A Dictionary Of Chinese Buddhist Terms

With Sanskrit And English Equivalents And A Sanskrit-pali Index

by William Edward Soothill | 1937 | 324,264 words

For about a thousand years, Buddhism dominated the thought of China and her thinkers were occupied with Buddhist philosophy. This dictionary serves as a resource to the interpretation of Chinese culture, as well as an important reference for the comparative study of Sanskrit and Pali originals. The author provides a key for the students which to u...

Part 1 - One Stroke

eka. One, unity, monad, once, the same; immediately on (seeing, hearing, etc.).

一一 One by one, each, every one, severally.

一丈六像 Sixteen 'feet' form, or image, said to be the height of the Buddha's body, or 'transformation' body; v. 丈六金身.

一三昧 ekāgra, aikāgrya. Undeflected concentration, meditation on one object; v 一行三昧.

一中 A hall of spread tables; idem一普.

一中一切中 One being recognized as 'mean' then all is of the 'mean'; the three aspects of reality, noumenon, phenomenon, and madhya, are identical in essence; v. 止觀 5.

一乘 ekayāna, One yāna, the One yāna, the vehicle of one-ness.

一佛乘 The one Buddha-yāna. The One Vehicle, i.e. Mahāyāna, which contains the final or complete law of the Buddha and not merely a part, or preliminary stage, as in Hīnayāna. Mahāyānists claim it as the perfect and only way to the shore of parinirvāṇa. It is especially the doctrine of the 法華經 Lotus Sūtra; v. 大乘.

一乘之珠 The pearl of the One yāna, i.e. The Lotus Scripture.

一乘圓宗 The Tiantai, or Lotus School of the perfect teaching, or the one vehicle; v. 天台宗.

一乘家 The one-vehicle family or sect, especially the Tiantai or Lotus School.

一乘法 (一乘法門) The one vehicle method as revealed in the Lotus Sūtra.

一乘究竟教 The One Vehicle in its final teaching, especially as found in the Lotus Sūtra.

一乘經 一乘妙典 (or 一乘妙文) Another name for the Lotus Sūtra, so called because it declares the one way of salvation, the perfect Mahāyāna.

一乘菩提 The one-vehicle enlightenment.

一乘顯性教 One of the five divisions made by 圭峯 Guifeng of the Huayan 華嚴 or Avataṃsaka School; v. 五教.

一九 A Shingon term for Amitābha.

一九之生 Future life in the Amitābha Pure Land.

一人作虛萬人傳實 One man's untruth is propagated by a myriad men as truth; famae mendacia.

一代 A human lifetime; especially the lifetime of Śākyamuni on earth.

一代三段 The three sections, divisions, or periods of Buddha's teaching in his life- time, known as 序分, i.e. the 華嚴, 阿含, 方等, and 般若 sūtras; 正宗分, i.e. 無量義, 法華, and 普賢觀 sūtras; and 流通分, i.e. the 湼槃經; they are known as introductory, main discourse, and final application. There are other definitions.

一代五時佛法 The five period of Buddha's teachings, as stated by Zhiyi 智顗 of the Tiantai School. The five are 華嚴, 阿含, 方等, 般若, 法華湼槃, the last two being the final period.

一代教 The whole of the Buddha's teaching from his enlightenment to his nirvāṇa, including Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna teaching.

一位一切位 idem 一門不門.

一佛世界 A Buddha-cosmos; a world undergoing transformation by a Buddha.

一佛乘 The Mahāyāna, or one-Buddha vehicle, especially the teaching of the Lotus Sūtra.

一佛土 (一佛國土); idem一佛世界 A Buddha-domain; or a one-Buddha region; also the Pure Land.

一佛多佛 One Buddha or many Buddhas, i.e. some Hīnayāna Schools say only one Buddha exists in the same aeon; Mahāyāna says many Buddhas appear in the same aeon in many worlds.

一佛淨土 A Buddha's Pure Land, especially that of Amitābha.

一來 (一來向) sakṛdāgāmin. Only one more return to mortality, v. 斯 and 四向.

一來果 v. 四果.

一個半個 A particle, the very least.

一光三尊 Three honoured ones in one light or halo—Amitābha, Avalokiteśvara, and Mahāsthāmaprāpta; or Śākyamuni, Bhaiṣajya the 藥王 and 藥上 his younger brother.

一兎毛塵 An atom of dust on a hare's down (śaśorṇa). A measure, the 22,588,608,000th part of a yojana.

一囘忌 The first anniversary of a death; any such anniversary; also 一周忌.

一刀三禮 In carving an image of Buddha, at each cut thrice to pay homage to the triratna. 一筆三禮 and 一字三禮 indicate a similar rule for the painter and the writer.

一分家 A school founded by 安慧 Anhui, teaching 心識之一分說 that cognition is subjective.

一分菩薩 A one-tenth bodhisattva, or disciple; one who keeps one-tenth of the commandments.

一切 sarva. All, the whole; 普, 遍, 具.

一切一心識 That all things are mind, or mental.

一切世尊最尊特身 The most honoured of all the world-honoured; a title of Vairocana; v. 毘.

一切人中尊 The most honoured among men, especially Vairocana; v. 毘.

一切佛心印 trikona. The sign on a Buddha's breast, especially that on Vairocana's; the sign of the Buddha-mind; it is a triangle of flame pointing downwards to indicate power overall temptations; it is also 一切徧智印 the sign of omniscience.

一切佛會 The assembly of all the Buddhas, a term for the two maṇḍalas, or circles; v. 胎藏界 and, 金剛界, i.e. the Garbhadhātu and the Vajradhātu.

一切卽一 v. 一卽一切.

一切如來 sarvatathāgata, all Tathāgatas, all the Buddhas.

一切如來定 The highest of the 108 degrees of samādhi practised by bodhisattvas, also called 大空三昧 śūnyasamādhi, i.e. of the great void, or immateriality, and 金剛三昧 vajrasamādhi, Diamond samādhi. A samādhi on the idea that all things are of the (same) Buddha-nature.

一切如來寶 The talismanic pearl of all Buddhas, especially one in the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala who holds a lotus in his left hand and the talismanic pearl in his right.

一切如來必定印 The sign of the assurance of attaining Buddhahood.

一切如來智印 A sign of the wisdom of all buddhas, a triangle on a lotus in the Garbhadhātu group.

一切如來眼色如明照三摩地 A Vairocana-samādhi, in which the light of the Tathāgata-eye streams forth radiance. Vairocana by reason of this samādhi is accredited with delivering the 'true word' which sums up all the principles and practices of the masters.

一切如來諸法本性淸淨蓮華三昧 A lotus-samādhi of Vairocana from which Amitābha was born. It is a Tathāgata meditation, that the fundamental nature of all existence is pure like the lotus.

一切如來金剛誓誡 The original oath of every Tathāgata, when as with the roar of a lion he declares that all creatures shall become as himself.

一切智 sarvajña; v. 薩, i.e. 佛智Buddha-wisdom, perfect knowledge, omniscience.

一切智地 The state or place of such wisdom.

一切智藏 The thesaurus of 一切智; Buddha.

一切智人 or 一切智者 Buddha.

一切智舟 or 一切智船 The vehicle of 一切智 (Mahāyāna), which carries men to the 一切智地.

一切智相 sarvajñatā, omniscience, or the state or condition of such wisdom.

一切智經 The 59th chapter of the 中阿含經.

一切智智 The wisdom of all wisdom, Buddha's wisdom, including bodhi, perfect enlightenment and purity; 大悲 great pity (for mortals); and 方便 tact or skill in teaching according to receptivity.

一切智句 The state or abode of all wisdom, i.e. of Buddha; 句 is 住處.

一切智天 薩婆愼若提婆 Sarvajñadeva, the deva (i.e. Buddha) of universal wisdom.

一切智心 The Buddha-wisdom mind.

一切智慧者 The all-wise one, a title of Vairocana; v. 毘.

一切普門身 The one who completely fills all the 'four realms' (dharmadhātu), a doctrine of the 華嚴 School.

一切有 sarvabhāva. All things or beings; tr. of the name of Viśvabhū; v. 毘.

一切有情 一切衆生 All sentient beings.

一切有根本 The Mūlasarvāstivādaḥ, a branch of the Sarvāstivādin sect, which asserted the reality of things.

一切有爲 All phenomena, the phenomenal; all that is produced by causative action; everything that is dynamic and not static.

一切有部 The realistic School, Sarvāstivādaḥ, a branch of the Vaibhāṣika, claiming Rāhula as founder, asserting the reality of all phenomena: 說一切有部; 薩婆多部; 薩婆阿私底婆拖部; 一切語言部. It divided, and the following seven schools are recorded, but the list is doubtful: — Mūlasarvāstivādaḥ 一切有根本部. Kāśyapīyaḥ 迦葉毘維, also known as Suvarṣakāḥ 蘇跋梨柯部; 遊梨沙部; 蘇梨沙部; and 善歲部. Dharmaguptāḥ 法密部; 法藏部; 法護部. Mahīśāsakāḥ or Mahīśāsikāḥ 摩醯奢婆迦部; 彌喜捨婆阿部; 彌沙塞部; 化地部; 正地部. Tāmraṣāṭīyāḥ. Vibhajyavādinaḥ 分別說部. Bahuśrutīyāḥ 婆收婁多柯 or 多聞部.

一切施 sarvadā. 薩縛達 One who gives his all; all-bestowing.

一切法 一切萬法; 一切諸法 sarvadharma. All things; all laws, existences, or beings.

一切法界生印 One of the three signs in the maṇḍala of the Shingon School — the sign of producing all things or realms.

一切法界決定智印 The 'true word' of assurance of Vairocana and of all the eight classes of beings, as the symbol through which all may attain the sure Buddha-wisdom.

一切法界自身表 Buddha's self-manifestation to all creation.

一切法空 sarvadharma-śūnyatā, the emptiness or unreality of all things.

一切無障法印明 A sign for overcoming all hindrances, i.e. by making the sign of a sword through lifting both hands, palms outward and thumbs joined, saying Hail! Bhagavat! Bhagavat svāhā!

一切無障礙 Absolutely free or unhindered, e.g. like air; illimitable, universal.

一切皆成 All beings become Buddhas, for all have the Buddha-nature and must ultimately become enlightened, i.e. 一切衆生皆悉成佛. This is the doctrine of developed Mahāyāna, or universalism, as opposed to the limited salvation of Hīnayāna and of undeveloped Mahāyāna; 法華經方便品; 若有聞法者無一不成佛 if there be any who hear the dharma, not one will fail to become Buddha.

一切皆空宗 The sects which maintain the unreality of all things; v. 十宗.

一切眞言王 All the 'true word' rulers, shown in the Garbhadhātu and Vajradhātu groups.

一切眞言心 The first Sanskrit letter 'a'; it is pronounced 'an' by the Shingon School and emphasized as the heart of all wisdom. In India 'a' is the 'name of Vishṇu (especially as the first of the three sounds in the sacred syllable oṃ or aum), also of Brahmā, Śiva, and Vaiśvānara (Agni)' M. W.

一切種妙三昧 The samādhi, or trance, which brings every kind of merit for one's adornment.

一切種智 see 三智.

一切種識 The 8th of the 八識 q.v.

一切經 The Tripiṭaka 大藏經 or 藏經, i.e. the whole of the Buddhist Canon. The collection was first made in China in the first year of 開皇 A.D. 581. See B. N.

一切義成 Sarvārthasiddha, or Siddhārtha; all wishes realized, name given to Śākyamuni at his birth; v. 悉, 薩.

一切萬 一切諸法; 一切物 All things, idem 一切法.

一切處 samanta. Everywhere, universal; a universal dhyāna.

一切處無不相應眞言 The Shingon or 'True word' that responds everywhere.

一切衆生之父 The Father of all the living, Brahmā 梵王.

一切衆生喜見佛 Sarvasattva-priya-darśana. The Buddha at whose appearance all beings rejoice. (1) A fabulous Bodhisattva who destroyed himself by fire and when reborn burned both arms to cinders, an act described in the Lotus Sūtra as the highest form of sacrifice. Reborn as Bhaiṣajyarāja 藥王. (2) The name under which Buddha's aunt, Mahāprajāpatī, is to be reborn as Buddha.

一切衆生精氣 Sarvasattvāujohārī. Lit. subtle vitality of all beings; the quintessence or energy of all living beings. A certain rākṣasī, wife of a demon.

一切衆生離諸惡趣 sarvasattva-pāpa-prahāṇa. A samādhi on a world free from all the evil destinies.

一切語言部 idem 一切有部.

一切諸佛 All Buddhas.

一切遍智印 trikoṇa. A triangle above a white lotus, apex downward, of pure white colour, representing wisdom as a flame which burns up all passion and overcomes all opposition; the symbol of every Tathāgata. It is specially connected with Vairocana. Also 一切佛心印; 諸佛心印.

一刹 v. 掣. A kṣetra, a land, a Buddha-realm or chiliocosm.

一刹那 A kṣaṇa, the shortest space of time, a moment, the 90th part of a thought and 4,500th part of a minute, during which 90 or 100 are born and as many die.

一化 The teaching and influence of a Buddha during one Buddha-period; also the teaching of the whole truth at once; also an instantaneous reform.

一化五味之教 The Five Tastes or periods of the Buddha's teaching as defined by the Tiantai School, i.e. the 華嚴; 阿含; 方等; 般若 and 法華湼槃 q.v. and v. 五味.

一千 sahasra; a thousand.

一千二百 1,200.

一千二百功德 The 1,200 merits or powers of the organs of eye, tongue, and mind predicted in the Lotus Sutra, but, generally, the merits therein predicted to all six organs.

一印 A seal, sign, symbol.

一印會 The sixth of the nine Vajradhātu groups.

一卽一切一切卽一 'One is all and all is one.' Expressing the essential unity of all things; a tenet of the Huayan and Tiantai schools.

一卽三 One is (or includes) three; especially the one yāna (the Buddha vehicle) is, or includes the three vehicles, i.e. bodhisattva, pratyekabuddha, and śrāvaka.

一卽十 One is ten, or, if one then ten, one being the root or seed of numbers, and containing all the rest. There are many other forms, e.g. 一心卽一切心 and so on.

一叉鳩王 Ikṣvāku Virūḍhaka or Videhaka, translated by 甘蔗王 Sugar-cane king, also 日種善生 Sūryavaṃśa, an ancient king of Potala and ancestor of the Śākya line.

一句 A word, or sentence; 一句子 a subordinate or explanatory word or sentence; 句 is also used for 處.

一句投火 For but one sentence of the Truth willingly to cast oneself into the fire.

一句道盡 With one word to make clear the whole Law.

一合相 An organism, a cosmos, or any combined form, e.g. a man, a world.

一向 One direction, each direction; with single mind, the mind fixed in one direction undistracted; e.g. 一向淸淨無有女人 (The land of that Buddha is) everywhere pure; no women are there.

一向宗 The 眞宗 Shin or Pure-land Shin Sect founded by Shinran, in Japan, whose chief tenet is unwavering reflection on Amida (by repeating his name).

一向小乘寺 A monastery wholly Hīnayāna.

一向大乘寺 A monastery wholly Mahāyāna.

一向記 A confirmatory reply to a question, e.g. Do not all die? All die.

一吹 v. 一唾.

一味 One, or the same flavour, kind or character, i.e. the Buddha's teaching.

一味瀉甁 Completely, exhaustively, e.g. as water can be poured from one bottle to another without loss, so should be a master's pouring of the Law into the minds of his disciples.

一品 (一品經) varga 跋渠; a chapter, or division (of a sūtra).

一周忌 Anniversary of a death; also 一周關 and 一囘忌.

一唾一吹 A spit or a puff, i.e. as futile as thinking that a man could puff out a burning world and blow it again into complete existence, or could with a spit or a puff put it out.

一喝 A call, shout, deafening shout.

一四句偈 A four-character line of a gāthā, or verse.

一四天下 A world of four great continents surrounding a Mt. Sumeru.

一因 A cause; the cause from which the Buddha-law arises.

一地 The one ground; the same ground; the Buddha-nature of all living beings i.e. as all the plants grow out of the one ground, so all good character and works grow from the one Buddha-nature.

一坐食 One meal a day taken before noon and without rising from the seat; it is the 5th of the 12 dhūtas.

一境 One region, realm, order, or category.

一境三諦 The three axioms in the one category; the three are 空, 假, and 中, which exist in every universe; v. 三諦. It is a principle of the Tiantai 圓教.

一境四心 Four different ways of looking at the same thing. Similar to 一水四見 i.e. one and the same reality though seen from different aspects.

一塵 A grain of dust, an atom, a particle.

一塵法界 The whole in an atom, a universe in a grain of dust, one grain of dust is a microcosm of the universal whole.

一增一減 A kalpa during which a human lifetime increases from ten years to 80,000 years and then decreases back to ten. At the end of the first century the increase is to 11 years; at the end of the second century to 12 years, and so on till a lifetime lasts 80,000 years; then decrease follows in the same ratio till 10 is reached. The whole period of accretion and declension covers a small kalpa, i.e. 16,800,000 years; also called 中刧.

一壇構 The setting up of altars before the Vajradhātu and Garbhadhātu maṇḍalas, each erected and worshipped separately; also 一檀構.

一夏 The summer retreat in India of, 90 days, from the 16th of the 4th moon to the 15th of the 7th; v. 雨.

一大三千世界 A great chiliocosmos or universe of the three kinds of thousands of worlds. The three 千 are termed 一千; 中千; 大千. A great chiliocosmos is also termed 三千大千世界 q.v. Each world consists of its central mountain Sumeru, surrounded by four continents, its seas being surrounded by a girdle or wall of iron; 1,000 such worlds make a small chiliocosmos; 1,000 of these make a medium chiliocosmos; 1,000 of these make a great chiliocosmos, or 1,000,000,000 worlds. Later Buddhists increased this number to a figure with 4,456,489 digits. It is a Buddha-universe.

一大宅 The great house, i.e. the burning house (of the world) in the Lotus Sūtra; also 火宅.

一大車 The one great salvation vehicle of the Lotus Sūtra, the Mahāyāna.

一大事 The one great work of a Buddha, universal enlightenment and release; also a life, or lifetime.

一如 The one ru, i.e. the bhūtatathatā, or absolute, as the norm and essence of life. The 眞如 true suchness, or true character, or reality; the 法性 nature of things or beings. The whole of things as they are, or seem; a cosmos; a species; things of the same order. Name of a celebrated monk, Yiru. V. 一眞; 一實.

一如觀音 One of the 33 representations of Guanyin ascending on the clouds.

一如頓證 Immediate experiential enlightenment by the Tathāgata truth; the immediate realization that all is 眞如 bhūtatathatā.

一字 One word; a magic or esoteric word.

一字三禮 Three homages at every word one copies of the sūtras.

一字文殊 The 'Single-word Mañjuśrī', the magic word is 齒 M063830; or 體哩呬 淫; or 叱洛呬燄, and is used to avoid difficult parturition and to heal arrow-wounds. The image used is of a youthful smiling Mañjuśrī, wearing the felicitous pearl, with one tress on his head, hence also called 一髻文殊.

一字禪 A cryptic single-word reply to a question, requiring meditation for its apprehension; it is a Chan or Zen method.

一字金輪法 (一字金輪頂法) The one word golden-wheel magical method (Shingon), the one word is bhrūṃ; also 一字金輪佛頂法.

一家宴 A monasterial family party, i.e. when a monk, on becoming head of a monastery, invites its inmates to a feast.

一寧 Yining, a monk who went to Japan in 1299; v. 一山.

一實 The one reality; the bhūtatathatā; idem 一如, 一眞.

一實乘 The one method, of salvation, the 一實 School.

一實圓乘 The Tathāgata's perfect vehicle, i.e. that of the Lotus Scripture.

一實圓宗 The one real and perfect school, i.e. the Tiantai or Lotus School.

一實境界 The state or realm of 一實; the realization of the spirituality of all things; it is the 如來法身 the tathāgata-dharmakāya.

一實相 The state of bhūtatathatā, above all differentiation, immutable; it implies the Buddha-nature, or the immateriality and unity of all things; 眞如之理無二無別, 離諸虛妄之相; it is undivided unity apart from all phenomena.

一實無相 The one reality being indivisible is apart from all transient (or empty) forms, and is therefore styled the formless, e.g. the invisible.

一寶 The one precious thing, the spirit, or intelligent nature; the intelligent mind (behind all things).

一小劫 A small kalpa; a period of the growth and decay of a universe. See 一增一滅 and 劫.

一山 A hill; a monastery; Yishan, the name of a Chinese monk who voyaged to Japan in A.D. 1299 and who was also styled 一寧 Yining.

一形 An appearance, a lifetime, the period of an individual existence, also 一期 and 一生涯.

一往 One passage, or time, once; on one superficial going.

一微塵 A particle of dust; an atom, the smallest particle, a microcosm of the universe.

一心 With the whole mind or heart; one mind of heart; also the bhūtatathatā, or the whole of things; the universe as one mind, or a spiritual unity.

一心稱名 With undivided mind to call on the name (of Guanyin).

一心三惑 同體三惑The Tiantai 'three doubts' in the mind of a bodhisattva, producing fear of illusion, confusion through multiplicity of duties, and ignorance, i.e. 見思; 塵沙 and 無明 q.v.

一心三智 One mind and three aspects of knowledge. The 別教 separates the three aspects into 空, 假, and 中 q.v.; Tiantai unifies them into one immediate vision, or regards the three as aspects of the one mind.

一心三觀 The Tiantai insight 一心三智; also simultaneous vision of past, present, and future; also called 圓融三觀; 不可思議三觀.

一心金剛寶戒 圓頓戒 The infrangible-diamond rules of all bodhisattvas and Buddhas, a term of Tiantai School, founded on the 梵網經.

一念 A kṣaṇa, or thought; a concentration of mind; a moment; the time of a thought, of which there are varying measurements from 60 kṣaṇa upwards; the Fan-yi-ming-yi makes it one kṣaṇa. A reading. A repetition (especially of Amitābha's name). The Pure-land sect identify the thought of Buddha with Amitābha's vow, hence it is an assurance of salvation.

一念不生 Not a thought arising; beyond the necessity of thinking, as in the case of a Buddha.

一念三千 In one thought to survey or embrace the 3,000 worlds, or a chiliocosmos with all its forms of existence; to see the universe as a thought; it is a Tiantai mode of meditation.

一念業成 At one thought the work completed; karma complete in one thought. One repetition, or sincere thought of or faith in Amitābha's vow, and entrance into the Pure Land is assured.

一念萬年 In a moment's thought to obtain a myriad years and no return to mortality.

一性宗 Monophysitic or 'pantheistic' sects of Mahāyāna, which assert that all beings have one and the same nature with Buddha.

一息 A breath, i.e. inspiration-cum-expiration; a rest, or cessation.

一息半步 Half a step at a breathing on arising from meditation.

一恒河沙 (一恒) As one Ganges, i.e. as the sands of one Ganges river.

一成一切成 The Huayan doctrine that the law of the universal runs through the phenomenal, therefore a speck of dust is a microcosmos; also that with the Tathāgata's enlightenment all beings were enlightened in him; in the perfection of one all are perfected; one deed includes all.

一持 Adherence to one Buddha and one sūtra.

一拶 A sudden remark, or question, by a monk or master to test a disciple, a Chan (Zen) method.

一指頭禪 The one finger-tip contemplation used by a certain monk to bring to another a conception of the universe. Also a parable in the 楞伽經 Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra. The Chan or Zen sect 禪宗 regard the sūtras merely as indicators, i.e. pointing fingers, their real object being only attained through personal mediation.

一揣食 A ball (or handful) of food; one helping; a frugal meal, the sixth of the 12 dhūtas; also called 節量食 and 一摶食.

一日 A sun, or day from sunrise to sunset.

一日一夜 ahorātra. One day one night, a day and night, a division of time.

一日三時 The three divisions of a day, morning, noon, evening.

一日佛 A one-day Buddha, i.e. he who lives a whole day purely.

一日經 A sūtra copied in one day (perhaps by many hands); also styled 頓寫.

一明 ming (i.e. bright, clear, illuminating) is the Shingon word for a dhāraṇī, or magical formula; especially applied to a magical acts.

一時 ekasmin samaye (Pali: ekaṃ samayaṃ); 'on one occasion,' part of the usual opening phrase of a sūtra— 'Thus have I heard, once,' etc. A period, e.g. a session of expounding a sūtra.

一普 A company; a general assembly of monks in a monastery.

一月三舟 The one moon represents Buddha, the three boats represent varying ways of viewing him, e.g. according as those in a anchored boat and those in two others sailing in opposite directions see different aspects of the moon, so is it in regard to the Buddha.

一月三身 The allegorical trikāya or three bodies of the moon, i.e. form as 法身, its light as 報身, its reflection as 應身; the Buddha-truth 法 has also its 體 body, its light of wisdom 智, and its application or use 用, but all three are one, or a trinity; see trikāya, 三身.

一期 A date, fixed time; a life time.

一極 The one ultimate, or finality; ultimate enlightenment; the one final truth or way; the 一實 or Absolute.

一業 A karma; a 業困 karma-cause, causative of the next form of existence.

一機一境 The 機 is subjective; the 境 is objective, e.g. smoke is the objective phenomenon, fire the subjective inference.

一段事 The unity or continuity in the unbroken processes of nature; all nature, all being is but one continuous process.

一殺多生 To kill one that many may live.

一毛端 A hair's tip; the smallest division (of space or time).

一水四見 The same water may be viewed in four ways— devas see it as bejewelled land, men as water, hungry ghosts as pus and blood, fish as a place to live in. Cf. 一境四心.

一法 A dharma, or law; an ordered something, a thing, a matter.

一法印 The seal or assurance of the one truth or law, see 一如 and 一實; the criterion of Mahāyāna doctrine, that all is bhūtatathatā, as contrasted with the Hīnayāna criteria of impermanence, non-personality, and nirvāṇa.

一法句 The one-law abode, i.e. the sum of the 29 particular 句 or states of perfection in the Pure-land śāstra of Vasubandhu.

一法界 The bhūtatathatā considered in terms of mind and as a whole; a law-realm; a spiritual realm; a universe.

一法界心 A mind universal, above limitations of existence or differentiation.

一浮漚 A floating bubble (on the ocean), a man's life, or body.

一流 In one, or the same flow; of the same class.

一炷 One burning of incense; a candle, or lamp.

一無礙道 The one way without barrier, i.e. the end of reincarnations in nirvāṇa; a meditation on it.

一物不將來 A Chan sect idea— not a thing to bring or carry away, empty-handed, i.e. nothingness.

一生 All one's life, a whole life time.

一生不犯 Life-long innocence— especially sexual.

一生入妙覺 A Tiantai doctrine that Buddha-enlightenment can be attained by any in one lifetime, i.e. the present life.

一生所繫菩薩 idem 一生補處菩薩.

一生果遂 In this one life to accomplish the three stages for final entry; it is associated with the 20th vow of Amitābha; cf. 三生果遂.

一生補處 Eka-jāti-prati-baddha; a name or Maitreya, who is to be the next Buddha in this world. Another definition is— from one enlightenment to attain to Buddhahood.

一生補處菩薩像 A 30-armed image of Maitreya.

一異 Unity-cum-differentiation; monism and pluralism; one and many; ekatva-anyatva, oneness and otherness.

一白三羯磨 One announcement, or reading, and three responses, or promises of performance (karman); it is the mode of ordaining monks, three responses to the one call of the abbot.

一百 śata. A hundred.

一百八 百八 aṣṭaśatam. The 108 kleśa, distresses, disturbing passions, or illusions 煩惱 of mankind, hence the 108 beads on a rosary, repetitions of the Buddha's name, strokes of a bell, etc., one for each distress. Also, one of the Mahārājas, with 108 hands, each holding a different implement.

一目多伽 itivṛttaka; stories of the lives of saints, part of the canon; also 一曰多伽.

一相 lakṣana. One aspect, form, or side; ekatva, unity as contrasted with diversity; monism; the bhūtatathatā; the one mind in all things; cf. 一異.

一相一味 The term 一相 is defined as the common mind in all beings, or the universal mind; the 一味 is the Buddha's Mahāyāna teaching; the former is symbolized by the land, the latter by the rain fertilizing it.

一相三昧 A state of samādhi in which are repressed hate and love, accepting and rejecting, etc., and in which the mind reaches an undivided state, being anchored in calm and quiet.

一相智 The wisdom that all is bhūtatathatā and a unity.

一相法門 The unitary or monistic method is interpreted in more than a dozen ways; in general it means to reach a stage beyond differentiation where all is seen as a unity.

一相無相 One-ness means none-ness; in ultimate unity, or the unity of the absolute, there is no diversity.

一眞 The whole of reality, the universe, the all, idem 眞如; cf. 一如, 一實 bhūtatathatā.

一眞地 The state of meditation on the absolute.

一眞法界 The dharma realm of the one reality, i.e. of the bhūtatathatā, complete in a speck of dust as in a universe; such is the dharmakāya, or spiritual body of all Buddhas, eternal, above terms of being, undefinable, neither immanent nor transcendent, yet the one reality, though beyond thought. It is the fundamental doctrine of the 華嚴宗. The 法界 is 諸佛平等法身, 從本以來不生不滅, 非空非有, 離名離相, 無內無外, 惟一眞實, 不可思議, 是名一眞法界; see 三藏法數 4.

一眞無爲 The 一眞法界 one reality, or undivided absolute, is static, not phenomenal, it is effortless, just as it is 自然 self-existing.

一眼之龜 A sea turtle with only one eye, and that underneath, entered a hollow in a floating log; the log, tossed by the waves, happened to roll over, whereupon the turtle momentarily saw the sun and moon; an illustration of the rareness of the appearance of a Buddha; also of the difficulty of being reborn as a man.

一禿乘 A bald-pated 'vehicle'— an unproductive monk or disciple.

一空 All is empty, or of the void, non-material.

一等 Equal, all equal; of the first stage; a grade, rank, step.

一筆三禮 Three salutations at each (use of the) pen, on painting a picture of the Buddha, or copying a scripture; cf. 一刀三禮.

一筆勾 (一筆勾銷) 'Crossed out' with a stroke of the pen; expunged; forgiven.

一篋四蛇 Four snakes in one basket, i.e. the four passions in one body, cf. 四大.

一箭道 An arrow's flight, two li.

一縷一觸 'A thread, a butt'; the dragon which snatched a thread of a monk's robe and was consequently protected from a dangerous bird; the ox which butted a monk's robe and became a monk at its next transmigration; e.g. the virtue of the robe.

一翳 A film on the eye; a hindrance to enlightenment.

一臈 一臘 The end of the monastic year at the summer retreat; a monastic year; also called 法臈? or 法歲, the religious year; cf. 一夏.

一色 A colour, the same colour; the same; especially a thing, or a form, v. rūpa 色; minute, trifling, an atom.

一色一香無非中道 An atom or an odour is a complete microcosm of the 中道 middle way or golden mean; the Mean is found in all things.

一莖草 A blade of grass—may represent the Buddha, as does his image; it is a Buddha-centre.

一葉 A leaf; a palm-leaf or page of a sūtra.

一葉觀音 One of the 33 forms of Guanyin, standing on a lotus leaf.

一蓮 The Lotus-flower of the Pure-land of Amitābha, idem 蓮臺.

一蓮之實 The certainty of being born in the Pure-land.

一蓮托生 One lotus bearing all the living, i.e. the Pure-land of Amitābha.

一蟣 A likṣā, a nit, the 131,712,000th part of a yojana, seven times the smallest atom.

一行 One act (of body, mouth, or mind); holding to one course; devoted. Yixing, A.D. 672-717, a celebrated monk whose secular name was 張遂 Zhang Sui, posthumous title 大慧禪師; he was versed in mathematics and astronomy, a reformer of the Chinese calendar, and author of several works.

一行一切行 In one act to do all other acts; the act which includes all other acts. e.g. the first step; the one discipline which embraces all discipline; the fourth degree of a samādhi.

一行三昧, 眞如三昧, 一相三昧 A samādhi for realizing that the nature of all Buddhas is the same; the 起信論 says all Buddhas and all beings. Another meaning is entire concentration of the mind on Buddha.

一角仙人 Ekaśṛṅga ṛṣi; also 獨角仙人 The unicorn ṛṣi, an ascetic born of a deer; ensnared by a woman, he lost his power, and became a minister of state; he is one of the previous incarnations of Śākyamuni.

一觸 See 一縷.

一訶子 haritaki. A fruit of the yellow myrobolan. Also阿黎勒果 (or 訶黎勒果).

一說部 Ekavyāvahārika 猗柯毘與婆訶利柯 or (Pali) Ekabyohāra 鞞婆訶羅 One of the 20 Hīnayāna schools, a nominalistic school, which considered things as nominal, i.e. names without any underlying reality; also styled 諸法但名宗 that things are but names.

一諦 The doctrine of fundamental unity; an abbrev. for 一實諦 the Mādhyamika fundamental doctrine; also, generally, in the sense of an axiom, or fundamental truth; there are varying definitions of the one fundamental truth.

一識 One sense or perception; the one individual intelligence or soul which uses the various senses, likened to a monkey which climbs in and out of the various windows of a house— a Satyasiddhi and Sautrāntika doctrine. Also, a Vairocana maṇḍala.

一識外道 Followers of the一識 heretical view.

一轉語 A turning word; a fateful word.

一遍 Once, one recital of Buddha's name, or of a sūtra, or magic formula; style of 智眞 Zhizhen, founder of the 時宗 Ji-shū (Japan)..

一道 One way, the one way; the way of deliverance from mortality, the Mahāyāna. Yidao, a learned monk of the Pure-land sect.

一道法門 The 'a' school (Shingon) which takes a as the alpha (and even omega) of all wisdom; the way by which all escape mortality.

一道無爲心 Mind apart from all ideas of activity or inactivity. Also styled, or explained, by 如實一道心, 如實知自心, 空性無境心, 一如本淨心. The third of the ten mental resting places of the esoteric school.

一道神光 Inner light; intuitive wisdom.

一門 The one door out of mortality into nirvāṇa, i.e. the Pure-land door.

一門普門 The one door is the all-door; by entering the one door all doors of the faith are opened.

一間 ekavīcika 翳迦鼻致迦 Still one final stage of mortality before nirvāṇa. Also wrongly styled bījaka 鼻致迦, a seed 一種 which leads to one more reincarnation.

一間聖者 The holy ones who have only one interval, or stage of mortality before nirvāṇa.

一闡提 (一闡提迦) icchantika. Also 一顚迦, 阿闡底迦 One without desire for Buddha enlightenment; an unbeliever; shameless, an enemy of the good; full of desires; 斷善根者 one who has cut off his roots of goodness; it is applied also to a bodhisattva who has made a vow not to become a Buddha until all beings are saved. This is called 大悲闡提 the icchantika of great mercy.

一際 Of the same realm or boundary, i.e. the world and nirvāṇa are one.

一雨 A rain, i.e. a lesson from the Buddha, or his teaching, see Lotus V.

一音教 The one-sound teaching, i.e. the totality of the Buddha's doctrine; a school founded by Kumārajīva and Bodhiruci.

一願建立 The one vow, i.e. the 18th of the 48 vows of Amitābha, on which his sect is established.

一顚迦 idem 一闡提迦.

一食 A meal a day, one of the twelve dhūtas.

一體 Though externally differing, in nature the same; the fundamental unity of the universe. 天地與我同根, 萬物與我一體 Heaven, earth, and myself have the same root; all things are one corpus with me.

一體三分 The trinity of 摩醯首羅 Maheśvara (Śiva), 那羅延 Nārāyaṇa (Viṣṇu), and 梵天 Brahmā. One being in three manifestations.

一體三寶 In the one body of the saṅgha is the whole triratna, Buddha, Dharma, and saṅgha. Also, Mind, Buddha, and the living, these three are without differentiation, 心佛與衆生是三無差別, i.e. are all one.

一體三身自性佛 In one's own body to have the trikāya of the self-natured, Buddha, i.e. by personal surrender to the Buddha.

一體速疾力三昧 A samādhi in which instantaneous powers are acquired.

一髻 A topknot.

一髻文殊 The one topknot Mañjuśrī; there are other representations with 5 and 8; cf. 一字文殊.

一髻羅刹女 The female rakṣaḥ styled 'Single top-knot', wife of a great rakṣaḥ who dwells by a great ocean; on scenting blood, she can fly to it in a night 80, 000 yojanas.

一髻羅刹王菩薩 The four-handed, dark-blue rakṣaḥ with the flame of fire coming out of his head, a bodhisattva in the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala.

一麻一米 A hempseed and a grain of rice a day, the scanty diet to which Śākyamuni reduced himself before his enlightenment.

一魔萬箭 One demon a myriad arrows, i.e. to listen to one Māra-temptation opens the way for a myriad Māra-arrows.

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