Visuddhimagga (the pah of purification)

by Ñāṇamoli Bhikkhu | 1956 | 388,207 words | ISBN-10: 9552400236 | ISBN-13: 9789552400236

This page describes Virtue of the section Description of Virtue of Part 1 Virtue (Sīla) of the English translation of the Visuddhimagga (‘the path of purification’) which represents a detailled Buddhist meditation manual, covering all the essential teachings of Buddha as taught in the Pali Tipitaka. It was compiled Buddhaghosa around the 5th Century.

16. However, even when this path of purification is shown in this way under the headings of virtue, concentration and understanding, each comprising various special qualities, it is still only shown extremely briefly. And so since that is insufficient to help all, there is, in order to show it in detail, the following set of questions dealing in the first place with virtue:

  1. What is virtue?
  2. In what sense is it virtue?
  3. What are its characteristic, function, manifestation, and proximate cause?
  4. What are the benefits of virtue?
  5. How many kinds of virtue are there?
  6. What is the defiling of it?
  7. What is the cleansing of it?

17. Here are the answers:

(i) What is Virtue? It is the states beginning with volition present in one who abstains from killing living things, etc., or in one who fulfils the practice of the duties. For this is said in the Paṭisambhidā: “What is virtue? There is virtue as volition, virtue as consciousness-concomitant,[1] virtue as restraint, [7] virtue as nontransgression” (Paṭis I 44).

Herein, virtue as volition is the volition present in one who abstains from killing living things, etc., or in one who fulfils the practice of the duties. Virtue as consciousnessconcomitant is the abstinence in one who abstains from killing living things, and so on. Furthermore, virtue as volition is the seven volitions [that accompany the first seven] of the [ten] courses of action (kamma) in one who abandons the killing of living things, and so on. Virtue as consciousness-concomitant is the [three remaining] states consisting of non-covetousness, non-ill will, and right view, stated in the way beginning, “Abandoning covetousness, he dwells with a mind free from covetousness” (D I 71).

18. Virtue as restraint should be understood here as restraint in five ways: restraint by the rules of the community (pātimokkha), restraint by mindfulness, restraint by knowledge, restraint by patience, and restraint by energy. Herein, “restraint by the Pātimokkha” is this: “He is furnished, fully furnished, with this Pātimokkha restraint. (Vibh 246)” “Restraint by mindfulness” is this: “He guards the eye faculty, enters upon restraint of the eye faculty” (D I 70). “Restraint by knowledge” is this:

“The currents in the world that flow, Ajita,” said the Blessed One,
“Are stemmed by means of mindfulness;
Restraint of currents I proclaim,
By understanding they are dammed” (Sn 1035);

and use of requisites is here combined with this. But what is called “restraint by patience” is that given in the way beginning, “He is one who bears cold and heat” (M I 10). And what is called “restraint by energy” is that given in the way beginning, “He does not endure a thought of sense desires when it arises” (M I 11); purification of livelihood is here combined with this. So this fivefold restraint, and the abstinence, in clansmen who dread evil, from any chance of transgression met with, should all be understood to be “virtue as restraint.”

Virtue as non-transgression is the non-transgression, by body or speech, of precepts of virtue that have been undertaken.

This, in the first place, is the answer to the question, “What is virtue?” [8] Now, as to the rest—

19. (ii) In what Sense is it Virtue? It is virtue (sīla) in the sense of composing (sīlana).[2] What is this composing? It is either a coordinating (samādhāna), meaning noninconsistency of bodily action, etc., due to virtuousness; or it is an upholding (upadhāraṇa),[2] meaning a state of basis (ādhāra) owing to its serving as foundation for profitable states. For those who understand etymology admit only these two meanings. Others, however, comment on the meaning here in the way beginning, “The meaning of virtue (sīla) is the meaning of head (sira), the meaning of virtue is the meaning of cool (sītala).”

20. (iii) Now, What are its Characteristic, Function, Manifestation, and Proximate Cause? Here:

The characteristic of it is composing
Even when analyzed in various ways,
As visibility is of visible data
Even when analyzed in various ways.

Just as visibleness is the characteristic of the visible-data base even when analyzed into the various categories of blue, yellow, etc., because even when analyzed into these categories it does not exceed visible-ness, so also this same composing, described above as the coordinating of bodily action, etc., and as the foundation of profitable states, is the characteristic of virtue even when analyzed into the various categories of volition, etc., because even when analyzed into these categories it does not exceed the state of coordination and foundation.

21. While such is its characteristic:

Its function has a double sense:
Action to stop misconduct, then
Achievement as the quality
Of blamelessness in virtuous men.

So what is called virtue should be understood to have the function (nature) of stopping misconduct as its function (nature) in the sense of action, and a blameless function (nature) as its function (nature) in the sense of achievement. For under [these headings of] characteristic, etc., it is action (kicca) or it is achievement (sampatti) that is called “function” (rasa—nature).

22.

Now, virtue, so say those who know,
Itself as purity will show;
And for its proximate cause they tell
The pair, conscience and shame, as well. [9]

This virtue is manifested as the kinds of purity stated thus: “Bodily purity, verbal purity, mental purity” (A I 271); it is manifested, comes to be apprehended, as a pure state. But conscience and shame are said by those who know to be its proximate cause; its near reason, is the meaning. For when conscience and shame are in existence, virtue arises and persists; and when they are not, it neither arises nor persists.

This is how virtue’s characteristic, function, manifestation, and proximate cause, should be understood.

23. (iv) What are the Benefits of Virtue? Its benefits are the acquisition of the several special qualities beginning with non-remorse. For this is said: “Ānanda, profitable habits (virtues) have non-remorse as their aim and non-remorse as their benefit” (A V 1). Also it is said further: “Householder, there are these five benefits for the virtuous in the perfecting of virtue. What five? Here, householder, one who is virtuous, possessed of virtue, obtains a large fortune as a consequence of diligence; this is the first benefit for the virtuous in the perfecting of virtue. Again, of one who is virtuous, possessed of virtue, a fair name is spread abroad; this is the second benefit for the virtuous in the perfecting of virtue. Again, whenever one who is virtuous, possessed of virtue, enters an assembly, whether of khattiyas (warriornobles) or brahmans or householders or ascetics, he does so without fear or hesitation; this is the third benefit for the virtuous in the perfecting of virtue. Again, one who is virtuous, possessed of virtue, dies unconfused; this is the fourth benefit for the virtuous in the perfecting of virtue. Again, one who is virtuous, possessed of virtue, on the breakup of the body, after death, reappears in a happy destiny, in the heavenly world; this is the fifth benefit for the virtuous in the perfecting of virtue” (D II 86). There are also the many benefits of virtue beginning with being dear and loved and ending with destruction of cankers described in the passage beginning, “If a bhikkhu should wish, ‘May I be dear to my fellows in the life of purity and loved by them, held in respect and honoured by them,’ let him perfect the virtues” (M I 33). This is how virtue has as its benefits the several special qualities beginning with non-remorse. [10]

24. Furthermore:

Dare anyone a limit place
On benefits that virtue brings,
Without which virtue clansmen find
No footing in the dispensation?

No Ganges, and no Yamunā
No Sarabhū, Sarassathī,
Or flowing Aciravatī,
Or noble River of Mahī,
Is able to wash out the stain
In things that breathe here in the world;
For only virtue’s water can
Wash out the stain in living things.

No breezes that come bringing rain,
No balm of yellow sandalwood,
No necklaces beside, or gems
Or soft effulgence of moonbeams,
Can here avail to calm and soothe 
Men’s fevers in this world; whereas
This noble, this supremely cool,
Well-guarded virtue quells the flame.

Where is there to be found the scent
That can with virtue’s scent compare,
And that is borne against the wind
As easily as with it? Where
Can such another stair be found
That climbs, as virtue does, to heaven?
Or yet another door that gives
Onto the City of Nibbāna?

Shine as they may, there are no kings
Adorned with jewellery and pearls
That shine as does a man restrained
Adorned with virtue’s ornament.
Virtue entirely does away
With dread of self-blame and the like;
Their virtue to the virtuous
Gives gladness always by its fame.

From this brief sketch it may be known
How virtue brings reward, and how
This root of all good qualities
Robs of its power every fault.

25. (v) Now, here is the answer to the question, How many Kinds of Virtue are there?

1. Firstly all this virtue is of one kind by reason of its own characteristic ofcomposing.

2. It is of two kinds as keeping and avoiding.

3. Likewise as that of good behaviour and that of the beginning of the life ofpurity,

4. As abstinence and non-abstinence,

5. As dependent and independent,

6. As temporary and lifelong,

7. As limited and unlimited,

8. As mundane and supramundane. [11]

9. It is of three kinds as inferior, medium, and superior.

10. Likewise as giving precedence to self, giving precedence to the world, andgiving precedence to the Dhamma,

11. As adhered to, not adhered to, and tranquillized.

12. As purified, unpurified, and dubious.

13. As that of the trainer, that of the non-trainer, and that of the neither-trainernor-non-trainer.

14. It is of four kinds as partaking of diminution, of stagnation, of distinction,of penetration.

15. Likewise as that of bhikkhus, of bhikkhunīs, of the not-fully-admitted, of the laity,

16. As natural, customary, necessary, due to previous causes,

17. As virtue of Pātimokkha restraint, of restraint of sense faculties, ofpurification of livelihood, and that concerning requisites.

18. It is of five kinds as virtue consisting in limited purification, etc.; for this issaid in the Paṭisambhidā: “Five kinds of virtue: virtue consisting in limited purification, virtue consisting in unlimited purification, virtue consisting in fulfilled purification, virtue consisting in unadhered-to purification, virtue consisting in tranquillized purification” (Paṭis I 42).

19. Likewise as abandoning, refraining, volition, restraint, and non-transgression.

26. 1. Herein, in the section dealing with that of one kind, the meaning should be understood as already stated.

2. In the section dealing with that of two kinds: fulfilling a training precept announced by the Blessed One thus: “This should be done” is keeping; not doing what is prohibited by him thus: “This should not be done” is avoiding. Herein, the wordmeaning is this: they keep (caranti) within that, they proceed as people who fulfil the virtues, thus it is keeping (cāritta); they preserve, they protect, they avoid, thus it is avoiding. Herein, keeping is accomplished by faith and energy; avoiding, by faith and mindfulness. This is how it is of two kinds as keeping and avoiding.

27. 3. In the second dyad good behaviour is the best kind of behaviour. Good behaviour itself is that of good behaviour; or what is announced for the sake of good behaviour is that of good behaviour. This is a term for virtue other than that which has livelihood as eighth.[3] It is the initial stage of the life of purity consisting in the path, thus it is that of the beginning of the life of purity. This is a term for the virtue that has livelihood as eighth. It is the initial stage of the path because it has actually to be purified in the prior stage too. Hence it is said: “But his bodily action, his verbal action, and his livelihood have already been purified earlier” (M III 289). Or the training precepts called “lesser and minor” (D II 154) [12] are that of good behaviour; the rest are that of the beginning of the life of purity. Or what is included in the Double Code (the bhikkhus’ and bhikkhunīs’ Pātimokkha) is that of the beginning of the life of purity; and that included in the duties set out in the Khandhakas [of Vinaya] is that of good behaviour. Through its perfection that of the beginning of the life of purity comes to be perfected. Hence it is said also “that this bhikkhu shall fulfil the state consisting in the beginning of the life of purity without having fulfilled the state consisting in good behaviour—that is not possible” (A III 14–15). So it is of two kinds as that of good behaviour and that of the beginning of the life of purity.

28. 4. In the third dyad virtue as abstinence is simply abstention from killing living things, etc.; the other kinds consisting in volition, etc., are virtue as non-abstinence. So it is of two kinds as abstinence and non-abstinence.

29. 5. In the fourth dyad there are two kinds of dependence: dependence through craving and dependence through [false] views. Herein, that produced by one who wishes for a fortunate kind of becoming thus, “Through this virtuous conduct [rite] I shall become a [great] deity or some [minor] deity” (M I 102), is dependent through craving. That produced through such [false] view about purification as “Purification is through virtuous conduct” (Vibh 374) is dependent through [false] view. But the supramundane, and the mundane that is the prerequisite for the aforesaid supramundane, are independent. So it is of two kinds as dependent and independent.

30. 6. In the fifth dyad temporary virtue is that undertaken after deciding on a time limit. Lifelong virtue is that practiced in the same way but undertaking it for as long as life lasts. So it is of two kinds as temporary and lifelong.

31. 7. In the sixth dyad the limited is that seen to be limited by gain, fame, relatives, limbs, or life. The opposite is unlimited. And this is said in the Paṭisambhidā: “What is the virtue that has a limit? There is virtue that has gain as its limit, there is virtue that has fame as its limit, there is virtue that has relatives as its limit, there is virtue that has limbs as its limit, there is virtue that has life as its limit. What is virtue that has gain as its limit? Here someone with gain as cause, with gain as condition, with gain as reason, transgresses a training precept as undertaken: that virtue has gain as its limit” (Paṭis I 43), [13] and the rest should be elaborated in the same way. Also in the answer dealing with the unlimited it is said: “What is virtue that does not have gain as its limit? Here someone does not, with gain as cause, with gain as condition, with gain as reason, even arouse the thought of transgressing a training precept as undertaken, how then shall he actually transgress it? That virtue does not have gain as its limit” (Paṭis I 44), and the rest should be elaborated in the same way. So it is of two kinds as limited and unlimited.

32. 8. In the seventh dyad all virtue subject to cankers is mundane; that not subject to cankers is supramundane. Herein, the mundane brings about improvement in future becoming and is a prerequisite for the escape from becoming, according as it is said: “Discipline is for the purpose of restraint, restraint is for the purpose of nonremorse, non-remorse is for the purpose of gladdening, gladdening is for the purpose of happiness, happiness is for the purpose of tranquillity, tranquillity is for the purpose of bliss, bliss is for the purpose of concentration, concentration is for the purpose of correct knowledge and vision, correct knowledge and vision is for the purpose of dispassion, dispassion is for the purpose of fading away [of greed], fading away is for the purpose of deliverance, deliverance is for the purpose of knowledge and vision of deliverance, knowledge and vision of deliverance is for the purpose of complete extinction [of craving, etc.] through not clinging. Talk has that purpose, counsel has that purpose, support has that purpose, giving ear has that purpose, that is to say, the liberation of the mind through not clinging” (Vin V 164). The supramundane brings about the escape from becoming and is the plane of reviewing knowledge. So it is of two kinds as mundane and supramundane.

33. 9. In the first of the triads the inferior is produced by inferior zeal, [purity of] consciousness, energy, or inquiry; the medium is produced by medium zeal, etc.; the superior, by superior (zeal, and so on). That undertaken out of desire for fame is inferior; that undertaken out of desire for the fruits of merit is medium; that undertaken for the sake of the noble state thus, “This has to be done” is superior. Or again, that defiled by self-praise and disparagement of others, etc., thus, “I am possessed of virtue, but these other bhikkhus are ill-conducted and evil-natured” (M I 193), is inferior; undefiled mundane virtue is medium;supramundane is superior. Or again, that motivated by craving, the purpose of which is to enjoy continued existence, is inferior; that practiced for the purpose of one’s own deliverance is medium; the virtue of the perfections practiced for the deliverance of all beings is superior. So it is of three kinds as inferior, medium, and superior.

34. 10. In the second triad that practiced out of self-regard by one who regards self and desires to abandon what is unbecoming to self [14] is virtue giving precedence to self. That practiced out of regard for the world and out of desire to ward off the censure of the world is virtue giving precedence to the world. That practiced out of regard for the Dhamma and out of desire to honour the majesty of the Dhamma is virtue giving precedence to the Dhamma. So it is of three kinds as giving precedence to self, and so on.

35. 11. In the third triad the virtue that in the dyads was called dependent (no. 5) is adhered-to because it is adhered-to through craving and [false] view. That practiced by the magnanimous ordinary man as the prerequisite of the path, and that associated with the path in trainers, are not-adhered-to. That associated with trainers’ and non-trainers’ fruition is tranquillized. So it is of three kinds as adhered-to, and so on.

36. 12. In the fourth triad that fulfilled by one who has committed no offence or has made amends after committing one is pure. So long as he has not made amends after committing an offence it is impure. Virtue in one who is dubious about whether a thing constitutes an offence or about what grade of offence has been committed or about whether he has committed an offence is dubious. Herein, the meditator should purify impure virtue. If dubious, he should avoid cases about which he is doubtful and should get his doubts cleared up. In this way his mind will be kept at rest. So it is of three kinds as pure, and so on.

37. 13. In the fifth triad the virtue associated with the four paths and with the [first] three fruitions is that of the trainer. That associated with the fruition of Arahantship is that of the non-trainer. The remaining kinds are that of the neithertrainer-nor-non-trainer. So it is of three kinds as that of the trainer, and so on.

38. But in the world the nature of such and such beings is called their “habit” (sīla) of which they say: “This one is of happy habit (sukha-sīla), this one is of unhappy habit, this one is of quarrelsome habit, this one is of dandified habit.” Because of that it is said in the Paṭisambhidā figuratively: “Three kinds of virtue (habit): profitable virtue, unprofitable virtue, indeterminate virtue” (Paṭis I 44). So it is also called of three kinds as profitable, and so on. Of these, the unprofitable is not included here since it has nothing whatever to do with the headings beginning with the characteristic, which define virtue in the sense intended in this [chapter]. So the threefoldness should be understood only in the way already stated.

39. 14. In the first of the tetrads:

The unvirtuous he cultivates,
He visits not the virtuous,
And in his ignorance he sees
No fault in a transgression here, [15]
With wrong thoughts often in his mind
His faculties he will not guard—
Virtue in such a constitution
Comes to partake of diminution.

But he whose mind is satisfied.
With virtue that has been achieved,
Who never thinks to stir himself
And take a meditation subject up,
Contented with mere virtuousness,
Nor striving for a higher state—
His virtue bears the appellation
Of that partaking of stagnation.

But who, possessed of virtue, strives
With concentration for his aim—
That bhikkhu’s virtue in its function
Is called partaking of distinction.

Who finds mere virtue not enough
But has dispassion for his goal—
His virtue through such aspiration
Comes to partake of penetration.

So it is of four kinds as partaking of diminution, and so on.

40. 15. In the second tetrad there are training precepts announced for bhikkhus to keep irrespective of what is announced for bhikkhunīs. This is the virtue of bhikkhus. There are training precepts announced for bhikkhunīs to keep irrespective of what is announced for bhikkhus. This is the virtue of bhikkhunīs. The ten precepts of virtue for male and female novices are the virtue of the not fully admitted. The five training precepts—ten when possible—as a permanent undertaking and eight as the factors of the Uposatha Day,[4] for male and female lay followers are the virtue of the laity. So it is of four kinds as the virtue of bhikkhus, and so on.

41. 16. In the third tetrad the non-transgression on the part of Uttarakuru human beings is natural virtue. Each clan’s or locality’s or sect’s own rules of conduct are customary virtue. The virtue of the Bodhisatta’s mother described thus: “It is the necessary rule, Ānanda, that when the Bodhisatta has descended into his mother’s womb, no thought of men that is connected with the cords of sense desire comes to her” (D II 13), is necessary virtue. But the virtue of such pure beings as Mahā Kassapa, etc., and of the Bodhisatta in his various births is virtue due to previous causes. So it is of four kinds as natural virtue, and so on.

42. 17. In the fourth tetrad:

(a) The virtue described by the Blessed One thus: “Here a bhikkhu dwellsrestrained with the Pātimokkha restraint, possessed of the [proper] conduct and resort, and seeing fear in the slightest fault, he trains himself by undertaking the precepts of training, (Vibh 244)” is virtue of Pātimokkha restraint.

(b) That described thus: “On seeing a visible object with the eye, [16] heapprehends neither the signs nor the particulars through which, if he left the eye faculty unguarded, evil and unprofitable states of covetousness and grief might invade him; he enters upon the way of its restraint, he guards the eye faculty, undertakes the restraint of the eye faculty. On hearing a sound with the ear … On smelling an odour with the nose … On tasting a flavour with the tongue … On touching a tangible object with the body … On cognizing a mental object with the mind, he apprehends neither the signs nor the particulars through which, if he left the mind faculty unguarded, evil and unprofitable states of covetousness and grief might invade him; he enters upon the way of its restraint, he guards the mind faculty, undertakes the restraint of the mind faculty (M I 180), is virtue of restraint of the sense faculties.

(c) Abstinence from such wrong livelihood as entails transgression of the six trainingprecepts announced with respect to livelihood and entails the evil states beginning with “Scheming, talking, hinting, belittling, pursuing gain with gain” (M II 75) is virtue of livelihood purification.

(d) Use of the four requisites that is purified by the reflection stated in the waybeginning, “Reflecting wisely, he uses the robe only for protection from cold” (M I 10) is called virtue concerning requisites.

43. Here is an explanatory exposition together with a word commentary starting from the beginning.

(a) Here: in this dispensation. A bhikkhu: a clansman who has gone forth out of faith and is so styled because he sees fear in the round of rebirths (saṃsāre bhayaṃ ikkhanatā) or because he wears cloth garments that are torn and pieced together, and so on.

Restrained with the Pātimokkha restraint: here “Pātimokkha” (Rule of the Community)[5] is the virtue of the training precepts; for it frees (mokkheti) him who protects (pāti) it, guards it, it sets him free (mocayati) from the pains of the states of loss, etc., that is why it is called Pātimokkha. “Restraint” is restraining; this is a term for bodily and verbal non-transgression. The Pātimokkha itself as restraint is “Pātimokkha restraint.” “Restrained with the Pātimokkha restraint” is restrained by means of the restraint consisting in that Pātimokkha; he has it, possesses it, is the meaning. Dwells: bears himself in one of the postures. [17]

44. The meaning of possessed of [the proper] conduct and resort, etc., should be understood in the way in which it is given in the text. For this is said: “Possessed of [the proper] conduct and resort: there is [proper] conduct and improper conduct. Herein, what is improper conduct? Bodily transgression, verbal transgression, bodily and verbal transgression—this is called improper conduct. Also all unvirtuousness is improper conduct. Here someone makes a livelihood by gifts of bamboos, or by gifts of leaves, or by gifts of flowers, fruits, bathing powder, and tooth sticks, or by flattery, or by bean-soupery, or by fondling, or by going on errands on foot, or by one or other of the sorts of wrong livelihood condemned by the Buddhas—this is called improper conduct. Herein, what is [proper] conduct? Bodily non-transgression, verbal non-transgression, bodily and verbal non-transgression—this is called [proper] conduct. Also all restraint through virtue is [proper] conduct. Here someone “does not make a livelihood by gifts of bamboos, or by gifts of leaves, or by gifts of flowers, fruits, bathing powder, and tooth sticks, or by flattery, or by bean-soupery, or by fondling, or by going on errands on foot, or by one or other of the sorts of wrong livelihood condemned by the Buddhas—this is called [proper] conduct.”

45. “[Proper] resort: there is [proper] resort and improper resort. Herein, what is improper resort? Here someone has prostitutes as resort, or he has widows, old maids, eunuchs, bhikkhunīs, or taverns as resort; or he dwells associated with kings, kings’ ministers, sectarians, sectarians’ disciples, in unbecoming association with laymen; or he cultivates, frequents, honours, such families as are faithless, untrusting, abusive and rude, who wish harm, wish ill, wish woe, wish no surcease of bondage, for bhikkhus and bhikkhunīs, for male and female devotees [18]—this is called improper resort. Herein, what is [proper] resort? Here someone does not have prostitutes as resort … or taverns as resort; he does not dwell associated with kings … sectarians’ disciples, in unbecoming association with laymen; he cultivates, frequents, honours, such families as are faithful and trusting, who are a solace, where the yellow cloth glows, where the breeze of sages blows, who wish good, wish well, wish joy, wish surcease of bondage, for bhikkhus and bhikkhunīs, for male and female devotees—this is called [proper] resort. Thus he is furnished with, fully furnished with, provided with, fully provided with, supplied with, possessed of, endowed with, this [proper] conduct and this [proper] resort. Hence it is said,’Possessed of [the proper] conduct and resort’” (Vibh 246–47).

46. Furthermore, [proper] conduct and resort should also be understood here in the following way; for improper conduct is twofold as bodily and verbal. Herein, what is bodily improper conduct? “Here someone acts disrespectfully before the Community, and he stands jostling elder bhikkhus, sits jostling them, stands in front of them, sits in front of them, sits on a high seat, sits with his head covered, talks standing up, talks waving his arms … walks with sandals while elder bhikkhus walk without sandals, walks on a high walk while they walk on a low walk, walks on a walk while they walk on the ground … stands pushing elder bhikkhus, sits pushing them, prevents new bhikkhus from getting a seat … and in the bath house … without asking elder bhikkhus he puts wood on [the stove] … bolts the door … and at the bathing place he enters the water jostling elder bhikkhus, enters it in front of them, bathes jostling them, bathes in front of them, comes out jostling them, comes out in front of them … and entering inside a house he goes jostling elder bhikkhus, goes in front of them, pushing forward he goes in front of them … and where families have inner private screened rooms in which the women of the family … the girls of the family, sit, there he enters abruptly, and he strokes a child’s head” (Nidd I 228–29). This is called bodily improper conduct.

47. Herein, what is verbal improper conduct? “Here someone acts disrespectfully before the Community. Without asking elder bhikkhus he talks on the Dhamma, answers questions, recites the Pātimokkha, talks standing up, [19] talks waving his arms … having entered inside a house, he speaks to a woman or a girl thus: ‘You, soand-so of such-and-such a clan, what is there? Is there rice gruel? Is there cooked rice? Is there any hard food to eat? What shall we drink? What hard food shall we eat? What soft food shall we eat? Or what will you give me?’—he chatters like this” (Nidd I 230). This is called verbal improper conduct.

48. Proper conduct should be understood in the opposite sense to that. Furthermore, a bhikkhu is respectful, deferential, possessed of conscience and shame, wears his inner robe properly, wears his upper robe properly, his manner inspires confidence whether in moving forwards or backwards, looking ahead or aside, bending or stretching, his eyes are downcast, he has (a good) deportment, he guards the doors of his sense faculties, knows the right measure in eating, is devoted to wakefulness, possesses mindfulness and full awareness, wants little, is contented, is strenuous, is a careful observer of good behaviour, and treats the teachers with great respect. This is called (proper) conduct.

This firstly is how (proper) conduct should be understood.

49. (Proper) resort is of three kinds: (proper) resort as support, (proper) resort as guarding, and (proper) resort as anchoring. Herein, what is (proper) resort as support? A good friend who exhibits the instances of talk,[6] in whose presence one hears what has not been heard, corrects what has been heard, gets rid of doubt, rectifies one’s view, and gains confidence; or by training under whom one grows in faith, virtue, learning, generosity and understanding—this is called (proper) resort as support.

50. What is (proper) resort as guarding? Here “A bhikkhu, having entered inside a house, having gone into a street, goes with downcast eyes, seeing the length of a plough yoke, restrained, not looking at an elephant, not looking at a horse, a carriage, a pedestrian, a woman, a man, not looking up, not looking down, not staring this way and that” (Nidd I 474). This is called (proper) resort as guarding.

51. What is (proper) resort as anchoring? It is the four foundations of mindfulness on which the mind is anchored; for this is said by the Blessed One: “Bhikkhus, what is a bhikkhu’s resort, his own native place? It is these four foundations of mindfulness” (S V 148). This is called (proper) resort as anchoring.

Being thus furnished with … endowed with, this (proper) conduct and this (proper) resort, he is also on that account called “one possessed of (proper) conduct and resort.” [20]

52. Seeing fear in the slightest fault (§42): one who has the habit (sīla) of seeing fear in faults of the minutest measure, of such kinds as unintentional contravening of a minor training rule of the Pātimokkha, or the arising of unprofitable thoughts. He trains himself by undertaking (samādāya) the precepts of training: whatever there is among the precepts of training to be trained in, in all that he trains by taking it up rightly (sammā ādāya). And here, as far as the words, “one restrained by the Pātimokkha restraint,” virtue of Pātimokkha restraint is shown by discourse in terms of persons.[7] But all that beginning with the words, “possessed of [proper] conduct and resort” should be understood as said in order to show the way of practice that perfects that virtue in him who so practices it.

53. (b) Now, as regards the virtue of restraint of faculties shown next to that in the way beginning, “on seeing a visible object with the eye,” herein he is a bhikkhu established in the virtue of Pātimokkha restraint. On seeing a visible object with the eye: on seeing a visible object with the eye-consciousness that is capable of seeing visible objects and has borrowed the name “eye” from its instrument. But the Ancients (porāṇā) said: “The eye does not see a visible object because it has no mind. The mind does not see because it has no eyes. But when there is the impingement of door and object he sees by means of the consciousness that has eye-sensitivity as its physical basis. Now, (an idiom) such as this is called an ‘accessory locution’ (sasambhārakathā), like ‘He shot him with his bow,’ and so on. So the meaning here is this: ‘On seeing a visible object with eye-consciousness.’”[8]

54. Apprehends neither the signs: he does not apprehend the sign of woman or man, or any sign that is a basis for defilement such as the sign of beauty, etc.; he stops at what is merely seen. Nor the particulars: he does not apprehend any aspect classed as hand, foot, smile, laughter, talk, looking ahead, looking aside, etc., which has acquired the name “particular” (anubyañjana) because of its particularizing (anu anu byañjanato) defilements, because of its making them manifest themselves. He only apprehends what is really there. Like the Elder Mahā Tissa who dwelt at Cetiyapabbata.

55. It seems that as the elder was on his way from Cetiyapabbata to Anurādhapura for alms, a certain daughterinlaw of a clan, who had quarrelled with her husband and had set out early from Anurādhapura all dressed up and tricked out like a celestial nymph to go to her relatives’ home, saw him on the road, and being lowminded, [21] she laughed a loud laugh. [Wondering] “What is that?” the elder looked up and finding in the bones of her teeth the perception of foulness (ugliness), he reached Arahantship.[9] Hence it was said:

“He saw the bones that were her teeth,
And kept in mind his first perception;
And standing on that very spot
The elder became an Arahant.”

But her husband, who was going after her, saw the elder and asked, “Venerable sir, did you by any chance see a woman?” The elder told him:

“Whether it was a man or woman
That went by I noticed not,
But only that on this high road
There goes a group of bones.”

56. As to the words through which, etc., the meaning is: by reason of which, because of which non-restraint of the eye faculty, if he, if that person, left the eye faculty unguarded, remained with the eye door unclosed by the door-panel of mindfulness, these states of covetousness, etc., might invade, might pursue, might threaten, him. He enters upon the way of its restraint: he enters upon the way of closing that eye faculty by the door-panel of mindfulness. It is the same one of whom it is said he guards the eye faculty, undertakes the restraint of the eye faculty.

57. Herein, there is neither restraint nor non-restraint in the actual eye faculty, since neither mindfulness nor forgetfulness arises in dependence on eye-sensitivity. On the contrary when a visible datum as object comes into the eye’s focus, then, after the life-continuum has arisen twice and ceased, the functional mind-element accomplishing the function of adverting arises and ceases. After that, eyeconsciousness with the function of seeing;after that, resultant mind-element with the function of receiving; after that, resultant root-causeless mind-consciousnesselement with the function of investigating; after that, functional root-causeless mind-consciousness-element accomplishing the function of determining arises and ceases. Next to that, impulsion impels.[10] Herein, there is neither restraint nor nonrestraint on the occasion of the life-continuum, or on any of the occasions beginning with adverting. But there is non-restraint if unvirtuousness or forgetfulness or unknowing or impatience or idleness arises at the moment of impulsion. When this happens, it is called “non-restraint in the eye faculty.” [22]

58. Why is that? Because when this happens, the door is not guarded, nor are the life-continuum and the consciousnesses of the cognitive series. Like what? Just as, when a city’s four gates are not secured, although inside the city house doors, storehouses, rooms, etc., are secured, yet all property inside the city is unguarded and unprotected since robbers coming in by the city gates can do as they please, so too, when unvirtuousness, etc., arise in impulsion in which there is no restraint, then the door too is unguarded, and so also are the life-continuum and the consciousnesses of the cognitive series beginning with adverting. But when virtue, etc., has arisen in it, then the door too is guarded and so also are the life-continuum and the consciousnesses of the cognitive series beginning with adverting. Like what? Just as, when the city gates are secured, although inside the city the houses, etc., are not secured, yet all property inside the city is well guarded, well protected, since when the city gates are shut there is no ingress for robbers, so too, when virtue, etc., have arisen in impulsion, the door too is guarded and so also are the life-continuum and the consciousnesses of the cognitive series beginning with adverting. Thus although it actually arises at the moment of impulsion, it is nevertheless called “restraint in the eye faculty.”

59. So also as regards the phrases on hearing a sound with the ear and so on. So it is this virtue, which in brief has the characteristic of avoiding apprehension of signs entailing defilement with respect to visible objects, etc., that should be understood as virtue of restraint of faculties.

60. (c) Now, as regards the virtue of livelihood purification mentioned above next to the virtue of restraint of the faculties (§42), the words of the six precepts announced on account of livelihood mean, of the following six training precepts announced thus: “With livelihood as cause, with livelihood as reason, one of evil wishes, a prey to wishes, lays claim to a higher than human state that is non-existent, not a fact,” the contravention of which is defeat (expulsion from the Order); “with livelihood as cause, with livelihood as reason, he acts as go-between,” the contravention of which is an offence entailing a meeting of the Order; “with livelihood as cause, with livelihood as reason, he says, ‘A bhikkhu who lives in your monastery is an Arahant,’” the contravention of which is a serious offence in one who is aware of it; “with livelihood as cause, with livelihood as reason, a bhikkhu who is not sick eats superior food that he has ordered for his own use,” the contravention of which is an offence requiring expiation: “With livelihood as cause, with livelihood as reason, a bhikkhunī who is not sick eats superior food that she has ordered for her own use,” the contravention of which is an offence requiring confession; “with livelihood as cause, with livelihood as reason, one who is not sick eats curry or boiled rice [23] that he has ordered for his own use,” the contravention of which is an offence of wrongdoing (Vin V 146). Of these six precepts.[11]

61. As regards scheming, etc. (§42), this is the text: “Herein, what is scheming? It is the grimacing, grimacery, scheming, schemery, schemedness,[12] by what is called rejection of requisites or by indirect talk, or it is the disposing, posing, composing, of the deportment on the part of one bent on gain, honour and renown, of one of evil wishes, a prey to wishes—this is called scheming.

62.”Herein, what is talking? Talking at others, talking, talking round, talking up, continual talking up, persuading, continual persuading, suggesting, continual suggesting, ingratiating chatter, flattery, bean-soupery, fondling, on the part of one bent on gain, honour and renown, of one of evil wishes, a prey to wishes—this is called talking.

63.”Herein, what is hinting? A sign to others, giving a sign, indication, giving indication, indirect talk, roundabout talk, on the part of one bent on gain, honour and renown, of one of evil wishes, a prey to wishes—this is called hinting.

64.”Herein, what is belittling? Abusing of others, disparaging, reproaching, snubbing, continual snubbing, ridicule, continual ridicule, denigration, continual denigration, tale-bearing, backbiting, on the part of one bent on gain, honour and renown, of one of evil wishes, a prey to wishes—this is called belittling.

65.”Herein, what is pursuing gain with gain? Seeking, seeking for, seeking out, going in search of, searching for, searching out material goods by means of material goods, such as carrying there goods that have been got from here, or carrying here goods that have been got from there, by one bent on gain, honour and renown, by one of evil wishes, a prey to wishes—this is called pursuing gain with gain.”[13] (Vibh 352–53)

66. The meaning of this text should be understood as follows: Firstly, as regards description of scheming: on the part of one bent on gain, honour and renown is on the part of one who is bent on gain, on honour, and on reputation; on the part of one who longs for them, is the meaning. [24] Of one of evil wishes: of one who wants to show qualities that he has not got. A prey to wishes:[14] the meaning is, of one who is attacked by them. And after this the passage beginning or by what is called rejection of requisites is given in order to show the three instances of scheming given in the Mahāniddesa as rejection of requisites, indirect talk, and that based on deportment.

67. Herein, [a bhikkhu] is invited to accept robes, etc., and, precisely because he wants them, he refuses them out of evil wishes. And then, since he knows that those householders believe in him implicitly when they think, “Oh, how few are our lord’s wishes! He will not accept a thing!” and they put fine robes, etc., before him by various means, he then accepts, making a show that he wants to be compassionate towards them—it is this hypocrisy of his, which becomes the cause of their subsequently bringing them even by cartloads, that should be understood as the instance of scheming called rejection of requisites.

68. For this is said in the Mahāniddesa: “What is the instance of scheming called rejection of requisites? Here householders invite bhikkhus [to accept] robes, alms food, resting place, and the requisite of medicine as cure for the sick. One who is of evil wishes, a prey to wishes, wanting robes … alms food … resting place … the requisite of medicine as cure for the sick, refuses robes … alms food … resting place … the requisite of medicine as cure for the sick, because he wants more. He says: ‘What has an ascetic to do with expensive robes? It is proper for an ascetic to gather rags from a charnel ground or from a rubbish heap or from a shop and make them into a patchwork cloak to wear. What has an ascetic to do with expensive alms food? It is proper for an ascetic to get his living by the dropping of lumps [of food into his bowl] while he wanders for gleanings. What has an ascetic to do with an expensive resting place? It is proper for an ascetic to be a tree-root-dweller or an open-air-dweller. What has an ascetic to do with an expensive requisite of medicine as cure for the sick? It is proper for an ascetic to cure himself with putrid urine[15] and broken gallnuts.’ Accordingly he wears a coarse robe, eats coarse alms food, [25] uses a coarse resting place, uses a coarse requisite of medicine as cure for the sick. Then householders think, ‘This ascetic has few wishes, is content, is secluded, keeps aloof from company, is strenuous, is a preacher of asceticism,’ and they invite him more and more [to accept] robes, alms food, resting places, and the requisite of medicine as cure for the sick. He says: ‘With three things present a faithful clansman produces much merit: with faith present a faithful clansman produces much merit, with goods to be given present a faithful clansman produces much merit, with those worthy to receive present a faithful clansman produces much merit. You have faith; the goods to be given are here; and I am here to accept. If I do not accept, then you will be deprived of the merit. That is no good to me. Rather will I accept out of compassion for you.” Accordingly he accepts many robes, he accepts much alms food, he accepts many resting places, he accepts many requisites of medicine as cure for the sick. Such grimacing, grimacery, scheming, schemery, schemedness, is known as the instance of scheming called rejection of requisites’ (Nidd I 224–25).

69. It is hypocrisy on the part of one of evil wishes, who gives it to be understood verbally in some way or other that he has attained a higher than human state, that should be understood as the instance of scheming called indirect talk, according as it is said: “What is the instance of scheming called indirect talk? Here someone of evil wishes, a prey to wishes, eager to be admired, [thinking] ‘Thus people will admire me’ speaks words about the noble state. He says, ‘He who wears such a robe is a very important ascetic.’ He says, ‘He who carries such a bowl, metal cup, water filler, water strainer, key, wears such a waist band, sandals, is a very important ascetic.’ He says, ‘He who has such a preceptor … teacher … who has the same preceptor, who has the same teacher, who has such a friend, associate, intimate, companion; he who lives in such a monastery, lean-to, mansion, villa,[16] cave, grotto, hut, pavilion, watch tower, hall, barn, meeting hall, [26] room, at such a tree root, is a very important ascetic.’ Or alternatively, all-gushing, all-grimacing, all-scheming, all-talkative, with an expression of admiration, he utters such deep, mysterious, cunning, obscure, supramundane talk suggestive of voidness as ‘This ascetic is an obtainer of peaceful abidings and attainments such as these.’ Such grimacing, grimacery, scheming, schemery, schemedness, is known as the instance of scheming called indirect talk” (Nidd I 226–27).

70. It is hypocrisy on the part of one of evil wishes, which takes the form of deportment influenced by eagerness to be admired, that should be understood as the instance of scheming dependent on deportment, according as it is said: “What is the instance of scheming called deportment? Here someone of evil wishes, a prey to wishes, eager to be admired, [thinking] ‘Thus people will admire me,’ composes his way of walking, composes his way of lying down;he walks studiedly, stands studiedly, sits studiedly, lies down studiedly; he walks as though concentrated, stands, sits, lies down as though concentrated;and he is one who meditates in public. Such disposing, posing, composing, of deportment, grimacing, grimacery, scheming, schemery, schemedness, is known as the instance of scheming called deportment” (Nidd I 225–26).

71. Herein, the words by what is called rejection of requisites (§61) mean: by what is called thus “rejection of requisites”; or they mean: by means of the rejection of requisites that is so called. By indirect talk means: by talking near to the subject. Of deportment means: of the four modes of deportment (postures). Disposing is initial posing, or careful posing. Posing is the manner of posing. Composing is prearranging; assuming a trust-inspiring attitude, is what is meant. Grimacing is making grimaces by showing great intenseness; facial contraction is what is meant. One who has the habit of making grimaces is a grimacer. The grimacer’s state is grimacery. Scheming is hypocrisy. The way (āyanā) of a schemer (kuha) is schemery (kuhāyanā). The state of what is schemed is schemedness.

72. In the description of talking: talking at is talking thus on seeing people coming to the monastery, “What have you come for, good people? What, to invite bhikkhus? If it is that, then go along and I shall come later with [my bowl],” etc.; or alternatively, talking at is talking by advertising oneself thus, “I am Tissa, the king trusts me, such and such king’s ministers trust me.” [27] Talking is the same kind of talking on being asked a question. Talking round is roundly talking by one who is afraid of householders’ displeasure because he has given occasion for it. Talking up is talking by extolling people thus, “He is a great land-owner, a great ship-owner, a great lord of giving.” Continual talking up is talking by extolling [people] in all ways.

73. Persuading is progressively involving[17] [people] thus, “Lay followers, formerly you used to give first-fruit alms at such a time; why do you not do so now?” until they say, “We shall give, venerable sir, we have had no opportunity,” etc.; entangling, is what is meant. Or alternatively, seeing someone with sugarcane in his hand, he asks, “Where are you coming from, lay follower?”—”From the sugarcane field, venerable sir”—”Is the sugarcane sweet there?”—”One can find out by eating, venerable sir”—”It is not allowed, lay follower, for bhikkhus to say ‘Give [me some] sugarcane.’” Such entangling talk from such an entangler is persuading. Persuading again and again in all ways is continual persuading.

74. Suggesting is insinuating by specifying thus, “That family alone understands me; if there is anything to be given there, they give it to me only”; pointing to, is what is meant. And here the story of the oil-seller should be told.[18] Suggesting in all ways again and again is continual suggesting.

75. Ingratiating chatter is endearing chatter repeated again and again without regard to whether it is in conformity with truth and Dhamma. Flattery is speaking humbly, always maintaining an attitude of inferiority. Bean-soupery is resemblance to bean soup; for just as when beans are being cooked only a few do not get cooked, the rest get cooked, so too the person in whose speech only a little is true, the rest being false, is called a “bean soup”; his state is bean-soupery.

76. Fondling is the state of the act of fondling. [28] For when a man fondles children on his lap or on his shoulder like a nurse—he nurses, is the meaning—that fondler’s act is the act of fondling. The state of the act of fondling is fondling.

77. In the description of hinting (nemittikatā): a sign (nimitta) is any bodily or verbal act that gets others to give requisites. Giving a sign is making a sign such as “What have you got to eat?”, etc., on seeing [people] going along with food. Indication is talk that alludes to requisites. Giving indication: on seeing cowboys, he asks, “Are these milk cows’ calves or buttermilk cows’ calves?” and when it is said, “They are milk cows’ calves, venerable sir,” [he remarks] “They are not milk cows’ calves. If they were milk cows’ calves the bhikkhus would be getting milk,” etc.; and his getting it to the knowledge of the boys’ parents in this way, and so making them give milk, is giving indication.

78. Indirect talk is talk that keeps near [to the subject]. And here there should be told the story of the bhikkhu supported by a family. A bhikkhu, it seems, who was supported by a family went into the house wanting to eat and sat down. The mistress of the house was unwilling to give. On seeing him she said, “There is no rice,” and she went to a neighbour’s house as though to get rice. The bhikkhu went into the storeroom. Looking round, he saw sugarcane in the corner behind the door, sugar in a bowl, a string of salt fish in a basket, rice in a jar, and ghee in a pot. He came out and sat down. When the housewife came back, she said, “I did not get any rice.” The bhikkhu said, “Lay follower, I saw a sign just now that alms will not be easy to get today.”—“What, venerable sir?”—”I saw a snake that was like sugarcane put in the corner behind the door; looking for something to hit it with, I saw a stone like a lump of sugar in a bowl. When the snake had been hit with the clod, it spread out a hood like a string of salt fish in a basket, and its teeth as it tried to bite the clod were like rice grains in a jar. Then the saliva mixed with poison that came out to its mouth in its fury was like ghee put in a pot.” She thought, “There is no hoodwinking the shaveling,” so she gave him the sugarcane [29] and she cooked the rice and gave it all to him with the ghee, the sugar and the fish.

79. Such talk that keeps near [to the subject] should be understood as indirect talk. Roundabout talk is talking round and round [the subject] as much as is allowed.

80. In the description of belittling: abusing is abusing by means of the ten instances of abuse.[19] Disparaging is contemptuous talk. Reproaching is enumeration of faults such as “He is faithless, he is an unbeliever.” Snubbing is taking up verbally thus, “Don’t say that here.” Snubbing in all ways, giving grounds and reasons, is continual snubbing. Or alternatively, when someone does not give, taking him up thus, “Oh, the prince of givers!” is snubbing; and the thorough snubbing thus, “A mighty prince of givers!” is continual snubbing. Ridicule is making fun of someone thus, “What sort of a life has this man who eats up his seed [grain]?” Continual ridicule is making fun of him more thoroughly thus, “What, you say this man is not a giver who always gives the words ‘There is nothing’ to everyone?”

81. Denigration[20] is denigrating someone by saying that he is not a giver, or by censuring him. All-round denigration is continual denigration. Tale-bearing is bearing tales from house to house, from village to village, from district to district, [thinking] “So they will give to me out of fear of my bearing tales.” Backbiting is speaking censoriously behind another’s back after speaking kindly to his face; for this is like biting the flesh of another’s back, when he is not looking, on the part of one who is unable to look him in the face; therefore it is called backbiting. This is called belittling (nippesikatā) because it scrapes off (nippeseti), wipes off, the virtuous qualities of others as a bamboo scraper (veḷupesikā) does unguent, or because it is a pursuit of gain by grinding (nippiṃsitvā) and pulverizing others’ virtuous qualities, like the pursuit of perfume by grinding perfumed substances; that is why it is called belittling.

82. `In the description of pursuing gain with gain: pursuing is hunting after. Got from here is got from this house. There is into that house. Seeking is wanting. Seeking for is hunting after. Seeking out is hunting after again and again. [30] The story of the bhikkhu who went round giving away the alms he had got at first to children of families here and there and in the end got milk and gruel should be told here. Searching, etc., are synonyms for “seeking,” etc., and so the construction here should be understood thus: going in search of is seeking; searching for is seeking for; searching out is seeking out.

This is the meaning of scheming, and so on.

83. Now, [as regards the words] The evil states beginning with (§42): here the words beginning with should be understood to include the many evil states given in the Brahmajāla Sutta in the way beginning, “Or just as some worthy ascetics, while eating the food given by the faithful, make a living by wrong livelihood, by such low arts as these, that is to say, by palmistry, by fortune-telling, by divining omens, by interpreting dreams, marks on the body, holes gnawed by mice; by fire sacrifice, by spoon oblation …” (D I 9).

84. So this wrong livelihood entails the transgression of these six training precepts announced on account of livelihood, and it entails the evil states beginning with “Scheming, talking, hinting, belittling, pursuing gain with gain.” And so it is the abstinence from all sorts of wrong livelihood that is virtue of livelihood purification, the word-meaning of which is this: on account of it they live, thus it is livelihood. What is that? It is the effort consisting in the search for requisites. “Purification” is purifiedness. “Livelihood purification” is purification of livelihood.

85. (d) As regards the next kind called virtue concerning requisites, [here is the text: “Reflecting wisely, he uses the robe only for protection from cold, for protection from heat, for protection from contact with gadflies, flies, wind, burning and creeping things, and only for the purpose of concealing the private parts. Reflecting wisely, he uses alms food neither for amusement nor for intoxication nor for smartening nor for embellishment, but only for the endurance and continuance of this body, for the ending of discomfort, and for assisting the life of purity: ‘Thus I shall put a stop to old feelings and shall not arouse new feelings, and I shall be healthy and blameless and live in comfort.’ Reflecting wisely, he uses the resting place only for the purpose of protection from cold, for protection from heat, for protection from contact with gadflies, flies, wind, burning and creeping things, and only for the purpose of warding off the perils of climate and enjoying retreat. Reflecting wisely, he uses the requisite of medicine as cure for the sick only for protection from arisen hurtful feelings and for complete immunity from affliction” (M I 10). Herein, reflecting wisely is reflecting as the means and as the way;[21] by knowing, by reviewing, is the meaning. And here it is the reviewing stated in the way beginning, “For protection from cold” that should be understood as “reflecting wisely.”

86. Herein, the robe is any one of those beginning with the inner cloth. He uses: he employs; dresses in [as inner cloth], or puts on [as upper garment]. Only [31] is a phrase signifying invariability in the definition of a limit[22] of a purpose; the purpose in the meditator’s making use of the robes is that much only, namely, protection from cold, etc., not more than that. From cold: from any kind of cold arisen either through disturbance of elements internally or through change in temperature externally. For protection: for the purpose of warding off; for the purpose of eliminating it so that it may not arouse affliction in the body. For when the body is afflicted by cold, the distracted mind cannot be wisely exerted. That is why the Blessed One permitted the robe to be used for protection from cold. So in each instance, except that from heat means from the heat of fire, the origin of which should be understood as forest fires, and so on.

87. From contact with gadflies and flies, wind and burning and creeping things: here gadflies are flies that bite; they are also called “blind flies.” Flies are just flies. Wind is distinguished as that with dust and that without dust. Burning is burning of the sun. Creeping things are any long creatures such as snakes and so on that move by crawling. Contact with them is of two kinds: contact by being bitten and contact by being touched. And that does not worry him who sits with a robe on. So he uses it for the purpose of protection from such things.

88. Only: the word is repeated in order to define a subdivision of the invariable purpose; for the concealment of the private parts is an invariable purpose; the others are purposes periodically. Herein, private parts are any parts of the pudendum. For when a member is disclosed, conscience (hiri) is disturbed (kuppati), offended. It is called “private parts” (hirikopīna) because of the disturbance of conscience (hiri-kopana). For the purpose of concealing the private parts: for the purpose of the concealment of those private parts. [As well as the reading “hiriko-pīna-paṭicchādanatthaṃ] there is a reading “hirikopīnaṃ paṭicchādanatthaṃ.”

89. Alms food is any sort of food. For any sort of nutriment is called “alms food” (piṇḍapāta—lit. “lump-dropping”) because of its having been dropped (patitattā) into a bhikkhu’s bowl during his alms round (piṇḍolya). Or alms food (piṇḍapāta) is the dropping (pāta) of the lumps (piṇḍa); it is the concurrence (sannipāta), the collection, of alms (bhikkhā) obtained here and there, is what is meant.

Neither for amusement: neither for the purpose of amusement, as with village boys, etc.; for the sake of sport, is what is meant. Nor for intoxication: not for the purpose of intoxication, as with boxers, etc.; for the sake of intoxication with strength and for the sake of intoxication with manhood, is what is meant. [32] Nor for smartening: not for the purpose of smartening, as with royal concubines, courtesans, etc.; for the sake of plumpness in all the limbs, is what is meant. Nor for embellishment: not for the purpose of embellishment, as with actors, dancers, etc.; for the sake of a clear skin and complexion, is what is meant.

90. And here the clause neither for amusement is stated for the purpose of abandoning support for delusion; nor for intoxication is said for the purpose of abandoning support for hate; nor for smartening nor for embellishment is said for the purpose of abandoning support for greed. And neither for amusement nor for intoxication is said for the purpose of preventing the arising of fetters for oneself. Nor for smartening nor for embellishment is said for the purpose of preventing the arising of fetters for another. And the abandoning of both unwise practice and devotion to indulgence of sense pleasures should be understood as stated by these four. Only has the meaning already stated.

91. Of this body: of this material body consisting of the four great primaries. For the endurance: for the purpose of continued endurance. And continuance: for the purpose of not interrupting [life’s continued] occurrence, or for the purpose of endurance for a long time. He makes use of the alms food for the purpose of the endurance, for the purpose of the continuance, of the body, as the owner of an old house uses props for his house, and as a carter uses axle grease, not for the purpose of amusement, intoxication, smartening, and embellishment. Furthermore, endurance is a term for the life faculty. So what has been said as far as the words for the endurance and continuance of this body can be understood to mean: for the purpose of maintaining the occurrence of the life faculty in this body.

92. For the ending of discomfort: hunger is called “discomfort” in the sense of afflicting. He makes use of alms food for the purpose of ending that, like anointing a wound, like counteracting heat with cold, and so on. For assisting the life of purity: for the purpose of assisting the life of purity consisting in the whole dispensation and the life of purity consisting in the path. For while this [bhikkhu] is engaged in crossing the desert of existence by means of devotion to the three trainings depending on bodily strength whose necessary condition is the use of alms food, he makes use of it to assist the life of purity just as those seeking to cross the desert used their child’s flesh,[23] just as those seeking to cross a river use a raft, and just as those seeking to cross the ocean use a ship.

93. Thus I shall put a stop to old feelings and shall not arouse new feelings: [33] thus as a sick man uses medicine, he uses [alms food, thinking]: “By use of this alms food I shall put a stop to the old feeling of hunger, and I shall not arouse a new feeling by immoderate eating, like one of the [proverbial] brahmans, that is, one who eats till he has to be helped up by hand, or till his clothes will not meet, or till he rolls there [on the ground], or till crows can peck from his mouth, or until he vomits what he has eaten. Or alternatively, there is that which is called ‘old feelings’ because, being conditioned by former kamma, it arises now in dependence on unsuitable immoderate eating—I shall put a stop to that old feeling, forestalling its condition by suitable moderate eating. And there is that which is called ‘new feeling’ because it will arise in the future in dependence on the accumulation of kamma consisting in making improper use [of the requisite of alms food] now—I shall also not arouse that new feeling, avoiding by means of proper use the production of its root.” This is how the meaning should be understood here. What has been shown so far can be understood to include proper use [of requisites], abandoning of devotion to self-mortification, and not giving up lawful bliss (pleasure).

94. And I shall be healthy: “In this body, which exists in dependence on requisites, I shall, by moderate eating, have health called ‘long endurance’ since there will be no danger of severing the life faculty or interrupting the [continuity of the] postures.” [Reflecting] in this way, he makes use [of the alms food] as a sufferer from a chronic disease does of his medicine. And blameless and live in comfort (lit. “and have blamelessness and a comfortable abiding”): he makes use of them thinking: “I shall have blamelessness by avoiding improper search, acceptance and eating, and I shall have a comfortable abiding by moderate eating.” Or he does so thinking: “I shall have blamelessness due to absence of such faults as boredom, sloth, sleepiness, blame by the wise, etc., that have unseemly immoderate eating as their condition; and I shall have a comfortable abiding by producing bodily strength that has seemly moderate eating as its condition.” Or he does so thinking: “I shall have blamelessness by abandoning the pleasure of lying down, lolling and torpor, through refraining from eating as much as possible to stuff the belly; and I shall have a comfortable abiding by controlling the four postures through eating four or five mouthfuls less than the maximum.” For this is said:

With four or five lumps still to eat
Let him then end by drinking water;
For energetic bhikkhus’ needs
This should suffice to live in comfort (Th 983). [34]

Now, what has been shown at this point can be understood as discernment of purpose and practice of the middle way.

95. Resting place (senāsana): this is the bed (sena) and seat (āsana). For wherever one sleeps (seti), whether in a monastery or in a lean-to, etc., that is the bed (sena); wherever one seats oneself (āsati), sits (nisīdati), that is the seat (āsana). Both together are called “resting-place” (or “abode”—senāsana).

For the purpose of warding off the perils of climate and enjoying retreat: the climate itself in the sense of imperilling (parisahana) is “perils of climate” (utu-parissaya). Unsuitable climatic conditions that cause mental distraction due to bodily affliction can be warded off by making use of the resting place; it is for the purpose of warding off these and for the purpose of the pleasure of solitude, is what is meant. Of course, the warding off of the perils of climate is stated by [the phrase] “protection from cold,” etc., too; but, just as in the case of making use of the robes the concealment of the private parts is stated as an invariable purpose while the others are periodical [purposes], so here also this [last] should be understood as mentioned with reference to the invariable warding off of the perils of climate. Or alternatively, this “climate” of the kind stated is just climate; but “perils” are of two kinds: evident perils and concealed perils (see Nidd I 12). Herein, evident perils are lions, tigers, etc., while concealed perils are greed, hate, and so on. When a bhikkhu knows and reflects thus in making use of the kind of resting place where these [perils] do not, owing to unguarded doors and sight of unsuitable visible objects, etc., cause affliction, he can be understood as one who “reflecting wisely makes use of the resting place for the purpose of warding off the perils of climate.”

96. The requisite of medicine as cure for the sick: here “cure” (paccaya = going against) is in the sense of going against (pati-ayana) illness; in the sense of countering, is the meaning. This is a term for any suitable remedy. It is the medical man’s work (bhisakkassa kammaṃ) because it is permitted by him, thus it is medicine (bhesajja). Or the cure for the sick itself as medicine is “medicine as cure for the sick.” Any work of a medical man such as oil, honey, ghee, etc., that is suitable for one who is sick, is what is meant. A “requisite” (parikkhāra), however, in such passages as “It is well supplied with the requisites of a city” (A IV 106) is equipment; in such passages as “The chariot has the requisite of virtue, the axle of jhāna, the wheel of energy” (S V 6) [35] it is an ornament; in such passages as “The requisites for the life of one who has gone into homelessness that should be available” (M I 104), it is an accessory. But here both equipment and accessory are applicable. For that medicine as a cure for the sick is equipment for maintaining life because it protects by preventing the arising of affliction destructive to life; and it is an accessory too because it is an instrument for prolonging life. That is why it is called “requisite.” So it is medicine as cure for the sick and that is a requisite, thus it is a “requisite of medicine as cure for the sick.” [He makes use of] that requisite of medicine as cure for the sick; any requisite for life consisting of oil, honey, molasses, ghee, etc., that is allowed by a medical man as suitable for the sick, is what is meant.

97. From arisen: from born, become, produced. Hurtful: here “hurt (affliction)” is a disturbance of elements, and it is the leprosy, tumours, boils, etc., originated by that disturbance. Hurtful (veyyābādhika) because arisen in the form of hurt (byābādha). Feelings: painful feelings, feelings resulting from unprofitable kamma—from those hurtful feelings. For complete immunity from affliction: for complete freedom from pain; so that all that is painful is abandoned, is the meaning.

This is how this virtue concerning requisites should be understood. In brief its characteristic is the use of requisites after wise reflection. The word-meaning here is this: because breathing things go (ayanti), move, proceed, using [what they use] in dependence on these robes, etc., these robes, etc., are therefore called requisites (paccaya = ger. of paṭi + ayati); “concerning requisites” is concerning those requisites.

98. (a) So, in this fourfold virtue, Pātimokkha restraint has to be undertaken by means of faith. For that is accomplished by faith, since the announcing of training precepts is outside the disciples’ province; and the evidence here is the refusal of the request to [allow disciples to] announce training precepts (see Vin III 9–10). Having therefore undertaken through faith the training precepts without exception as announced, one should completely perfect them without regard for life. For this is said: [36]

“As a hen guards her eggs,
Or as a yak her tail,
Or like a darling child,
Or like an only eye—
So you who are engaged
Your virtue to protect,
Be prudent at all times
And ever scrupulous.” (Source untraced)

Also it is said further: “So too, sire, when a training precept for disciples is announced by me, my disciples do not transgress it even for the sake of life” (A IV 201).

99. And the story of the elders bound by robbers in the forest should be understood in this sense.

It seems that robbers in the Mahāvaṭṭanī Forest bound an elder with black creepers and made him lie down. While he lay there for seven days he augmented his insight, and after reaching the fruition of non-return, he died there and was reborn in the Brahmā-world. Also they bound another elder in Tambapaṇṇi Island (Sri Lanka) with string creepers and made him lie down. When a forest fire came and the creepers were not cut, he established insight and attained Nibbāna simultaneously with his death. When the Elder Abhaya, a preacher of the Dīgha Nikāya, passed by with five hundred bhikkhus, he saw [what had happened] and he had the elder’s body cremated and a shrine built. Therefore let other clansmen also:

Maintain the rules of conduct pure,
Renouncing life if there be need,
Rather than break virtue’s restraint
By the World’s Saviour decreed.

100. (b) And as Pātimokkha restraint is undertaken out of faith, so restraint of the sense faculties should be undertaken with mindfulness. For that is accomplished by mindfulness, because when the sense faculties’ functions are founded on mindfulness, there is no liability to invasion by covetousness and the rest. So, recollecting the Fire Discourse, which begins thus, “Better, bhikkhus, the extirpation of the eye faculty by a red-hot burning blazing glowing iron spike than the apprehension of signs in the particulars of visible objects cognizable by the eye” (S IV 168), this [restraint] should be properly undertaken by preventing with unremitting mindfulness any apprehension, in the objective fields consisting of visible data, etc., of any signs, etc., likely to encourage covetousness, etc., to invade consciousness occurring in connection with the eye door, and so on.

101. [37] When not undertaken thus, virtue of Pātimokkha restraint is unenduring: it does not last, like a crop not fenced in with branches. And it is raided by the robber defilements as a village with open gates is by thieves. And lust leaks into his mind as rain does into a badly-roofed house. For this is said:

“Among the visible objects, sounds, and smells,
And tastes, and tangibles, guard the faculties;
For when these doors are open and unguarded,
Then thieves will come and raid as’twere a village (?).

And just as with an ill-roofed house
The rain comes leaking in, so too
Will lust come leaking in for sure
Upon an undeveloped mind” (Dhp 13).

102. When it is undertaken thus, virtue of Pātimokkha restraint is enduring: it lasts, like a crop well fenced in with branches. And it is not raided by the robber defilements, as a village with well-guarded gates is not by thieves. And lust does not leak into his mind, as rain does not into a well-roofed house. For this is said:

“Among the visible objects, sounds and smells,
And tastes and tangibles, guard the faculties;
For when these doors are closed and truly guarded,
Thieves will not come and raid as’twere a village (?).

“And just as with a well-roofed house
No rain comes leaking in, so too
No lust comes leaking in for sure
Upon a well-developed mind” (Dhp 14).

103. This, however, is the teaching at its very highest.

This mind is called “quickly transformed” (A I 10), so restraint of the faculties should be undertaken by removing arisen lust with the contemplation of foulness, as was done by the Elder Vaṅgīsa soon after he had gone forth. [38]

As the elder was wandering for alms, it seems, soon after going forth, lust arose in him on seeing a woman. Thereupon he said to the venerable Ānanda:

“I am afire with sensual lust.
And burning flames consume my mind;
In pity tell me, Gotama,
How to extinguish it for good” (S I 188).

The elder said:

“You do perceive mistakenly,
That burning flames consume your mind.
Look for no sign of beauty there,
For that it is which leads to lust.
See foulness there and keep your mind
Harmoniously concentrated;
Formations see as alien,
As ill, not self, so this great lust
May be extinguished, and no more
Take fire thus ever and again” (S I 188).

The elder expelled his lust and then went on with his alms round.

104. Moreover, a bhikkhu who is fulfilling restraint of the faculties should be like the Elder Cittagutta resident in the Great Cave at Kuraṇḍaka, and like the Elder Mahā Mitta resident at the Great Monastery of Coraka.

105. In the Great Cave of Kuraṇḍaka, it seems, there was a lovely painting of the Renunciation of the Seven Buddhas. A number of bhikkhus wandering about among the dwellings saw the painting and said, “What a lovely painting, venerable sir!” The elder said: “For more than sixty years, friends, I have lived in the cave, and I did not know whether there was any painting there or not. Now, today, I know it through those who have eyes.” The elder, it seems, though he had lived there for so long, had never raised his eyes and looked up at the cave. And at the door of his cave there was a great ironwood tree. And the elder had never looked up at that either. He knew it was in flower when he saw its petals on the ground each year.

106. The king heard of the elder’s great virtues, and he sent for him three times, desiring to pay homage to him. When the elder did not go, he had the breasts of all the women with infants in the town bound and sealed off, [saying] “As long as the elder does not come let the children go without milk,” [39] Out of compassion for the children the elder went to Mahāgāma. When the king heard [that he had come, he said] “Go and bring the elder in. I shall take the precepts.” Having had him brought up into the inner palace, he paid homage to him and provided him with a meal. Then, saying, “Today, venerable sir, there is no opportunity. I shall take the precepts tomorrow,” he took the elder’s bowl. After following him for a little, he paid homage with the queen and turned back. As seven days went by thus, whether it was the king who paid homage or whether it was the queen, the elder said, “May the king be happy.”

107. Bhikkhus asked: “Why is it, venerable sir, that whether it is the king who pays the homage or the queen you say ‘May the king be happy’?” The elder replied: “Friends, I do not notice whether it is the king or the queen.” At the end of seven days [when it was found that] the elder was not happy living there, he was dismissed by the king. He went back to the Great Cave at Kuraṇḍaka. When it was night he went out onto his walk. A deity who dwelt in the ironwood tree stood by with a torch of sticks. Then his meditation subject became quite clear and plain. The elder, [thinking] “How clear my meditation subject is today!” was glad, and immediately after the middle watch he reached Arahantship, making the whole rock resound.[24]

108. So when another clansman seeks his own good:

Let him not be hungry-eyed,
Like a monkey in the groves,
Like a wild deer in the woods,
Like a nervous little child.
Let him go with eyes downcast
Seeing a plough yoke’s length before,
That he fall not in the power
Of the forest-monkey mind.

109. The Elder Mahā Mitta’s mother was sick with a poisoned tumour. She told her daughter, who as a bhikkhunī had also gone forth, “Lady, go to your brother. Tell him my trouble and bring back some medicine.” She went and told him. The elder said: “I do not know how to gather root medicines and such things and concoct a medicine from them. But rather I will tell you a medicine: since I went forth I have not broken [my virtue of restraint of] the sense faculties by looking at the bodily form of the opposite sex with a lustful mind. By this [40] declaration of truth may my mother get well. Go and tell the lay devotee and rub her body.” She went and told her what had happened and then did as she had been instructed. At that very moment the lay devotee’s tumour vanished, shrinking away like a lump of froth. She got up and uttered a cry of joy: “If the Fully Enlightened One were still alive, why should he not stroke with his netadorned hand the head of a bhikkhu like my son?” So:

110.

Let another noble clansman
Gone forth in the Dispensation
Keep, as did the Elder Mitta,
Perfect faculty restraint.

111. (c) As restraint of the faculties is to be undertaken by means of mindfulness, so livelihood purification is to be undertaken by means of energy. For that is accomplished by energy, because the abandoning of wrong livelihood is effected in one who has rightly applied energy. Abandoning, therefore, unbefitting wrong search, this should be undertaken with energy by means of the right kind of search consisting in going on alms round, etc., avoiding what is of impure origin as though it were a poisonous snake, and using only requisites of pure origin.

112. Herein, for one who has not taken up the ascetic practices, any requisites obtained from the Community, from a group of bhikkhus, or from laymen who have confidence in his special qualities of teaching the Dhamma, etc., are called “of pure origin.” But those obtained on alms round, etc., are of extremely pure origin. For one who has taken up the ascetic practices, those obtained on alms round, etc., and—as long as this is in accordance with the rules of the ascetic practices—from people who have confidence in his special qualities of asceticism, are called “of pure origin.” And if he has got putrid urine with mixed gall nuts and “four-sweets”[25] for the purpose of curing a certain affliction, and he eats only the broken gall nuts, thinking, “Other companions in the life of purity will eat the ‘four-sweets’,” his undertaking of the ascetic practices is befitting, for he is then called a bhikkhu who is supreme in the Noble Ones’ heritages (A II 28).

113. As to the robe and the other requisites, no hint, indication, roundabout talk, or intimation about robes and alms food is allowable for a bhikkhu who is purifying his livelihood. But a hint, indication, or roundabout talk about a resting place is allowable for one who has not taken up the ascetic practices. [41]

114. Herein, a “hint” is when one who is getting the preparing of the ground, etc., done for the purpose of [making] a resting place is asked, “What is being done, venerable sir? Who is having it done?” and he replies, “No one”;or any other such giving of hints. An “indication” is saying, “Lay follower, where do you live?”—”In a mansion, venerable sir”—”But, lay follower, a mansion is not allowed for bhikkhus.” Or any other such giving of indication. “Roundabout talk” is saying, “The resting place for the Community of Bhikkhus is crowded”; or any other such oblique talk.

115. All, however, is allowed in the case of medicine. But when the disease is cured, is it or is it not allowed to use the medicine obtained in this way? Herein, the Vinaya specialists say that the opening has been given by the Blessed One, therefore it is allowable. But the Suttanta specialists say that though there is no offence, nevertheless the livelihood is sullied, therefore it is not allowable.

116. But one who does not use hints, indications, roundabout talk, or intimation, though these are permitted by the Blessed One, and who depends only on the special qualities of fewness of wishes, etc., and makes use only of requisites obtained otherwise than by indication, etc., even when he thus risks his life, is called supreme in living in effacement, like the venerable Sāriputta.

117. It seems that the venerable one was cultivating seclusion at one time, living in a certain forest with the Elder Mahā Moggallāna. One day an affliction of colic arose in him, causing him great pain. In the evening the Elder Mahā Moggallāna went to attend upon him. Seeing him lying down, he asked what the reason was. And then he asked, “What used to make you better formerly, friend?” The elder said, “When I was a layman, friend, my mother used to mix ghee, honey, sugar and so on, and give me rice gruel with pure milk. That used to make me better.” Then the other said, “So be it, friend. If either you or I have merit, perhaps tomorrow we shall get some.”

118. Now, a deity who dwelt in a tree at the end of the walk overheard their conversation. [Thinking] “I will find rice gruel for the lord tomorrow,” he went meanwhile to the family who was supporting the elder [42] and entered into the body of the eldest son, causing him discomfort. Then he told the assembled relatives the price of the cure: “If you prepare rice gruel of such a kind tomorrow for the elder, I will set this one free.” They said: “Even without being told by you we regularly supply the elder’s needs,” and on the following day they prepared rice gruel of the kind needed.

119. The Elder Mahā Moggallāna came in the morning and said, “Stay here, friend, till I come back from the alms round.” Then he went into the village. Those people met him. They took his bowl, filled it with the stipulated kind of rice gruel, and gave it back to him. The elder made as though to go, but they said, “Eat, venerable sir, we shall give you more.” When the elder had eaten, they gave him another bowlful. The elder left. Bringing the alms food to the venerable Sāriputta, he said, “Here, friend Sāriputta, eat.” When the elder saw it, he thought, “The gruel is very nice. How was it got?” and seeing how it had been obtained, he said, “Friend, the alms food cannot be used.”

120. Instead of thinking, “He does not eat alms food brought by the likes of me,” the other at once took the bowl by the rim and turned it over on one side. As the rice gruel fell on the ground the elder’s affliction vanished. From then on it did not appear again during forty-five years.

121. Then he said to the venerable Mahā Moggallāna, “Friend, even if one’s bowels come out and trail on the ground, it is not fitting to eat gruel got by verbal intimation,” and he uttered this exclamation:

My livelihood might well be blamed
If I were to consent to eat
The honey and the gruel obtained
By influence of verbal hints.

And even if my bowels obtrude
And trail outside, and even though
My life is to be jeopardized,
I will not blot my livelihood (Mil 370).

For I will satisfy my heart
By shunning all wrong kinds of search;
And never will I undertake
The search the Buddhas have condemned. [43]

122 And here too should be told the story of the Elder Mahā Tissa the Mangoeater who lived at Cīragumba[26] (see §132 below). So in all respects:

A man who has gone forth in faith
Should purify his livelihood
And, seeing clearly, give no thought
To any search that is not good.

123. (d) And as livelihood purification is to be undertaken by means of energy, so virtue dependent on requisites is to be undertaken by means of understanding. For that is accomplished by understanding, because one who possesses understanding is able to see the advantages and the dangers in requisites. So one should abandon greed for requisites and undertake that virtue by using requisites obtained lawfully and properly, after reviewing them with understanding in the way aforesaid.

124. Herein, reviewing is of two kinds: at the time of receiving requisites and at the time of using them. For use (paribhoga) is blameless in one who at the time of receiving robes, etc., reviews them either as [mere] elements or as repulsive,[27] and puts them aside for later use, and in one who reviews them thus at the time of using them.

125. Here is an explanation to settle the matter. There are four kinds of use: use as theft,[28] use as a debt?, use as an inheritance, use as a master. Herein, use by one who is unvirtuous and makes use [of requisites], even sitting in the midst of the Community, is called “use as theft.” Use without reviewing by one who is virtuous is “use as a debt”; therefore the robe should be reviewed every time it is used, and the alms food lump by lump. One who cannot do this [should review it] before the meal, after the meal, in the first watch, in the middle watch, and in the last watch. If dawn breaks on him without his having reviewed it, he finds himself in the position of one who has used it as a debt. Also the resting place should be reviewed each time it is used. Recourse to mindfulness both in the accepting and the use of medicine is proper; but while this is so, though there is an offence for one who uses it without mindfulness after mindful acceptance, there is no offence for one who is mindful in using after accepting without mindfulness.

126. Purification is of four kinds: purification by the Teaching, purification by restraint, purification by search, and purification by reviewing. Herein, virtue of the Pātimokkha restraint is called “purification by the Teaching”; [44] for that is so called because it purifies by means of teaching. Virtue of restraint of faculties is called “purification by restraint”; for that is so called because it purifies by means of the restraint in the mental resolution, “I shall not do so again.” Virtue of livelihood purification is called “purification by search”; for that is so called because search is purified in one who abandons wrong search and gets requisites lawfully and properly. Virtue dependent on requisites is called “purification by reviewing”; for that is so called because it purifies by the reviewing of the kind already described. Hence it was said above (§125): “There is no offence for one who is mindful in using after accepting without mindfulness.”

127. Use of the requisites by the seven kinds of trainers is called “use as an inheritance”; for they are the Buddha’s sons, therefore they make use of the requisites as the heirs of requisites belonging to their father. But how then, is it the Blessed One’s requisites or the laity’s requisites that are used? Although given by the laity, they actually belong to the Blessed One, because it is by the Blessed One that they are permitted. That is why it should be understood that the Blessed One’s requisites are used. The confirmation here is in the Dhammadāyāda Sutta (MN 3).

Use by those whose cankers are destroyed is called “use as a master”; for they make use of them as masters because they have escaped the slavery of craving.

128. As regards these kinds of use, use as a master and use as an inheritance are allowable for all. Use as a debt is not allowable, to say nothing of use as theft. But this use of what is reviewed by one who is virtuous is use freed from debt because it is the opposite of use as a debt or is included in use as an inheritance too. For one possessed of virtue is called a trainer too because of possessing this training.

129. As regards these three kinds of use, since use as a master is best, when a bhikkhu undertakes virtue dependent on requisites, he should aspire to that and use them after reviewing them in the way described. And this is said: [45]

“The truly wise disciple
Who listens to the Dhamma
As taught by the Sublime One
Makes use, after reviewing,
Of alms food, and of dwelling,
And of a resting place,
And also of the water
For washing dirt from robes” (Sn 391).

“So like a drop of water
Lying on leaves of lotus,
A bhikkhu is unsullied
By any of these matters,
By alms food, [and by dwelling,]
And by a resting place,
And also by the water
For washing dirt from robes” (Sn 392).

“Since aid it is and timely
Procured from another
The right amount he reckons,
Mindful without remitting
In chewing and in eating,
In tasting food besides:
He treats it as an ointment
Applied upon a wound.” (Source untraced)

“So like the child’s flesh in the desert
Like the greasing for the axle,
He should eat without delusion
Nutriment to keep alive.” (Source untraced)

130. And in connection with the fulfilling of this virtue dependent on requisites there should be told the story of the novice Saṅgharakkhita the Nephew. For he made use of requisites after reviewing, according as it is said:

“Seeing me eat a dish of rice
Quite cold, my preceptor observed:
‘Novice, if you are not restrained,
Be careful not to burn your tongue.’
On hearing my Preceptor’s words,
I then and there felt urged to act
And, sitting in a single session,
I reached the goal of Arahantship.
Since I am now waxed full in thought
Like the full moon of the fifteenth (M III 277),
And all my cankers are destroyed,
There is no more becoming now.” [46]

And so should any other man
Aspiring to end suffering
Make use of all the requisites
Wisely after reviewing them.

So virtue is of four kinds as “virtue of Pātimokkha restraint,” and so on.

131. 18. In the first pentad in the fivefold section the meaning should be understood in accordance with the virtue of those not fully admitted to the Order, and so on. For this is said in the Paṭisambhidā: “(a) What is virtue consisting in limited purification? That of the training precepts for those not fully admitted to the Order: such is virtue consisting in limited purification. (b) What is virtue consisting in unlimited purification? That of the training precepts for those fully admitted to the Order: such is virtue consisting in unlimited purification. (c) What is virtue consisting in fulfilled purification? That of magnanimous ordinary men devoted to profitable things, who are perfecting [the course] that ends in trainership, regardless of the physical body and life, having given up [attachment to] life: such is virtue of fulfilled purification, (d) What is virtue consisting in purification not adhered to? That of the seven kinds of trainer: such is virtue consisting in purification not adhered to. (e) What is virtue consisting in tranquillized purification? That of the Perfect One’s disciples with cankers destroyed, of the Paccekabuddhas, of the Perfect Ones, accomplished and fully enlightened: such is virtue consisting in tranquillized purification” (Paṭis I 42–43).

132. (a) Herein, the virtue of those not fully admitted to the Order should be understood as virtue consisting in limited purification, because it is limited by the number [of training precepts, that is, five or eight or ten].

(b) That of those fully admitted to the Order is [describable] thus:

Nine thousand millions, and a hundred
And eighty millions then as well,
And fifty plus a hundred thousand,
And thirty-six again to swell.

The total restraint disciplines:
These rules the Enlightened One explains
Told under heads for filling out,
Which the Discipline restraint contains.[29]

So although limited in number, [47] it should yet be understood as virtue consisting in unlimited purification, since it is undertaken without reserve and has no obvious limit such as gain, fame, relatives, limbs or life. Like the virtue of the Elder Mahā Tissa the Mango-eater who lived at Cīragumba (see §122 above).

133. For that venerable one never abandoned the following good man’s recollection:

“Wealth for a sound limb’s sake should be renounced,
And one who guards his life gives up his limbs;
And wealth and limbs and life, each one of these,
A man gives up who practices the Dhamma.”

And he never transgressed a training precept even when his life was in the balance, and in this way he reached Arahantship with that same virtue of unlimited purification as his support while he was being carried on a lay devotee’s back. According to as it is said:

“Nor your mother nor your father
Nor your relatives and kin
Have done as much as this for you
Because you are possessed of virtue.”
So, stirred with urgency, and wisely
Comprehending[30] with insight,
While carried on his helper’s back
He reached the goal of Arahantship.

134. (c) The magnanimous ordinary man’s virtue, which from the time of admission to the Order is devoid even of the stain of a [wrong] thought because of its extreme purity, like a gem of purest water, like well-refined gold, becomes the proximate cause for Arahantship itself, which is why it is called consisting of fulfilled purification; like that of the lders Saṅgharakkhita the Great and Saṅgharakkhita the Nephew.

135. The Elder Saṅgharakkhita the Great (Mahā Saṅgharakkhita), aged over sixty, was lying, it seems, on his deathbed. The Order of Bhikkhus questioned him about attainment of the supramundane state. The elder said: “I have no supramundane state.” Then the young bhikkhu who was attending on him said: “Venerable sir, people have come as much as twelve leagues, thinking that you have reached Nibbāna. It will be a disappointment for many if you die as an ordinary man.”—“Friend, thinking to see the Blessed One Metteyya, I did not try for insight. [48] So help me to sit up and give me the chance.” He helped the elder to sit up and went out. As he went out the elder reached Arahantship and he gave a sign by snapping his fingers. The Order assembled and said to him: “Venerable sir, you have done a difficult thing in achieving the supramundane state in the hour of death.”—“That was not difficult, friends. But rather I will tell you what is difficult. Friends, I see no action done [by me] without mindfulness and unknowingly since the time I went forth.” His nephew also reached Arahantship in the same way at the age of fifty years.

136.

“Now, if a man has little learning
And he is careless of his virtue,
They censure him on both accounts
For lack of virtue and of learning.

“But if he is of little learning
Yet he is careful of his virtue,
They praise him for his virtue, so
It is as though he too had learning.

“And if he is of ample learning
Yet he is careless of his virtue,
They blame him for his virtue, so
It is as though he had no learning.

“But if he is of ample learning
And he is careful of his virtue,
They give him praise on both accounts
For virtue and as well for learning.

“The Buddha’s pupil of much learning
Who keeps the Law with understanding—
A jewel of Jambu River gold[31]
Who is here fit to censure him?

Deities praise him [constantly],
By Brahmā also is he praised (A II 7).

137. (d) What should be understood as virtue consisting in purification not adhered to is trainers’ virtue, because it is not adhered to by [false] view, and ordinary men’s virtue when not adhered to by greed. Like the virtue of the Elder Tissa the Landowner’s Son (Kuṭumbiyaputta-Tissa-thera). Wanting to become established in Arahantship in dependence on such virtue, this venerable one told his enemies:

I broke the bones of both my legs
To give the pledge you asked from me.
I am revolted and ashamed
At death accompanied by greed. [49]

“And after I had thought on this,
And wisely then applied insight,
When the sun rose and shone on me,
I had become an Arahant” (M-a I 233).

138. Also there was a certain senior elder who was very ill and unable to eat with his own hand. He was writhing smeared with his own urine and excrement. Seeing him, a certain young bhikkhu said, “Oh, what a painful process life is!” The senior elder told him: “If I were to die now, friend, I should obtain the bliss of heaven; I have no doubt of that. But the bliss obtained by breaking this virtue would be like the lay state obtained by disavowing the training,” and he added: “I shall die together with my virtue.” As he lay there, he comprehended that same illness [with insight], and he reached Arahantship. Having done so, he pronounced these verses to the Order of Bhikkhus:

“I am victim of a sickening disease
That racks me with its burden of cruel pain;
As flowers in the dust burnt by the sun,
So this my corpse will soon have withered up.

“Unbeautiful called beautiful,
Unclean while reckoned as if clean,
Though full of ordure seeming fair
To him that cannot see it clear.

“So out upon this ailing rotting body,
Fetid and filthy, punished with affliction,
Doting on which this silly generation
Has lost the way to be reborn in heaven!” (J-a II 437)

139. (e) It is the virtue of the Arahants, etc., that should be understood as tranquillized purification, because of tranquillization of all disturbance and because of purifiedness.

So it is of five kinds as “consisting in limited purification,” and so on.

140. 19. In the second pentad the meaning should be understood as the abandoning, etc., of killing living things, etc.; for this is said in the Paṭisambhidā:

“Five kinds of virtue: (1) In the case of killing living things, (a) abandoning is virtue, (b) abstention is virtue, (c) volition is virtue, (d) restraint is virtue, (e) nontransgression is virtue. (2) In the case of taking what is not given … (3) In the case of sexual misconduct … (4) In the case of false speech … (5) In the case of malicious speech … (6) In the case of harsh speech … (7) In the case of gossip … [50] (8) In the case of covetousness … (9) In the case of ill will … (10) In the case of wrong view …

(11) “Through renunciation in the case of lust, (a) abandoning is virtue … (12) Through non-ill-will in the case of ill-will … (13) Through perception of light in the case of stiffness-and-torpor … (14) Through non-distraction … agitation … (15) Through definition of states (dhamma) … uncertainty … (16) Through knowledge … ignorance … (17) Through gladdening in the case of boredom …

(18) “Through the first jhāna in the case of the hindrances, (a) abandoning is virtue … (19) Through the second jhāna … applied and sustained thought … (20) Through the third jhāna … happiness … (21) Through the fourth jhāna in the case of pleasure and pain, (a) abandoning is virtue … (22) Through the attainment of the base consisting of boundless space in the case of perceptions of matter, perceptions of resistance, and perceptions of variety, (a) abandoning is virtue … (23) Through the attainment of the base consisting of boundless consciousness in the case of the perception of the base consisting of boundless space … (24) Through the attainment of the base consisting of nothingness in the case of the perception of the base consisting of boundless consciousness … (25) Through the attainment of the base consisting of neither perception nor non-perception in the case of the perception of the base consisting of nothingness …

(26) “Through the contemplation of impermanence in the case of the perception of permanence, (a) abandoning is virtue … (27) Through the contemplation of pain in the case of the perception of pleasure … (28) Through the contemplation of not-self in the case of the perception of self … (29) Through the contemplation of dispassion in the case of the perception of delighting … (30) Through the contemplation of fading away in the case of greed … (31) Through the contemplation of cessation in the case of originating … (32) Through the contemplation of relinquishment in the case of grasping …

(33) “Through the contemplation of destruction in the case of the perception of compactness, (a) abandoning is virtue … (34) Through the contemplation of fall [of formations] in the case of accumulating [kamma] … (35) Through the contemplation of change in the case of the perception of lastingness … (36) Through the contemplation of the signless in the case of a sign … (37) Through the contemplation of the desireless in the case of desire … (38) Through the contemplation of voidness in the case of misinterpreting (insistence) … (39) Through insight into states that is higher understanding in the case of misinterpreting (insistence) due to grasping … (40) Through correct knowledge and vision in the case of misinterpreting (insistence) due to confusion … (41) Through the contemplation of danger in the case of misinterpreting (insistence) due to reliance [on formations] … (42) Through reflection in the case of non-reflection … (43) Through the contemplation of turning away in the case of misinterpreting (insistence) due to bondage …

(44) “Through the path of stream-entry in the case of defilements coefficient with [false] view, (a) abandoning is virtue … (45) Through the path of once-return in the case of gross defilements … (46) Through the path of non-return in the case of residual defilements … (47) Through the path of Arahantship in the case of all defilements, (a) abandoning is virtue, (b) abstention is virtue, (c) volition is virtue, (d) restraint is virtue, (e) non-transgression is virtue.

“Such virtues lead to non-remorse in the mind, to gladdening, to happiness, to tranquillity, to joy, to repetition, to development, to cultivation, to embellishment, to the requisite [for concentration], to the equipment [of concentration], to fulfilment, to complete dispassion, to fading away, to cessation, to peace, to direct-knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbāna.”[32] (Paṭis I 46–47)

141. And here there is no state called abandoning other than the mere non-arising of the killing of living things, etc., as stated. But the abandoning of a given [unprofitable state] upholds [51] a given profitable state in the sense of providing a foundation for it, and concentrates it by preventing wavering, so it is called “virtue” (sīla) in the sense of composing (sīlana), reckoned as upholding and concentrating as stated earlier (§19).

The other four things mentioned refer to the presence[33] of occurrence of will as abstention from such and such, as restraint of such and such, as the volition associated with both of these, and as non-transgression in one who does not transgress such and such. But their meaning of virtue has been explained already.

So it is of five kinds as “virtue consisting in abandoning” and so on.

142. At this point the answers to the questions, “What is virtue? In what sense is it virtue? What are its characteristic, function, manifestation, and proximate cause? What are the benefits of virtue? How many kinds of virtue are there?” are complete.

143. However, it was also asked (vi) What is the Defiling of it? and What is the cleansing of it?

We answer that virtue’s tornness, etc., is its defiling, and that its untornness, etc., is its cleansing. Now, that tornness, etc., are comprised under the breach that has gain, fame, etc., as its cause, and under the seven bonds of sexuality. When a man has broken the training course at the beginning or at the end in any instance of the seven classes of offences,[34] his virtue is called torn, like a cloth that is cut at the edge. But when he has broken it in the middle, it is called rent, like a cloth that is rent in the middle. When he has broken it twice or thrice in succession, it is called blotched, like a cow whose body is some such colour as black or red with a discrepant colour appearing on the back or the belly. When he has broken it [all over] at intervals, it is called mottled, like a cow speckled [all over] with discrepantcoloured spots at intervals. This in the first place, is how there comes to be tornness with the breach that has gain, etc., as its cause.

144. And likewise with the seven bonds of sexuality; for this is said by the Blessed One: “Here, brahman, some ascetic or brahman claims to lead the life of purity rightly; for he does not [52] enter into actual sexual intercourse with women. Yet he agrees to massage, manipulation, bathing and rubbing down by women. He enjoys it, desires it and takes satisfaction in it. This is what is torn, rent, blotched and mottled in one who leads the life of purity. This man is said to lead a life of purity that is unclean. As one who is bound by the bond of sexuality, he will not be released from birth, ageing and death … he will not be released from suffering, I say.

145. “Furthermore, brahman, … while he does not agree to [these things], yet he jokes, plays and amuses himself with women …

146. “Furthermore, brahman, … while he does not agree to [these things], yet he gazes and stares at women eye to eye …

147. “Furthermore, brahman, … while he does not agree to [these things], yet he listens to the sound of women through a wall or through a fence as they laugh or talk or sing or weep …

148. “Furthermore, brahman, … while he does not agree to [these things], yet he recalls laughs and talks and games that he formerly had with women …

149. “Furthermore, brahman, … while he does not agree to [these things], [53] yet he sees a householder or a householder’s son possessed of, endowed with, and indulging in, the five cords of sense desire …

150. “Furthermore, brahman, while he does not agree to [these things], yet he leads the life of purity aspiring to some order of deities, [thinking] ‘Through this rite (virtue) or this ritual (vow) or this asceticism I shall become a [great] deity or some [lesser] deity.’ He enjoys it, desires it, and takes satisfaction in it. This, brahman, is what is torn, rent, blotched and mottled in one who leads the life of purity. This man … will not be released from suffering, I say” (A IV 54–56).

This is how tornness, etc., should be understood as included under the breach that has gain, etc., as its cause and under the seven bonds of sexuality.

151 Untornness, however, is accomplished by the complete non-breaking of the training precepts, by making amends for those broken for which amends should be made, by the absence of the seven bonds of sexuality, and, as well, by the nonarising of such evil things as anger, enmity, contempt, domineering, envy, avarice, deceit, fraud, obduracy, presumption, pride (conceit), haughtiness, conceit (vanity), and negligence (MN 7), and by the arising of such qualities as fewness of wishes, contentment, and effacement (MN 24).

152. Virtues not broken for the purpose of gain, etc., and rectified by making amends after being broken by the faults of negligence, etc., and not damaged by the bonds of sexuality and by such evil things as anger and enmity, are called entirely untorn, unrent, unblotched, and unmottled. And those same virtues are liberating since they bring about the state of a freeman, and praised by the wise since it is by the wise that they are praised, and unadhered-to since they are not adhered to by means of craving and views, and conducive to concentration since they conduce to access concentration or to absorption concentration. That is why their untornness, etc., should be understood as “cleansing” (see also VII.101f.).

153. This cleansing comes about in two ways: through seeing the danger of failure in virtue, and through seeing the benefit of perfected virtue. [54] Herein, the danger of failure in virtue can be seen in accordance with such suttas as that beginning, “Bhikkhus, there are these five dangers for the unvirtuous in the failure of virtue” (A III 252).

154. Furthermore, on account of his unvirtuousness an unvirtuous person is displeasing to deities and human beings, is uninstructable by his fellows in the life of purity, suffers when unvirtuousness is censured, and is remorseful when the virtuous are praised. Owing to that unvirtuousness he is as ugly as hemp cloth. Contact with him is painful because those who fall in with his views are brought to long-lasting suffering in the states of loss. He is worthless because he causes no great fruit [to accrue] to those who give him gifts. He is as hard to purify as a cesspit many years old. He is like a log from a pyre (see It 99); for he is outside both [recluseship and the lay state]. Though claiming the bhikkhu state he is no bhikkhu, so he is like a donkey following a herd of cattle. He is always nervous, like a man who is everyone’s enemy. He is as unfit to live with as a dead carcase. Though he may have the qualities of learning, etc., he is as unfit for the homage of his fellows in the life of purity as a charnel-ground fire is for that of brahmans. He is as incapable of reaching the distinction of attainment as a blind man is of seeing a visible object. He is as careless of the Good Law as a guttersnipe is of a kingdom. Though he fancies he is happy, yet he suffers because he reaps suffering as told in the Discourse on the Mass of Fire (A IV 128–34).

155. Now, the Blessed One has shown that when the unvirtuous have their minds captured by pleasure and satisfaction in the indulgence of the five cords of sense desires, in [receiving] salutation, in being honoured, etc., the result of that kamma, directly visible in all ways, is very violent pain, with that [kamma] as its condition, capable of producing a gush of hot blood by causing agony of heart with the mere recollection of it. Here is the text:

“Bhikkhus, do you see that great mass of fire burning, blazing and glowing?—Yes, venerable sir.—What do you think, bhikkhus, which is better, that one [gone forth] should sit down or lie down embracing that mass of fire burning, blazing and glowing, or that he should sit down or lie down embracing a warrior-noble maiden or a brahman maiden or a maiden of householder family, with soft, delicate hands and feet?—It would be better, venerable sir, that he should sit down or lie down embracing a warrior-noble maiden … [55] It would be painful, venerable sir, if he sat down or lay down embracing that great mass of fire burning, blazing and glowing.

156. “I say to you, bhikkhus, I declare to you, bhikkhus, that it would be better for one [gone forth] who is unvirtuous, who is evil-natured, of unclean and suspect habits, secretive of his acts, who is not an ascetic and claims to be one, who does not lead the life of purity and claims to do so, who is rotten within, lecherous, and full of corruption, to sit down or lie down embracing that great mass of fire burning, blazing and glowing. Why is that? By his doing so, bhikkhus, he might come to death or deadly suffering, yet he would not on that account, on the breakup of the body, after death, reappear in states of loss, in an unhappy destiny, in perdition, in hell. But if one who is unvirtuous, evil-natured … and full of corruption, should sit down or lie down embracing a warrior-noble maiden … that would be long for his harm and suffering: on the break-up of the body, after death, he would reappear in states of loss, in an unhappy destiny, in perdition, in hell” (A IV 128–29).

157. Having thus shown by means of the analogy of the mass of fire the suffering that is bound up with women and has as its condition the indulgence of the five cords of sense desires [by the unvirtuous], to the same intent he showed, by the following similes of the horse-hair rope, the sharp spear, the iron sheet, the iron ball, the iron bed, the iron chair, and the iron cauldron, the pain that has as its condition [acceptance of] homage and reverential salutation, and the use of robes, alms food, bed and chair, and dwelling [by unvirtuous bhikkhus]:

“What do you think, bhikkhus, which is better, that one should have a strong horsehair rope twisted round both legs by a strong man and tightened so that it cut through the outer skin, and having cut through the outer skin it cut through the inner skin, and having cut through the inner skin it cut through the flesh, and having cut through the flesh it cut through the sinews, and having cut through the sinews it cut through the bones, and having cut through the bones it remained crushing the bone marrow—or that he should consent to the homage of great warrior-nobles, great brahmans, great householders?” (A IV 129). [56]

And: “What do you think, bhikkhus, which is better, that one should have a strong man wound one’s breast with a sharp spear tempered in oil—or that he should consent to the reverential salutation of great warrior-nobles, great brahmans, great householders?” (A IV 130).

And: “What do you think, bhikkhus, which is better, that one’s body should be wrapped by a strong man in a red-hot iron sheet burning, blazing and glowing—or that he should use robes given out of faith by great warrior-nobles, great brahmans, great householders?” (A IV 130–31).

And: “What do you think, bhikkhus, which is better, that one’s mouth should be prised open by a strong man with red-hot iron tongs burning, blazing and glowing, and that into his mouth should be put a red-hot iron ball burning, blazing and glowing, which burns his lips and burns his mouth and tongue and throat and belly and passes out below carrying with it his bowels and entrails—or that he should use alms food given out of faith by great warrior-nobles …?” (A IV 131–32).

And: “What do you think, bhikkhus, which is better, that one should have a strong man seize him by the head or seize him by the shoulders and seat him or lay him on a red-hot iron bed or iron chair, burning, blazing and glowing—or that he should use a bed or chair given out of faith by great warrior-nobles …?” (A IV 132–33).

And: “What do you think, bhikkhus, which is better, that one should have a strong man take him feet up and head down and plunge him into a red-hot metal cauldron burning, blazing and glowing, to be boiled there in a swirl of froth, and as he boils in the swirl of froth to be swept now up, now down, and now across—or that he should use a dwelling given out of faith by great warrior-nobles …?” (A IV 133–34).

158. What pleasure has a man of broken virtue
Forsaking not sense pleasures, which bear fruit
Of pain more violent even than the pain
In the embracing of a mass of fire?

What pleasure has he in accepting homage
Who, having failed in virtue, must partake
Of pain that will excel in agony
The crushing of his legs with horse-hair ropes? [57]

What pleasure has a man devoid of virtue
Accepting salutations of the faithful,
Which is the cause of pain acuter still
Than pain produced by stabbing with a spear?

What is the pleasure in the use of garments
For one without restraint, whereby in hell
He will for long be forced to undergo
The contact of the blazing iron sheet?

Although to him his alms food may seem tasty,
Who has no virtue, it is direst poison,
Because of which he surely will be made
For long to swallow burning iron balls.

And when the virtueless make use of couches
And chairs, though reckoned pleasing, it is pain
Because they will be tortured long indeed
On red-hot blazing iron beds and chairs.

Then what delight is there for one unvirtuous
Inhabiting a dwelling given in faith,
Since for that reason he will have to dwell
Shut up inside a blazing iron pan?

The Teacher of the world, in him condemning,
Described him in these terms: “Of suspect habits,
Full of corruption, lecherous as well,
By nature evil, rotten too within.”

So out upon the life of him abiding
Without restraint, of him that wears the guise
Of the ascetic that he will not be,
And damages and undermines himself!

What is the life he leads, since any person,
No matter who, with virtue to his credit
Avoids it here, as those that would look well
Keep far away from dung or from a corpse?

He is not free from any sort of terror,
Though free enough from pleasure of attainment;
While heaven’s door is bolted fast against him,
He is well set upon the road to hell.

Who else if not one destitute of virtue
More fit to be the object of compassion?
Many indeed and grave are the defects
That brand a man neglectful of his virtue.

Seeing danger in the failure of virtue should be understood as reviewing in such ways as these. And seeing benefits in perfected vir-tue should be understood in the opposite sense.

159. Furthermore: [58]

His virtue is immaculate,
His wearing of the bowl and robes
Gives pleasure and inspires trust,
His going forth will bear its fruit.

A bhikkhu in his virtue pure
Has never fear that self-reproach
Will enter in his heart: indeed
There is no darkness in the sun.

A bhikkhu in his virtue bright
Shines forth in the Ascetics’ Wood[35] 
As by the brightness of his beams
The moon lights up the firmament.

Now, if the bodily perfume
Of virtuous bhikkhus can succeed
In pleasing even deities,
What of the perfume of his virtue?

It is more perfect far than all
The other perfumes in the world,
Because the perfume virtue gives
Is borne unchecked in all directions.

The deeds done for a virtuous man,
Though they be few, will bear much fruit,
And so the virtuous man becomes
A vessel of honour and renown.

There are no cankers here and now
To plague the virtuous man at all;
The virtuous man digs out the root
Of suffering in lives to come.

Perfection among human kind
And even among deities.
If wished for, is not hard to gain
For him whose virtue is perfected;

But once his virtue is perfected,
His mind then seeks no other kind
han [Than?] the perfection of Nibbāna,
The state where utter peace prevails.

Such is the blessed fruit of virtue,
Showing full many a varied form,
So let a wise man know it well
This root of all perfection’s branches.

160. The mind of one who understands thus, shudders at failure in virtue and reaches out towards the perfecting of virtue. So virtue should be cleansed with all care, seeing this danger of failure in virtue and this benefit of the perfection of virtue in the way stated.

161. And at this point in the Path of Purification, which is shown under the headings of virtue, concentration and understanding by the stanza, “When a wise man, established well in virtue” (§1), virtue, firstly, has been fully illustrated.

The first chapter called “The Description of Virtue” in the Path of Purification composed for the purpose of gladdening good people.

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

“Consciousness-concomitants” (cetasikā) is a collective term for feeling, perception, and formation, variously subdivided; in other words, aspects of mentality that arise together with consciousness.

[2]:

Sīlana and upadhāraṇa in this meaning (cf. Ch. I, §141 and sandhāraṇa, XIV.61) are not in PED.

[3]:

The three kinds of profitable bodily kamma or action (not killing or stealing or indulging in sexual misconduct), the four kinds of profitable verbal kamma or action (refraining from lying, malicious speech, harsh speech, and gossip), and right livelihood as the eighth.

[4]:

Uposatha (der. from upavasati, to observe or to prepare) is the name for the day of “fasting” or “vigil” observed on the days of the new moon, waxing half moon, full moon, and waning half moon. On these days it is customary for laymen to undertake the Eight Precepts (sīla) or Five Precepts. On the new-moon and full-moon days the Pātimokkha (see note 11) is recited by bhikkhus. The two quarter-moon days are called the “eighth of the half moon.” The Full-moon day is called the “fifteenth” (i.e. fifteen days from the new moon) and is the last day of the lunar month. That of the new moon is called the “fourteenth” when it is the second and fourth new moon of the fourmonth season (i.e. fourteen days from the full moon), the other two are called the “fifteenth.” This compensates for the irregularities of the lunar period.

[5]:

The Suttavibhaṅga, the first book of the Vinaya Piṭaka, contains in its two parts the 227 rules for bhikkhus and the rules for bhikkhunīs, who have received the admission (upasampadā), together with accounts of the incidents that led to the announcement of the rules, the modification of the rules and the explanations of them. The bare rules themselves form the Pātimokkha for bhikkhus and that for bhikkhunīs. They are also known as the “two codes” (dve mātikā). The Pātimokkha is recited by bhikkhus on the Uposatha days of the full moon and new moon.

[6]:

The “ten instances of talk” (dasa kathāvatthūni) refer to the kinds of talk given in the Suttas thus: “Such talk as is concerned with effacement, as favours the heart’s release, as leads to complete dispassion, fading, cessation, peace, direct knowledge, enlightenment, Nibbāna, that is to say: talk on wanting little, contentment, seclusion, aloofness from contact, strenuousness, virtue, concentration, understanding, deliverance, knowledge and vision of deliverance” (M I 145; III 113).

[7]:

See Ch. IV n. 27.

[8]:

“‘On seeing a visible object with the eye”: if the eye were to see the visible object, then (organs) belonging to other kinds of consciousness would see too;but that is not so. Why? Because the eye has no thought (acetanattā). And then, were consciousness itself to see a visible object, it would see it even behind a wall because of being independent of sense resistance (appaṭighabhāvato);but that is not so either because there is no seeing in all kinds of consciousness. And herein, it is consciousness dependent on the eye that sees, not just any kind. And that does not arise with respect to what is enclosed by walls, etc., where light is excluded. But where there is no exclusion of light, as in the case of a crystal or a mass of cloud, there it does arise even with respect to what is enclosed by them. So it is as a basis of consciousness that the eye sees.

“‘When there is the impingement of door and object’: what is intended is: when a visible datum as object has come into the eye’s focus. ‘One sees’: one looks (oloketi); for when the consciousness that has eye-sensitivity as its material support is disclosing (obhāsente) by means of the special quality of its support a visible datum as object that is assisted by light (āloka), then it is said that a person possessed of that sees the visible datum. And here the illuminating is the revealing of the visible datum according to its individual essence, in other words, the apprehending of it experientially (paccakkhato).

“Here it is the ‘sign of woman’ because it is the cause of perceiving as ‘woman’ all such things as the shape that is grasped under the heading of the visible data (materiality) invariably found in a female continuity, the un-clear-cut-ness (avisadatā) of the flesh of the breasts, the beardlessness of the face, the use of cloth to bind the hair, the un-clear-cut stance, walk, and so on. The ‘sign of man’ is in the opposite sense.

“‘The sign of beauty’ here is the aspect of woman that is the cause for the arising of lust. By the word ‘etc.’ the sign of resentment (paṭigha), etc., are included, which should be understood as the undesired aspect that is the cause for the arising of hate. And here admittedly only covetousness and grief are specified in the text but the sign of equanimity needs to be included too; since there is non-restraint in the delusion that arises due to overlooking, or since ‘forgetfulness of unknowing’ is said below (§57). And here the ‘sign of equanimity’ should be understood as an object that is the basis for the kind of equanimity associated with unknowing through overlooking it. So ‘the sign of beauty, etc.’ given in brief thus is actually the cause of greed, hate, and delusion.

“‘He stops at what is merely seen’: according to the Sutta method, ‘The seen shall be merely seen’ (Ud 8). As soon as the colour basis has been apprehended by the consciousnesses of the cognitive series with eye-consciousness he stops; he does not fancy any aspect of beauty, etc., beyond that…. In one who fancies as beautiful, etc., the limbs of the opposite sex, defilements arisen with respect to them successively become particularized, which is why they are called ‘particulars.’ But these are simply modes of interpreting (sannivesākāra) the kinds of materiality derived from the (four) primaries that are interpreted (sanniviṭṭha) in such and such wise; for apart from that there is in the ultimate sense no such thing as a hand and so on” (Vism-mhṭ 40–41). See also Ch. III, note 31.

[9]:

“As the elder was going along (occupied) only in keeping his meditation subject in mind, since noise is a thorn to those in the early stage, he looked up with the noise of the laughter, (wondering) ‘What is that?’ ‘Perception of foulness’ is perception of bones; for the elder was then making bones his meditation subject. The elder, it seems as soon as he saw her teeth-bones while she was laughing, got the counterpart sign with access jhāna because he had developed the preliminary-work well. While he stood there he reached the first jhāna. Then he made that the basis for insight, which he augmented until he attained the paths one after the other and reached destruction of cankers” (Vism-mhṭ 41–42).

[10]:

To expect to find in the Paramatthamañjūsā an exposition of the “cognitive series” (citta-vīthi), and some explanation of the individual members in addition to what is to be found in the Visuddhimagga itself, is to be disappointed. There are only fragmentary treatments. All that is said here is this:

“There is no unvirtuousness, in other words, bodily or verbal misconduct, in the five doors; consequently restraint of unvirtuousness happens through the mind door, and the remaining restraint happens through the six doors. For the arising of forgetfulness and the other three would be in the five doors since they are unprofitable states opposed to mindfulness, etc.; and there is no arising of unvirtuousness consisting in bodily and verbal transgression there because five-door impulsions do not give rise to intimation. And the five kinds of non-restraint beginning with unvirtuousness are stated here as the opposite of the five kinds of restraint beginning with restraint as virtue” (Vism-mhṭ 42). See also Ch. IV, note 13.

[11]:

This apparently incomplete sentence is also in the Pāḷi text. It is not clear why. (BPS Ed.)

[12]:

The formula “kuhana kuhāyanā kuhitattaṃ,” i.e. verbal noun in two forms and abstract noun from pp., all from the same root, is common in Abhidhamma definitions. It is sometimes hard to produce a corresponding effect in English, yet to render such groups with words of different derivation obscures the meaning and confuses the effect.

[13]:

The renderings “scheming” and so on in this context do not in all cases agree with PED. They have been chosen after careful consideration. The rendering “rejection of requisites” takes the preferable reading paṭisedhana though the more common reading here is paṭisevana (cultivation).

[14]:

The Pali is: “Icchāpakatassā ti icchāya apakatassa; upaddutassā ti attho.” Icchāya apakatassa simply resolves the compound icchāpakatassa and is therefore untranslatable into English. Such resolutions are therefore sometimes omitted in this translation.

[15]:

“‘Putrid urine’ is the name for all kinds of cow’s urine whether old or not” (Vismmhṭ 45). Fermented cow’s urine with gallnuts (myrobalan) is a common Indian medicine today.

[16]:

It is not always certain now what kind of buildings these names refer to.

[17]:

Nahanā—tying, from nayhati (to tie). The noun in not in PED.

[18]:

The story of the oil-seller is given in the Sammohavinodanī (Vibh-a 483), which reproduces this part of Vism with some additions: “Two bhikkhus, it seems, went into a village and sat down in the sitting hall. Seeing a girl, they called her. Then one asked the other, ‘Whose girl is this, venerable sir?’—‘She is the daughter of our supporter the oilseller, friend. When we go to her mother’s house and she gives us ghee, she gives it in the pot. And this girl too gives it in the pot as her mother does.’” Quoted at Vism-mhṭ 46.

[19]:

The “ten instances of abuse” (akkosa-vatthu) are given in the Sammohavinodanī (Vibha 340) as: “You are a thief, you are a fool, you are an idiot, you are a camel (oṭṭha), you are an ox, you are a donkey, you belong to the states of loss, you belong to hell, you are a beast, there is not even a happy or an unhappy destiny to be expected for you” (see also Sn-a 364).

[20]:

The following words of this paragraph are not in PED: Pāpanā (denigration), pāpanaṃ (nt. denigrating), nippeseti (scrapes off—from piṃsati? cf. nippesikatā—“belittling” §§42, 64), nippuñchati (wipes off—only puñchati in PED), pesikā (scraper—not in this sense in PED: from same root as nippeseti), nippiṃsitvā (grinding, pounding), abbhaṅga (unguent = abbhañjana, Vism-mhṭ 47).

[21]:

For attention (manasi-kāra) as the means (upāya) and the way (patha) see M-a I 64.

[22]:

Avadhi—“limit” = odhi: this form is not in PED (see M-a II 292).

[23]:

Child’s flesh” (putta-maṃsa) is an allusion to the story (S II 98) of the couple who set out to cross a desert with an insufficient food supply but got to the other side by eating the flesh of their child who died on the way. The derivation given in PED, “A metaphor probably distorted from pūtamaṃsa,” has no justification. The reference to rafts might be to D II 89.

[24]:

“‘Making the whole rock resound’: ‘making the whole rock reverberate as one doing so by means of an earth tremor. But some say that is was owing to the cheering of the deities who lived there’” (Vism-mhṭ 58).

[25]:

“Four-sweets”—catumadhura: a medicinal sweet made of four ingredients: honey, palm-sugar, ghee and sesame oil.

[26]:

“The Elder Mahā Tissa, it seems, was going on a journey during a famine, and being tired in body and weak through lack of food and travel weariness, he lay down at the root of a mango tree covered with fruit. There were many fallen mangoes here and there” (Vism-mhṭ 60). “Through ownerless mangoes were lying fallen on the ground near him, he would not eat them in the absence of someone to accept them from” (Vismmhṭ 65). “Then a lay devotee, who was older than he, went to the elder, and learning of his exhaustion, gave him mango juice to drink. Then he mounted him on his back and took him to his home. Meanwhile the elder admonished himself as follows: ‘Nor your mother nor your father,’ etc. (see §133). And beginning the comprehension [of formations], and augmenting insight, he realized Arahantship after the other paths in due succession while he was still mounted on his back” (Vism-mhṭ 60).

[27]:

“‘As elements’ in this way: ‘This robe, etc., consists merely of [the four] elements and occurs when its conditions are present; and the person who uses it [likewise].’ ‘As repulsive’ in this way: Firstly perception of repulsiveness in nutriment in the case of alms food; then as bringing repulsiveness to mind thus: ‘But all these robes, etc., which are not in themselves disgusting, become utterly disgusting on reaching this filthy body’” (Vism-mhṭ 61).

[28]:

“‘Use as theft’: use by one who is unworthy. And the requisites are allowed by the Blessed One to one in his own dispensation who is virtuous, not unvirtuous; and the generosity of the givers is towards one who is virtuous, not towards one who is not, since they expect great fruit from their actions” (Vism-mhṭ 61; cf. MN 142 and commentary).

[29]:

The figures depend on whether koṭi is taken as 1,000,000 or 100,000 or 10,000.

[30]:

“Comprehending” (sammasana) is a technical term that will become clear in Chapter XX. In short, it is inference that generalizes the “three characteristics” from one’s own directly-known experience to all possible formed experience at all times (see S II 107). Commenting on “He comprehended that same illness” (§138), Vism-mhṭ says: “He exercised insight by discerning the feeling in the illness under the heading of the feeling [aggregate] and the remaining material dhammas as materiality” (Vism-mhṭ 65).

[31]:

A story of the Jambu River and its gold is given at M-a IV 147.

[32]:

This list describes, in terms of abandoning, etc., the stages in the normal progress from ignorance to Arahantship, and it falls into the following groups: I. Virtue: the abandoning of the ten unprofitable courses of action (1–10). II. Concentration: A. abandoning the seven hindrances to concentration by means of their opposites (11–17); B. The eight attainments of concentration, and what is abandoned by each (18–25). III. Understanding: A. Insight: the eighteen principal insights beginning with the seven contemplations (26–43). B. Paths: The four paths and what is abandoned by each (44–47).

[33]:

Sabbhāva—“presence” (= sat + bhāva): not in PED. Not to be confused with sabhāva—“individual essence” (= sa (Skr. sva) + bhāva, or saha + bhāva).

[34]:

The seven consisting of pārājikā, saṅghādisesā, pācittiyā, pāṭidesanīyā, dukkaṭā, thullaccayā, dubbhāsitā (mentioned at M-a II 33).

[35]:

An allusion to the Gosiṅga Suttas (MN 31, 32).

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