resolve, 志意; 心志; also data, records.

Glad, joyful; quick, sharp.

快樂 Joyful.

快目王 The quick-eyed king, Sudhīra, or highly intelligent, who could see through a wall 40 li away, yet who took out his eyes to give as alms; v. 賢愚經 6.

Delight, joy.

Avoid, tabu, dread; hate, jealous.

忌日 諱日 The tabu day, i.e. the anniversary of the death of a parent or prince, when all thoughts are directed to him, and other things avoided.

kṣānti, 羼提 (or 羼底); patience, endurance, (a) in adverse circumstances, (b) in the religious state. There are groups of two, three, four, five, six, ten, and fourteen, indicating various forms of patience, equanimity, repression, forbearance, endurance, constancy, or "perseverance of the saints," both in mundane and spiritual things.

忍不墮惡趣 The stage of patience ensures that there will be no falling into the lower paths of transmigration.

忍仙 The patient ṛṣi, or immortal of patience, i.e. the Buddha.

忍位 The stage of patience.

忍加行 The discipline of patience, in the 四加行 four Hīnayāna disciplines; also in the Mahāyāna.

忍善 The patient and good; or patient in doing good.

忍土 The place of patience or endurance, this world.

忍地 The stage of patience, i.e. of enlightenment separating from the chain of transmigration.

忍智 Patience and wisdom. In the Hīnayāna, patience is cause, wisdom effect; in Mahāyāna, the two are merged, though patience precedes wisdom.

忍水 Patience in its depth and expanse compared to water.

忍法 (忍法位) The method or stage of patience, the sixth of the seven stages of the Hīnayāna in the attainment of arhatship, or sainthood: also the third of the four roots of goodness.

忍波羅蜜 The patience pāramitā, v. 忍辱.

忍界 sahā, or sahāloka, or sahālokadhātu. The universe of persons subject to transmigration, the universe of endurance.

忍調 Patiently to harmonize, i.e. the patient heart tempers and subdues anger and hatred.

忍辱 羼提波羅蜜多 (or 羼底波羅蜜多) kṣānti pāramitā; patience, especially bearing insult and distress without resentment, the third of the six pāramitās 六度. Its guardian Bodhisattva is the third on the left in the hall of space in the Garbhadhātu.

忍辱仙 kṣāntyṛṣi; the ṛṣi who patiently suffered insult, i.e. Śākyamuni, in a former life, suffering mutilation to convert Kalirāja.

忍辱地 The stage of patience. Two kinds are distinguished, patience which endures (1) insults originating in men, such as hatred, or abuse, (2) distresses arising from natural causes such as heat, cold, age, sickness, etc.

忍辱太子 The patient prince, of Vārāṇaśī (Benares), who gave a piece of his flesh to heal his sick parents, which was efficacious because he had never given way to anger.

忍辱衣 The robe of patience, a patient heart which, like a garment, wards off all outward sin. A general name for the kaṣāya, monk's robe.

忍鎧 (忍辱鎧) Patience as armour, protecting against evils; also the kaṣāya, monk's robe.

Complete, finish, perfect, become.

成佛 To become Buddha, as a Bodhisattva does on reaching supreme perfect bodhi.

成佛得脫 To become Buddha and obtain deliverance (from the round of mortality).

成劫 vivarta kalpa, one of the four kalpas, consisting of twenty small kalpas during which worlds and the beings on them are formed. The others are: 住劫 vivarta-siddha kalpa, kalpa of abiding, or existence, sun and moon rise, sexes are differentiated, heroes arise, four castes are formed, social life evolves. 壞劫saṃvarta kalpa, that of destruction, consisting of sixty-four small kalpas when fire, water, and wind destroy everything except the fourth dhyāna. 空劫 saṃvarta-siddha kalpa, i.e. of annihilation. v. 劫波.

成唯識論 Vidya-matrāṣiddhi śāstra, in 10 juan, being Vasubandhu's 唯識 in 30 juan reduced by Xuanzang, also by others, to 10. There are works on it by various authors.

成實 Completely true, or reliable, perfect truth, an abbreviation for成實宗, 成實論, 成實師.

成實宗 Satyasiddhi sect (Jap. Jōjitsu-shū), based upon the Satyasiddhi śāstra of Harivarman, v. 訶. tr. by Kumārajīva. In China it was a branch of the 三論 San Lun sect. It was a Hīnayāna variation of the śūnya 空 doctrine. The term is defined as perfectly establishing the real meaning of the sutras.

成實論 tr. as above is in 16 juan; there are other works on it.

成就 siddhi: accomplishment, fulfillment, completion, to bring to perfection.

成就衆生 To transform all beings by developing their Buddha-nature and causing them to obtain enlightenment.

成熟者 The ripe; those who attain; those in whom the good nature, immanent in all the living, completes their salvation.

成等正覺 To attain to perfect enlightenment, become Buddha.

成自然覺 To attain to natural enlightenment as all may do by beholding eternal truth 實相 within their own hearts.

成身會 根本會; 羯磨會 The first group in the nine Vajradhātu groups.

成道 To attain the Way, or become enlightened, e.g. the Buddha under the bodhi tree.

成道會 臘八 The annual commemoration of the Buddha's enlightenment on the 8th day of the 12th month.

I, my, mine; the ego, the master of the body, compared to the ruler of a country. Composed of the five skandhas and hence not a permanent entity. It is used for ātman, the self, personality. Buddhism takes as a fundamental dogma 無我, i.e. no 常我, no permanent ego, only recognizing a temporal or functional ego. The erroneous idea of a permanent self continued in reincarnation is the source of all illusion. But the Nirvana Sutra definitely asserts a permanent ego in the transcendental world, above the range of reincarnation; and the trend of Mahāyāna supports such permanence; v. 常我樂淨.

我事 My body; myself; my affair.

我人四相 The four ejects of the ego in the Diamond Sutra: (1) 我相 the illusion that in the five skandhas there is a real ego; (2) 人相 that this ego is a man, and different from beings of the other paths; (3) 衆生相 that all beings have an ego born of the five skandhas; (4) 壽相 that the ego has age, i.e. a determined or fated period of existence.

我倒 The illusion of an ego, one of the four inverted or upside-down ideas.

我劣慢 ūnamāna; the pride of thinking myself not much inferior to those who far surpass me. One of the 九慢 q.v.

我勝慢 adhimāna; the pride of thinking oneself superior to equals. One of the 九慢.

我執 ātma-grāha; holding to the concept of the ego; also 人執.

我室 The ego as the abode (of all suffering).

我德 Power or virtue of the ego, the ego being defined as 自在 sovereign, master, free; v. 我波羅蜜.

我愚 Ego ignorance, holding to the illusion of the reality of the ego.

我想 The thought that the ego has reality.

我愛 Self-love; the love of or attachment to the ego, arising with the eighth vijñāna.

我慢 abhimāna, ātma-mada. Egoism exalting self and depreciating others; self-intoxication, pride.

我我所 I and mine: the self and its possessions.

我所 我所有; 我所事 Mine, personal, subjective; personal conditions, possessions, or anything related to the self.

我所心 The mind that thinks it is owner of things.

我所見 The incorrect view that anything is really mine, for all things are but temporal combinations.

我有 The illusion that the ego has real existence.

我法 Self (or the ego), and things.

我法倶有宗 The school that regards the ego and things as real; the 犢子部 Vātsīputrīya school.

我波羅蜜 The ego pāramitā in the four based on the Nirvana Sutra in which the transcendental ego is 自在, i.e. has a real and permanent nature; the four are 常 permanency, 樂 joy, 我 personality, 淨 purity.

我痴 Ego-infatuation, confused by the belief in the reality of the ego.

我相 Egoism, the concept of the ego as real. Anyone who believes in我相, 人我, 衆生我, 壽我 is not a true Bodhisattva, v. 我人四相.

我空 生空 (衆生空); 人空 Illusion of the concept of the reality of the ego, man being composed of elements and disintegrated when these are dissolved.

我空眞如 The Hīnayāna doctrine of impersonality in the absolute, that in truth there is no ego; this position abrogates moral responsibility, cf. 原人論.

我等慢 mānātimāna; the pride of thinking oneself equal to those who surpass us. One of the 九慢.

我見 身見 The erroneous doctrine that the ego, or self, composed of the temporary five skandhas, is a reality and permanent.

我語取 The attachment to doctrines or statements about the ego. One of the 四取.

我顚倒 The illusion that the ego is real; also the incorrect view that the nirvana-ego is non-ego. One of the 四顚倒.

śīla, 尸羅. Precept, command, prohibition, discipline, rule; morality. It is applied to the five, eight, ten, 250, and other commandments. The five are: (1) not to kill; (2 ) not to steal; (3) not to commit adultery; (4) not to speak falsely; (5) not to drink wine. These are the commands for lay disciples; those who observe them will be reborn in the human realm. The Sarvāstivādins did not sanction the observance of a limited selection from them as did the 成實宗 Satyasiddhi school. Each of the five precepts has five guardian spirits, in all twenty-five, 五戒二十五神. The eight for lay disciples are the above five together with Nos. 7, 8, and 9 of the following; the ten commands for the ordained, monks and nuns, are the above five with the following: (6) not to use adornments of flowers, nor perfumes; (7) not to perform as an actor, juggler, acrobat, or go to watch and hear them; (8) not to sit on elevated, broad, and large divans (or beds); (9) not to eat except in regulation hours; (10) not to possess money, gold or silver, or precious things. The 具足戒full commands for a monk number 250, those for a nun are 348, commonly called 500. Śīla is also the first of the 五分法身, i.e. a condition above all moral error. The Sutra of Brahma's Net has the following after the first five: (6) not to speak of the sins of those in orders; (7) not to vaunt self and depreciate others; (8) not to be avaricious; (9) not to be angry; (10) not to slander the triratna.

戒力 The power derived from observing the commandments, enabling one who observes the five commandments to be reborn among men, and one who observes the ten positive commands 十善 to be born among devas, or as a king.

戒取 Clinging to the commandments of heterodox teachers, e.g. those of ultra-asceticism, one of the four attachments, 四取 catuḥ-parāmarśa.

戒取使 The delusion resulting from clinging to heterodox commandments.

戒取見 戒禁取見 Clinging to heterodox ascetic views; one of the five darśana 五見.

戒品 The different groupings or subjects of the commandments, or discipline; i.e. the 5, 10, 250. etc.

戒善 The good root of keeping the commandments, from which springs the power for one who keeps the five to be reborn as a man; or for one who keeps the ten to be reborn in the heavens, or as a king.

戒器 A utensil fit to receive the rules, i.e. one who is not debarred from entering the order, as is a eunuch, slave, minor, etc.

戒垢 The source of defiling the commandments, i.e. woman.

戒場 The place where monks are given the commandments.

戒壇 The altar at which the commandments are received by the novice; the 方等戒壇 is the Mahāyāna altar.

戒學 The study of the rules or discipline; one of the three departments 三學, the other two being meditation and philosophy.

戒定慧 Discipline, meditation, wisdom; discipline wards off bodily evil, meditation calms mental disturbance, wisdom gets rid of delusion and proves truth.

戒師 The teacher of the discipline, or of the commandments (to the novice); also 戒和尚.

戒師五德 The five virtues of the teacher of the discipline: obedience to the rules, twenty years as monk, ability to explain the vinaya, meditation, ability to explain the abhidharma.

戒律 śīla and vinaya. The rules.

戒律藏 The Vinaya Piṭaka, the second main division of the Buddhist canon.

戒德 The power of the discipline.

戒忍 Patience acquired by the observance of the discipline; the first of the ten kṣānti.

戒急乘緩 Zealous for the discipline rather than for knowledge, e.g. Hīnayāna.

乘急戒緩 One who is zealous for knowledge rather than the discipline, e.g. Vimalakīrti 維摩.

乘戒倶急 One who emphasizes both precepts and meditative insight, the Bodhisattva.

乘戒倶緩 One who is indifferent to both meditative insight and moral discipline.

戒本 The Prātimokṣa 波羅提木叉 q.v.

戒本經 is the latter half of the 梵網經.

戒波羅密 Moral precepts, the second of the six pāramitās.

戒渡離 Upāli, a śūdra, disciple of Śākyamuni, famous for his knowledge of the Vinaya; v. 優波離.

戒海 The rules are pure and purify like the waters of the ocean.

戒牒 戒驗; 度牒 Certificate of ordination of a monk.

戒珠 The commandments, or rules, are like pure white pearls, adorning the wearer.

戒相 The commandments or rules in their various forms; also the commandments as expressions for restraining evil, etc.

戒禁 Prohibitions arising out of the fundamental rules; by-laws.

戒禁取見 v. 戒取.

戒膝 The "commandments' knee," i.e. the right knee bent as when receiving the commandments.

戒臘 The number of years a monk has been ordained. 臘 is the name of an offering made at the end of the year in ancient times. Also戒蠟; 戒臈; 僧臘.

戒藏 The Vinaya Piṭaka; the collection of rules.

戒賢 Śīlabhadra, see 尸.

戒躅 The rut or way of the commandments; the rules.

戒門 The way or method of the commandments or rules: obedience to the commandments as a way of salvation.

戒香 The perfume of the commandments, or rules, i.e. their pervading influence.

戒體 The embodiment of the commandments in the heart of the recipient. v. 無表; also the basis, or body, of the commandments.

技人 A magician, trickster, conjurer.

An order of a court, rescript; a contract, lease; to comment, criticize.

批那 vīṇā; the Indian lute.

To shake.

抖擻 斗藪 dhūta; stirring up to duty; discipline. v. 頭陀.

To snap, break; decide; compound; fold.

折伏攝受 To subdue the evil and receive the good; cf. 抑.

折利怛羅 (or 折利但羅) Caritra, 發行城 "A port on the south-east frontier of Uḍa (Orissa) whence a considerable trade was carried on with Ceylon." Eitel.

折句迦 斫折句 (or 所折句) Cakoka, i.e. Karghalik in Turkestan.

折石 A broken stone, i.e. irreparable.

折蘆 The snapped-off reed on which Bodhidharma is said to have crossed the Yangtsze from Nanking.

To cast, throw into, surrender, tender.

投子 T'ou-tzu, name of a hill and monastery at 舒州 Shu-chou and of 義靑 I-ch'ing its noted monk.

投機 To avail oneself of an opportunity; to surrender oneself to the principles of the Buddha in the search for perfect enlightenment.

投淵 To cast oneself into an abyss (hoping for eternal life).

投華 To cast, or offer flowers in worship.

投身 To cast away, or surrender, one's body, or oneself.

Curb, repress; or.

抑揚教 The third of the five periods of Buddha's teaching, as held by the Nirvana sect of China 涅槃宗, during which the 維摩思益 is attributed to him.

抑止 To suppress, e. g. 抑止惡事 suppress evil deeds.

抑止攝取 The suppression or universal reception of evil beings; pity demands the latter course.

Aid, support, uphold.

扶塵根 The external organs, i.e. of sight, etc., which aid the senses; 扶塵根 is also written 浮塵根 meaning fleeting, vacuous, these external things having an illusory existence; the real organs, or indriya, are the 正根 or 勝義根 which evolve the ideas.

扶律談常 (扶律談常教) The teaching which supports the rules and speaks of the eternal, i. e. the 涅槃經 Nirvāṇa Sūtra.

扶疏 'Supporting commentary', another name for the 涅槃經 Nirvāṇa Sūtra, because according to Tiantai it is an amplification of the Lotus Sutra.

扶薩 Bodhisattva, idem 菩薩.

To change, correct.

改宗 To change one's cult, school of thought, or religion.

改悔 To repent and reform.

To change; a night watch; again; the more.

更藥 Medicines that should be taken between dawn and the first watch, of which eight are named, v. 百一羯磨 5.


李園 āmravana, the wild-plum (or mango) grove, see 菴.

束蘆 To tie reeds together in order to make them stand up, illustration of the interdependence of things and principles.

杖林 Yaṣṭivana, 洩瑟知林; the forest in which a Brahman tried to measure Buddha's height with a 16 ft. bamboo pole, but the more he measured the higher the body became; another part of the legend is that the forest grew from the bamboo which he left behind in chagrin.

Stop, prevent; azalea.

杜口 To shut the mouth, render speechless.

杜嚕 turuṣka olibanum, Indian incense, resin, gum used for incense. It is said to resemble peach resin and to grow in Aṭali. Its leaves resemble the pear's and produce pepper; it is said to flourish in the sands of Central Asia and its gum to flow out on to the sands.

杜多 杜茶; 頭陀 q. v. dhūta, discipline (to shake off sin, etc. ).

杜底 dūta, a messenger; dūtī, a female messenger.

杜魯婆跋吒 Dhruvpaṭu, a king of Valabhī, son-in-law of Śīladitya.

(歩) pada; step, pace.

步他 v. 佛 Buddha.

步擲金剛 or 步擲明王; 播般曩結使波 A form of 普賢 Samantabhadra as a vajra-king.

Each, every.

每恒里 v. 彌勒 Maitreya.

每恒里末那 maitrīmanas, of kindly mind, tr. by 慈悲 merciful.

Draw water; emulate, eager.

汲井輪 The round of reincarnations is like the waterwheel at the well ever revolving up and down.

To bathe; translit. mu, mo.

沐魄太子 is 慕魄 one of the former incarnations of Śākyamuni.

沉 To sink; heavy.

沈冥 Sunk in the gloom of reincarnations and ignorance.

沈檀 agaru, or aguru, sandal incense.

沈香 (沈水香) aguru, the tree and incense of that name.

沈空 To sink into emptiness, or uselessness.

Wet, wash, enrich.

沃焦石 (or 沃焦山) The rock, or mountain, Pātāla, on the bottom of the ocean, just above the hot purgatory, which absorbs the water and thus keeps the sea from increasing and overflowing. 沃焦海 is the ocean which contains this rock, or mountain.

Filthy, impure. kleśa; contamination of attachment to the pleasures of sense, to heretical views, to moral and ascetic practices regarded as adequate to salvation, to the belief in the self, all which cause misery.

Sunk, gone; not; translit. m, mu, mo, mau, ma, bu, v, etc.

沒交渉 No inter-relation.

沒劫 moha, delusion, bewilderment, infatuation, tr. by 愚 foolishness; cf. 謨.

沒哩底野吠 Derived from mṛtyu, death; one of Yama's 明王 or rājas.

沒巴鼻 No nose to lay hold of; no lead, no bases.

沒度 Buddha, v. 佛.

沒栗度 mṛdu, soft, pliant, weak.

沒栗多 vrata, temporary chastity, or observance.

沒曳達利瑟致 māyādṛḍṭi, illusion-views, intp. by 我見 egoism, the false doctrine that there is a real ego.

沒滋味 Tasteless, valueless, useless, e. g. the discussion of the colour of milk by blind people.

沒特伽羅子 (or 沒刀伽羅子) v. 目連 (目犍連) Maudgalaputra, or Maudgalyāyana.

沒馱 buddha, v. 佛.

To seek, beseech, pray.

求不得苦 The pain which results from not receiving what one seeks, from disappointed hope, or unrewarded effort. One of the eight sorrows.

求名菩薩 The Qiuming (fame-seeking) bodhisattva, v. Lotus Sutra, a name of Maitreya in a previous life. Also, Yaśaskāma, 'A disciple of Varaprabhā noted for his boundless ambition and utter want of memory.' Eitel.

求寂 Seeking nirvāṇa, i. e. the disciple who accepts the ten commandments.

求那 guṇa, a quality, characteristic, or virtue, e. g. sound, taste, etc.

求那毘地 Guṇavṛddhi, 德進, an Indian monk who came to China 492-5, tr. three works, d. 502.

求那跋摩 Guṇavarman, tr. 功德鐙, a prince of Kubhā (Cashmere), who refused the throne, wandered alone, reached China, tr. ten works, two of which were lost by A. D. 730. Born in 367, he died in Nanjing in A. D. 431. He taught that truth is within, not without, and that the truth (dharma) is of oneself, not of another. The centre of his work is placed in 揚州 Yangzhou. It is said that he started the order of nuns in China, v. 翻譯名義 Fan-yi-ming-yi.

求那跋陀羅 Guṇabhadra, tr. 德賢. (1) A follower of the Mahīśāsakā in Kapiśā. (2) A Brāhmaṇa of Central India, tr. into Chinese some seventy-eight works A. D. 435-443; b. 394, d. 468.

bālukā. Sand; sands, e. g. of Ganges 恒河, implying countless; translit. s, ś, . Cf. 莎.

沙劫 Kalpas countless as the sands of Ganges.

沙婆婆瑟 saḍ-varṣa; the sexennial assembly.

沙彌 śrāmaṇera, 室羅摩拏洛迦; 室末那伊洛迦; 室羅摩尼羅 The male religious novice, who has taken vows to obey the ten commandments. The term is explained by 息惡行慈 one who ceases from evil and does works of mercy, or lives altruistically; 勤策男 a zealous man; 求寂 one who seeks rest; 求涅槃寂 one who seeks the peace of nirvāṇa. Three kinds are recognized according to age, i. e. 7 to 13 years old, old enough to 驅鳥 'drive away crows'; 14 to 19, called 應法 able to respond to or follow the doctrine; 20 to 70.

沙彌尼 (沙尼) śrāmaṇerikā 室羅摩拏理迦. A female religious novice who has taken a vow to obey the ten commandments, i. e. 勤策女 a zealous woman, devoted.

沙彌尼戒 The ten commandments taken by the śrāmaṇerikā: not to kill living beings, not to steal, not to lie or speak evil, not to have sexual intercourse, not to use perfumes or decorate oneself with flowers, not to occupy high beds, not to sing or dance, not to possess wealth, not to eat out of regulation hours, not to drink wine.

沙彌戒 The ten commandments of the śrāmaṇera; v. 十戒.

沙心 Mind like sand in its countless functionings.

沙摩帝 Saṃmatīya, 正量部 one of the eighteen Hīnayāna sects.

沙波訶 svāhā, hail! 裟訶 v. 蘇.

沙界 Worlds as numerous as the sands of Ganges.

沙羅 sāla, or śāla, 裟羅 the Sāl or Śal tree; the teak tree; the Shorea (or Valeria) Robusta; a tree in general.

沙羅王 sālarāja, a title of the Buddha.

沙羅那 (or 沙羅拏); 娑刺拏王 ? Śāraṇa (said to be a son of King Udayana) who became a monk.

沙羅雙樹 The twin trees in the grove 娑羅林 in which Śākyamuni entered nirvāṇa.

沙落迦 'Charaka, a monastery in Kapiśa.' Eitel.

沙訶 sahā, 娑訶; 索訶 the world around us, the present world. Also svāhā, see above.

沙那利迦 ṣāṇṇagarika, one of the eighteen Hīnayāna sects.

沙門 śramaṇa. 桑門; 娑門; 喪門; 沙門那; 舍羅磨拏; 沙迦懣曩; 室摩那拏 (1) Ascetics of all kinds; 'the Sarmanai, or Samanaioi, or Germanai of the Greeks, perhaps identical also with the Tungusian Saman or Shaman.' Eitel. (2) Buddhist monks 'who 'have left their families and quitted the passions', the Semnoi of the Greeks'. Eitel. Explained by 功勞 toilful achievement, 勤息 diligent quieting (of the mind and the passions), 淨志 purity of mind, 貧道 poverty. 'He must keep well the Truth, guard well every uprising (of desire), be uncontaminated by outward attractions, be merciful to all and impure to none, be not elated to joy nor harrowed by distress, and able to bear whatever may come.' The Sanskrit root is śram, to make effort; exert oneself, do austerities.

沙門果 The fruit, or rebirth, resulting from the practices of the śramaṇa.

沙門統 The national superintendent or archbishop over the Order appointed under the Wei dynasty.

A gaol, fold, pen; secure, firm.

牢關 A firm barrier, a place shut tight, type of the deluded mind.

牢籠 Pen, pit, or fold (for animals) and cage (for birds).

Deranged, mad, wild.

狂亂往生 Saved out of terror into the next life; however distressed by thoughts of hell as the result of past evil life, ten repetitions, or even one, of the name of Amitābha ensures entry into his Paradise.

狂慧 Foolish wisdom; clever but without calm meditation.

狂狗 A mad dog.

狂華 muscæ volitantes, dancing flowers before the eyes.

狂象 A mad elephant, such is the deluded mind.


男女 Male and female.

男根 The male organ.

A particle of finality, pronounced yi, used in 矣栗駄 hṛd, the heart; the essence of a thing.

禿 Bald.

禿人 禿居士; 禿奴 A monk; a nun, sometimes used as a term of abuse.

秀能 The two patriarchs 神秀 Shenxiu and 慧能 Huineng, q. v.

Private, secret, selfish, illicit.

私印 A monk's private seal, which should resemble a skull as reminder of the brevity of life.

私婆吒 Vasiṣtha, v. 婆.

私婆婆 svabhāva, 'own state, essential or inherent property, innate or peculiar disposition, natural state or constitution nature' (M. W.), intp. as 自體體 or 自性性.

私多 私陀; 悉陀; 徒多; 枲多 Sītā. Described as the 'cold' river; one of the four great rivers flowing from the Anavatpta or Anavadata Lake 阿耨達池 in Tibet. One account makes it 'an eastern outflux' which subsequently becomes the Yellow River. It is also said to issue from the west. Again, 'the Ganges flows eastward, the Indus south, Vatsch (Oxus) west, Sītā north.' Vatsch = Vākṣu. 'According to Xuanzang, however, it is the northern outflux of the Sirikol [Sarikkol] Lake (Lat. 38°20′N., Long. 74°E.) now called Yarkand daria, which flows into Lake Lop, thence underneath the desert of Gobi, and reappears as the source of the Huanghe.' Eitel. According to Richard, the Huanghe 'rises a little above two neighbouring lakes of Khchara (Charingnor) and Khnora (Oring-nor). Both are connected by a channel and are situated at an elevation of 14,000 feet. It may perhaps be at first confounded with Djaghing-gol, a river 110 miles long, which flows from the south and empties into the channel joining the two lakes'.

To go to the bottom of; inquire into; end, fundamental, supreme. v. 鳩 for究槃荼 Kumbhāṇḍa and究磨羅 Kumāra; v. 拘尸那 for究施 Kuśināgra.

究究吒 kukkuṭa, a cock, or fowl.

究竟 Examine exhaustively; utmost, final, at the end, a tr. of uttarā, upper, superior, hence 至極 ultimate, supreme.

究竟佛 The fundamental, ultimate, or supreme Buddha, who has complete comprehension of truth; Buddha in his supreme reality.

究竟位 The supreme class or stage, i. e. that of Buddhahood. The Mahāyāna groups the various stages in the attainment of Buddhahood into five, of which this is the highest.

究竟卽 The stage of complete comprehension of truth, being the sixth stage of the Tiantai School, v. 六卽.

究竟樂 The supreme joy, i. e. nirvāṇa.

究竟法身 The supreme dharmakāya, the highest conception of Buddha as the absolute.

究竟覺 Supreme enlightenment, that of Buddha; one of the four kinds of enlightenment in the 起信論 Awakening of Faith.

hasta, forearm, the 16,000th part of a yojana; it varies from 1ft. 4in. to 1ft. 8in. in length.

Good, virtuous, beneficial.

良日 吉日 A good, or auspicious, day.

良忍 Ryōnin, founder of the Japanese 融通念佛 school.

良賁 Liangben, the Tang monk who assisted Amogha in the translation of the 仁王經 Ren Wang Jing.

良福田 The field of blessedness, cultivated by offerings to Buddha, the Law, and the Order.

虬宮 The dragon palace in which Nāgārjuna recited the 華嚴經 Huayan jing.

darśana, 捺喇捨曩; also dṛṣṭi; seeing, discerning, judgment, views, opinions; it is thinking, reasoning, discriminating, selecting truth, including the whole process of deducing conclusions from premises. It is commonly used in the sense of wrong or heterodox views or theories, i. e. 邪見 or 有見, especially such as viewing the seeming as real and the ego as real. There are groups of two, four, five, seven, ten and sixty-two kinds of 見.

見佛 Beholding Buddha; to see Buddha. Hīnayāna sees only the nirmāṇakāya or body of incarnation, Mahāyāna sees the spiritual body, or body in bliss, the saṃbhogakāya.

見修 Views and practice; heterodoxy; cf. 見思.

見地 The stage of insight, or discernment of reality, the fourth of the ten stages of progress toward Buddhahood, agreeing with the 預流果 of Hīnayāna.

見大 Visibility (or perceptibility) as one of the seven elements of the universe.

見性 To behold the Buddha-nature within oneself, a common saying of the Chan (Zen) or Intuitive School.

見思 Views and thoughts, in general 見惑思惑 illusory or misleading views and thoughts; 見 refers partly to the visible world, but also to views derived therefrom, e. g. the ego, with the consequent illusion; 思 to the mental and moral world also with its illusion. The 三惑 three delusions which hinder the 三諦 three axioms are 見思, 塵沙, and 無明 q. v. Hīnayāna numbers 88 kinds and the Mahāyāna 112 of 見惑, of 思惑 10 and 16 respectively.

見愛 views and desires, e. g. the illusion that the ego is a reality and the consequent desires and passions; the two are the root of all suffering.

見慧 The wisdom of right views, arising from dhyāna meditation.

見正 Seeing correctly; said to be the name of a disciple of the Buddha who doubted a future life, to whom the Buddha is said to have delivered the contents of the 見正經.

見毒 The poison of wrong views.

見漏 The illusion of viewing the seeming as real, v. 四漏.

見濁 dṛṣṭi-kaṣāya. Corruption of doctrinal views, one of the five final corruptions.

見王齋 The service on the third day when the deceased goes to see King Yama.

見相 The state or condition of visibility, which according to the 起信論 Awakening of Faith arises from motion, hence is also called 轉相.

見眞 To behold truth, or ultimate reality.

見結 The bond of heterodox views, which fastens the individual to the chain of transmigration, one of the nine attachments; v. 見縛.

見網 The net of heterodox views, or doctrines.

見縛 The bond of the illusion of heterodox opinions, i. e. of mistaking the seeming for the real, which binds men and robs them of freedom: v. 見結.

見取 Clinging to heterodox views, one of the four 取; or as 見取見, one of the 五見 q. v.

見取使 The trials of delusion and suffering from holding to heterodox doctrines; one of the ten sufferings or messengers.

見取見 dṛṣṭiparāmarśa: to hold heterodox doctrines and be obsessed with the sense of the self, v. 五見.

見聞 Seeing and hearing, i. e. beholding Buddha with the eyes and hearing his truth with the ears.

見處 The state of wrong views, i. e. the state of transmigration, because wrong views give rise to it, or maintain it.

見諦 The realization of correct views, i. e. the Hīnayāna stage of one who has entered the stream of holy living; the Mahāyāna stage after the first Bodhisattva stage.

見諍 Wrangling on behalf of heterodox views; striving to prove them.

見道 The way or stage of beholding the truth (of no reincarnation), i. e. that of the śrāvaka and the first stage of the Bodhisattva. The second stage is 修道 cultivating the truth; the third 無學道 completely comprehending the truth without further study.

見障 The obstruction of heterodox views to enlightenment.

見非見 The visible and invisible; phenomenal and noumenal.

見顚倒 To see things upside down; to regard illusion as reality.

viṣāna ; a horn, a trumpet: also a corner, an angle; to contend.

角馱 Perverted doctrines and wrong thoughts, which weigh down a monk as a pack on an animal.

Words, speech; to speak.

言依 Word-dependence, i. e. that which can be expressed in words.

言句 Sentences.

言詮 Words as explaining meaning; explanation.

離言詮 beyond explanation.

言教 The teaching of Buddha as embodied in words.

言行 Words and deeds.

言語 言說 Words, speech, verbal expression.

言陳 Set out in words, i. e. a syllogism.

A gully.

谷呱呱 gu-wa-wa, the cry of a ghost, made in proof of its existence to one who had written a treatise on the non-existence of 鬼 ghosts.

māṣa, 摩沙; 磨灑 Legumes, beans, peas, lentils, etc.

豆伽藍 Masūra Saṅghārāma, Lentil Monastery, 'an ancient vihāra about 200 li southeast of Moñgali.' Eitel.

豆佉 duḥkha, trouble, suffering, pain, defined by 逼惱 harassed, distressed. The first of the four dogmas, or 'Noble Truths' 四諦 is that all life is involved, through impermanence, in distress. There are many kinds of 苦 q. v.

śaṅkha a shell, cowry, conch; valuables, riches; a large trumpet sounded to call the assembly together.

貝鐘 conch and bell.

貝多 貝多羅 (貝多羅葉); 貝葉 pattra; palm leaves from-the borassus flabelliformis, used for writing material.

貝文 The scriptures written on palm leaves.

貝支迦 pratyeka, v. 辟支迦.

貝牒 pattra tablets, sūtras written on them.

kaṣāya 袈沙野, red, hot; south; naked.

赤梅檀 A tree used for incense.

赤白二渧 The 'drops' of red and white, i. e. female and male sperm which unite in conception.

赤眼 The red-eye, i. e. a turtle.

赤肉團 (赤肉) The red flesh (lump), the heart.

赤鄂衍那 Chagayana. 'An ancient province and city of Tukhāra, the present Chaganian in Lat. 38° 21 N' Long. 69°21 E.' Eitel.

赤髭毘婆沙 The red-moustached (or bearded) Vibhāṣā, a name for 佛陀耶舍 Buddhayaśas.

赤鬼 The red demons of purgatory, one with the head of a bull, another with that of a horse, etc.

To walk, go.

走海 To travel by sea.

Foot, leg; enough, full.

足目 'Eyes in his feet,' name of Akṣapāda Gotama, to whom is ascribed the beginning of logic; his work is seen 'in five books of aphorisms on the Nyāya.' Keith.

kāya; tanu; deha. The body; the self.

身入 The sense of touch, one of the 六入 six senses.

身三口四意三 The three commandments dealing with the body, prohibiting taking of life, theft, unchastity; the four dealing with the mouth, against lying, exaggeration, abuse, and ambiguous talk; the three belonging to the mind, covetousness, malice, and unbelief.

身光 The glory shining from the person of a Buddha, or Bodhisattva; a halo.

身命 Body and life; bodily life.

身器 The body, as a utensil, i. e. containing all the twelve parts, skin. flesh, blood, hair, etc.

身土 Body, and environment. The body is the direct fruit of the previous life; the environment is the indirect fruit of the previous life.

身城 The body as the citadel of the mind.

身如意通 ṛddhividhi-jñāna. Also 身通, 身足通; the power to transfer oneself to various regions at will, also to change the body at will.

身座 The body as the throne of Buddha.

身心 Body and mind, the direct fruit of the previous life. The body is rūpa, the first skandha; mind embraces the other four, consciousness, perception, action, and knowledge; v. 五蘊.

身根 kāyendriya; the organ of touch, one of the six senses.

身業 The karma operating in the body; the body as representing the fruit of action in previous existence. One of the three karmas, the other two referring to speech and thought.

身毒 Sindhu, Scinde, v. 印度.

身毛上靡相 The hairs on Buddha's body curled upwards, one of the thirty-two marks.

身燈 The body as a lamp, burnt in offering to a Buddha, e. g. the Medicine King in the Lotus Sutra.

身田 The body regarded as a field which produces good and evil fruit in future existence.

身相 Bodily form; the body.

身蓮 The lotus in the body, i. e. the heart, or eight-leaved lotus in all beings; it represents also the Garbhadhātu, which is the matrix of the material world out of which all beings come.

身見 satkāyadṛṣṭi; the illusion that the body, or self, is real and not simply a compound of the five skandhas; one of the five wrong views 五見.

身識 kāya-vijñāna. Cognition of the objects of touch, one of the five forms of cognition; v. 五根.

身車 The body as the vehicle which, according with previous karma, carries one into the paths of transmigration.

身通 The power to transfer the body through space at will, one of the marks of the Buddha.

身雲 The numberless bodies of Buddhas, hovering like clouds over men; the numberless forms which the Buddhas take to protect and save men, resembling clouds; the numberless saints compared to clouds.

A cart, wheeled conveyance.

車也 chāyā, 陰 shade, shadow.

車匿 闡鐸迦 Chandaka, the driver of Śākyamuni when he left his home.

車帝 The name of a cave, said to be Śataparṇa, or Saptaparṇaguhā.

車軸 The hub of a cart; applied to large drops (of rain).

車鉢羅婆 Name of a spirit.

辛頭 The Indus; Sindh; idem 信度.

辛頭波羅香 sindhupāra (? sindhuvāra), incense or perfume, from a fragrant plant said to grow on the banks (pāra) of the Indus (Sindhu).

Hour; time; the celestial bodies.

辰那 jina, victorious, applied to a Buddha, a saint, etc.; forms part of the names of 辰那呾邏多 Jinatrāta; 辰那弗多羅 Jinaputra; 辰那飯荼 Jinabandhu; three Indian monks in China, the first and last during the seventh century.

Wander about, patrol, inspect.

巡堂 To patrol, or circumambulate the hall.

巡寮 To inspect all the buildings of a monastery.

巡案 To patrol and receive any complaints.

巡更 To patrol as night-watchman.

巡火 Guarding against fire.

巡錫 To walk about with a metal staff, i. e. to teach.

The ancient state of Bin, south-west Shanxi; translit. p, e. g. in Pūrṇamaitrāyaṇīputra 邠祁文陀弗, Anāthapiṇḍada 阿那邠抵, etc.

Deflected, erroneous, heterodox, depraved; the opposite of 正; also erroneously used for 耶.

邪倒見 Heterodoxy; perverted views or opinions.

邪命 (邪命食) Heterodox or improper ways of obtaining a living on the part of a monk, e. g. by doing work with his hands, by astrology, his wits, flattery, magic, etc. Begging, or seeking alms, was the orthodox way of obtaining a living.

邪命說法 The heterodox way of preaching or teaching, for the purpose of making a living.

邪執 Heterodox tenets and attachment to them.

邪婬 Adultery.

邪山 A mountain of error or heterodox ideas; such ideas as great as a mountain.

邪性定 (邪性定聚) The accumulation (of suffering) to be endured in purgatory by one of heterodox nature; one of the three accumulations 三聚.

邪慢 mithyāmāna ; perverse or evil pride, doing evil for self-advancement; to hold to heterodox views and not to reverence the triratna.

邪扇 Heterodox fanning, i. e. to influence people by false doctrines.

邪旬 jhāpita, 旬 being erroneously used to represent the syllable pi, v. 荼.

邪法 Heterodoxy, false doctrines or methods.

邪私 Depraved and selfish desires, lust.

邪網 The net of heterodoxy, or falsity.

邪聚 The accumulation of misery produced by false views, one of the 三聚.

邪行 Erroneous ways, the ninety-six heretical ways; the disciplines of non-Buddhist sects.

邪行眞如 The phenomenal bhūtatathatā, from which arises the accumulation of misery.

邪見 Heterodox views, not recognizing the doctrine of moral karma, one of the five heterodox opinions and ten evils 五見十惡.

邪見乘 The Hīnayāna, the Vehicle of perverted views.

邪見稠林 The thickets of heterodoxy.

邪道 Heterodox ways, or doctrines.

邪雲 Clouds of falsity or heterodoxy, which cover over the Buddha-nature in the heart.

邪魔 Evil demons and spirits, māras.

邪魔外道 māras and heretics.

Where ? How ? What ? That. Translit. na, ne, no, nya; cf. 娜, 拏, 曩.

那他 nāda, a river.

那伽 nāga. Snake, dragon, elephant. It is tr. by 龍 dragon and by 象 elephant. (1) As dragon it represents the chief of the scaly reptiles; it can disappear or be manifest, increase or decrease, lengthen or shrink; in spring it mounts in the sky and in winter enters the earth. The dragon is of many kinds. Dragons are regarded as beneficent, bringing the rains and guarding the heavens (again Draco); they control rivers and lakes, and hibernate in the deep. nāga and mahānāga are titles of a Buddha, (also of those freed from reincarnation) because of his powers, or because like the dragon he soars above earthly desires and ties. One of his former reincarnations was a powerful poisonous dragon which, out of pity, permitted itself to be skinned alive and its flesh eaten by worms. (2) A race of serpent-worshippers.

那伽閼剌樹那 (or 那伽閼曷樹那) Nāgārjuna, 龍樹 the dragon-arjuna tree, or nāgakrośana, intp. probably wrongly as 龍猛 dragon-fierce. One of the 'four suns' and reputed founder of Mahāyāna (but see 阿 for Aśvaghoṣa), native of South India, the fourteenth patriarch; he is said to have cut off his head as an offering. 'He probably flourished in the latter half of the second century A. D.' Eliot, v. 龍樹. He founded the Mādhyamika or 中 School, generally considered as advocating doctrines of negation or nihilism, but his aim seems to have been a reality beyond the limitations of positive and negative, the identification of contraries in a higher synthesis, e. g. birth and death, existence and non-existence, eternal and non-eternal; v. 中論.

那先 Nāgasena 那伽犀那. The instructor of the king in the Milindapaṅha, v. 那先經 (那先比丘經).

那利羅 (那利薊羅) nārikela, nārikera, 捺唎羅吉唎 The coco-nut. Nārikeladvīpa is described as 'an island several thousand li south of Ceylon, inhabited by dwarfs 3 feet high, who have human bodies with beaks like birds, and live upon coco-nuts'. Eitel.

那吒 Naṭa, said to be the eldest son of Vaiśravaṇa, and represented with three faces, eight arms, a powerful demon-king.

那含 那金含 anāgāmin, v. 阿.

那婆 (那婆摩利) nava; navamālikā. Variegated or mixed flowers.

那律 Aniruddha, v. 阿那律.

那提 nadī, river, torrent; name of Punyopāya, 布如那提, 布焉伐耶 a noted monk of Central India.

那提迦葉 捺地迦葉波 Nadīkāśyapa, brother of Mahākāśyapa, to become Samantaprabhāsa Buddha.

那揭 (那揭羅喝羅) Nagara; Nagarahāra. 曩哦囉賀囉 'An ancient kingdom and city on the southern bank of the Cabool River about 30 miles west of Jellalabad (Lat. 34°28 N., Long. 70°30 E. ). The Nagara of Ptolemy.' Eitel.

那摩 nāman 娜麽 (or曇麽). A name 名.

那爛陀 Nālandā, a famous monastery 7 miles north of Rājagṛha, built by the king Śakrāditya. Nālandā is intp. as 施無厭 'Unwearying benefactor', a title attributed to the nāga which dwelt in the lake Āmra there. The village is identified in Eitel as Baragong, i. e. Vihāragrāma. For Nālandā excavations see Archæological Survey Reports, and cf. Xuanzang's account.

那由他 nayuta, 那庾多 (or 那由多); 那術 (or 那述) a numeral, 100,000, or one million, or ten million.

那羅 Naṭa; cf. 那吒; a dancer or actor 伎戲; or perhaps narya, manly, strong, one definition being 力.

那羅延 (那羅延那); 那羅野拏 Nārāyaṇa, 'son of Nara or the original man, patronymic of the personified Purusha or first living being, author of the Purusha hymn,' M. W. He is also identified with Brahmā, Viṣṇu, or Kṛṣṇa; intp. by 人生本 the originator of human life; 堅固 firm and stable; 力士 or 天界力士 hero of divine power; and 金剛 vajra; the term is used adjectivally with the meaning of manly and strong. Nārāyaṇa is represented with three faces, of greenish-yellow colour, right hand with a wheel, riding a garuḍa-bird.

那羅延天 Nārāyaṇa-deva, idem Nārāyaṇa. His 那羅延天后 śakti or female energy is shown in the Garbhadhātu group.

那羅摩那 (or那羅摩納) Naramānava, a young Brahman, a descendant of Manu.

那羅那里 nara-nari union of the male and female natures.

那羅陀 ? narādhāra, a flower, tr. 人持花 carried about for its scent.

那耶 naya; leading, conduct, politic, prudent, method; intp. by 正理 right principle; 乘 conveyance, i. e. mode of progress; and 道 way, or method.

那耶修摩 Nāya is a name of Jñātṛ, v. 尼 Nīrgrantha.

那落迦 naraka, 'hell, the place of torment,... the lower regions' (M. W. ), intp. by 地獄 q. v.

那謨 nāmaḥ, namo, idem 南無 q. v.

那辣遮 nārāca, an arrow, intp. 錐 a pointed implement.

那連耶舍 (那連提黎耶舍) Narendrayaśas, a monk of Udyāna, north-west India; sixth century A. D.; tr. the Candra-garbha, Sūrya-garbha, and other sūtras.

那阿賴耶曼荼羅 nālaya-maṇḍala, the non-ālayamaṇḍala, or the 道場 bodhi-site or seat, which is 無依處 without fixed place, independent of place, and entirely pure.

那鞞 nabhi; navel, nave of a wheel.

那麻 nāmaḥ, namo, idem 南無.

A village, neighbourhood, third of an English mile; translit. r and ; perhaps also for l and lṛ.

Ward of, protect, beware; to counter.

防難 To counter, or solve difficulties, especially difficult questions.

防羅 (idem 邏) Warders or patrols in Hades.

防那 vāna, weaving, sewing: tr. as a tailoress.

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