Vinaya Pitaka (4): Parivara

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 150,781 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It analyses the rules from various points of view. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (fourth part, parivara) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar...

Upāli-Pentads (Division 10: Settling Legal Questions)

Prv.17.10.1 “If a monk is possessed of how many qualities, revered sir, is it insufficient to settle a legal question?”

“If a monk is possessed of five qualities, Upāli, it is insufficient to settle a legal question. Of what five? Vin.5.200 If he does not know an offence … see Prv.17.9.10 … If he is possessed of these five …

If a monk is possessed of five … it is sufficient to settle a legal question. Of what five? If he knows an offence … If he is possessed of these …

Prv.17.10.2 And if a monk is possessed of five further qualities … insufficient to settle a legal question. Of what five? If he does not know a legal question … see Prv.17.9.11 … If he is possessed of these five …

If a monk is possessed of five qualities … sufficient to settle a legal question. Of what five? If he knows a legal question … If he is possessed of these …

Prv.17.10.3 And if a monk is possessed of five further qualities … insufficient to settle a legal question. Of what five? If he follows a wrong course from partiality … and if he is unconscientious. If he is possessed of these …

If a monk is possessed of five … it is sufficient to settle a legal question. Of what five? If he does not follow a wrong course from partiality … and if he is conscientious. If he is possessed of these …

Prv.17.10.4 And if a monk is possessed of five further qualities … insufficient to settle a legal question. Of what five? If he follows a wrong course from partiality … and if he has heard little. If he is possessed of these …

If a monk is possessed of five … sufficient to settle a legal BD.6.322 question. Of what five? If he does not follow a wrong course from partiality … and if he has heard much. If he is possessed of these …

Prv.17.10.5 And if a monk is possessed of five further qualities insufficient to settle a legal question. Of what five? If he does not know the matter … see Prv.17.9.9 … if he does not know the sequence of the connecting words. If he is possessed of these …

If a monk is possessed of five … sufficient to settle a legal question. Of what five? If he knows the matter … If he is possessed of these …

Prv.17.10.6 And if a monk is possessed of five further qualities … insufficient to settle a legal question. Of what five? If he follows a wrong course from partiality … see Prv.17.9.6 … and if he is not skilled in Vinaya. If he is possessed of these …

If a monk is possessed of five … sufficient to settle a legal question. Of what five? If he does not follow a wrong course from partiality … and if he is skilled in Vinaya. If he is possessed of these …

Prv.17.10.7 And if a monk is possessed of five further qualities … insufficient to settle a legal question. Of what five? If he follows a wrong course from partiality … if he esteems an individual[1] and does not esteem the Order. If he is possessed of these …

Vin.5.201 If a monk is possessed of five … sufficient to settle a legal question. Of what five? If he does not follow a wrong course from partiality … if he esteems the Order[2] and does not esteem an individual. If he is possessed of these …

Prv.17.10.8 And if a monk is possessed of five further qualities, Upāli, it is insufficient to settle a legal question. Of what five? If he does not follow a wrong course from partiality … if he esteems worldly things[3] and does not esteem true Dhamma.[4] If he is possessed of these five …

If a monk is possessed of five qualities, Upāli, it is sufficient to settle a legal question. Of what five? If he does not follow BD.6.323 a wrong course from partiality … if he esteems true Dhamma and does not esteem worldly things. If a monk is possessed of these five qualities, Upāli, it is sufficient to settle a legal question.”

Prv.17.10.9 “In how many ways, revered sir, is an Order split?”

“In five ways, Upāli, is an Order split. In what five? By a formal act,[5] by a recitation,[6] by talking,[7] by proclamation,[8] by offering a voting ticket.[9] These, Upāli, are the five ways in which an Order is split.”

Prv.17.10.10 “Revered sir, as to the words: Dissension in an Order, dissension in an Order—to what extent, revered sir, is there dissension in an Order but not schism in an Order? And to what extent is there dissension in an Order as well as schism in an Order?”[10]

“This observance for incoming monks, Upāli, was laid down by me for incoming monks.[11] The rules of training having been properly laid down by me thus, Upāli, if incoming monks do not observe the observance for incoming (monks)—thus, Upāli, is there dissension in an Order but not schism in an Order. This observance for resident (monks), Upāli, was laid down by me for resident monks.[12] The rules of training having been properly laid down by me thus, Upāli, if resident monks do not observe the observance for resident (monks)—thus, Upāli, is there dissension in an Order but not schism in an Order.

This observance for a refectory, Upāli, was laid down by me for monks in respect of a refectory[13]: the best seat, the best water (for washing), the best alms[14] according to seniority,[15] according to (the time of) night,[16] according as it is befitting. The rules of training having been properly laid down by me thus, Upāli, if newly ordained monks reserve a seat in the BD.6.324 refectory for monks who are Elders[17]—thus, Upāli, is there dissension in an Order but not schism in an Order.

This observance in respect of lodgings,[18] Upāli, was laid down by me for monks in respect of lodgings according to seniority according to (the time of) night, according as it is befitting. The rules of training having been properly laid down by me thus, Upāli, if newly ordained monks reserve lodgings for monks who are Elders—thus, Upāli, is there dissension in an Order but not schism in an Order.

This was laid down by me, Upāli, for monks inside a boundary: one Observance,[19] one Invitation,[20] one formal act of the Order, one set of formal acts.[21] The rules of training having been properly laid down by me thus, Upāli, if, having made a separate arrangement just there inside a boundary and having split off a group, they carry out a separate Observance and carry out a separate Invitation Vin.5.202 and carry out a separate formal act of the Order and carry out a separate set of formal acts—thus, Upāli, is there dissension in an Order as well as schism in an Order.”[22]

Concluded is the Tenth Division: on Settling Legal Questions

Its Summary

Offence, legal question, partiality,
and one who has heard little,
And matter, and unskilled,
individual, and on worldly things,
Is split, both dissension in an Order,
and so too schism in an Order.

Footnotes and references:

1.

His preceptor or teacher; desiring their victory he explains non-dhamma as Dhamma.

2.

He gives up Dhamma and Vinaya, and esteems the Order only.

3.

Such as robes, which he decides to take.

4.

Deciding according to the rule (or Dhamma) and not taking robes, etc., is called respect for saddhamma (True Dhamma).

5.

Vin-a.1377 says “by one of the four formal acts for which leave should be asked”. Four formal acts are mentioned at Vin.5.167. See Vin.2.89.

6.

By one of the five ways of recital of the Pātimokkha, Vin-a.1377.

7.

Talking on the 18 points given at Vin.2.204.

8.

See Vin.2.203.

9.

See Vin.2.203.

10.

See Vin.2.203.

11.

Vin-a.1378 refers us to the Vattakkhandhaka, see Kd.18.1. It also points out that a dissension can grow into a schism.

14.

Best seat, water, alms spoken of at Vin.2.161f.

15.

See Vin.2.162.

16.

yathārattaṃ, explained at Vin-a.1378 as rattiparimāṇānurūpaṃ, conformably to the measurement of the night.

21.

kammākamma, large and small ones, Vin-a.1378.