Vinaya Pitaka (4): Parivara

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 150,781 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It analyses the rules from various points of view. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (fourth part, parivara) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar...

As To Graduation (4. Tetrads)

  1. Prv.7.4.1 There is the offence one falls into through one’s own speech, rises from through another’s speech[1]; there is the offence one BD.6.196 falls into through another’s speech, rises from through one’s own speech[2]; there is the offence one falls into through one’s own speech, rises from through one’s own speech[3]; there is the offence one falls into through another’s speech, rises from through another’s speech.[4]
  2. There is the offence one falls into by body, rises from by speech: … falls into by speech, rises from by body … falls into by body, rises from by body falls into by speech, rises from by speech.[5]
  3. There is the offence one falls into when one is asleep,[6] rises from when one is awake; Vin.5.125 … when one is awake, rises from when one is asleep … asleep, asleep … awake, awake.
  4. There is the offence one falls into unconscious[7] (that it is against ordinance), rises from conscious (that it is against ordinance); … conscious unconscious …; unconscious … unconscious; there is the offence one falls into conscious (that it is against ordinance), rises from conscious (that it is against ordinance).
  5. There is the offence that, falling into, he confesses, confessing he falls into; there is the offence that, falling into he rises from, rising from he falls into.[8]
  6. There is the offence one falls into through doing, rises from through not doing … falls into through not doing, rises from through doing … falls into through doing, rises from through doing … falls into through not doing, rises from through not doing.[9]
  7. BD.6.197 Four unariyan statements[10]: speaking of the seen as unseen, speaking of the heard as unheard, speaking of the sensed as unsensed, speaking of the cognized as uncognized.
  8. Four ariyan statements[11]: speaking of the unseen as unseen … of the uncognized as uncognized.
  9. And four further unariyan statements[12]: speaking of the unseen as seen, speaking of the unheard as heard, speaking of the unsensed as sensed, speaking of the uncognized as cognized.
  10. Four ariyan statements[13]: speaking of the seen as seen … the cognized as cognized.
  11. Four offences involving Defeat are shared by monks and nuns.
  12. Four offences involving Defeat are not shared by monks and nuns.[14]
  13. Four requisites: there is the requisite that should be guarded, protected, cherished, made use of[15]; there is the requisite that should be guarded, protected, not cherished, made use of; there is the requisite that should be guarded, protected, not cherished, not made use of; there is the requisite that should not be guarded, not protected, not cherished, not made use of.
  14. There is the offence one falls into in the presence of, rises from in the absence of[16]; there is the offence one falls into in the absence of, rises from in the presence of[17]; … falls into in the presence of, rises from in the presence of[18]; there is the offence one falls into in the absence of, rises from in the absence of.[19]
  15. There is the offence one falls into unknowing, rises from knowing; … falls into knowing, rises from unknowing falls into unknowing, rises from unknowing; there is the offence one falls into knowing, rises from knowing.[20]
  16. By four means does one fall into an offence: one falls by body … by BD.6.198 speech … by body, by speech; one falls by a resolution.[21]
  17. And by four further means does one fall into an offence: in the midst of an Order, in the midst of a group, in the presence of an individual, through the appearance of a sexual characteristic.[22]
  18. By four means does one rise from an offence: one rises by body … by speech … by body, by speech; one rises by a resolution.
  19. And by four further means does one rise from an offence: in the midst of an Order, in the midst of a group in the presence of an individual, through the appearance of a sexual characteristic. Together with (its) acquisition he gets rid of the earlier, is established in the later, hintings are allayed descriptions are stopped.[23] Together with (its) acquisition he gets rid of the later, is established in the earlier, hintings are allayed, descriptions are stopped.[24]
  20. Four reprovings: one reproves for falling away from moral habit, Vin.5.126 one reproves for falling away from good behaviour, one reproves for falling away from right views, one reproves for falling away from right mode of livelihood.
  21. Four probations: probation for concealing, probation for not concealing, purifying probation, concurrent probation.[25]
  22. Four mānattas: mānatta for concealing, mānatta for not concealing, mānatta for a fortnight, concurrent mānatta.[26]
  23. Four interruptions for a monk who is undergoing mānatta: dwelling with, dwelling away separated from, not announcing, going about with less than a group.[27]
  24. Four things discovered of themselves.[28]
  25. Four enjoyments (of food and so on, formally) accepted: for the time being, for a watch of the night, for seven days, for as long as life lasts.[29]
  26. Four great irregular things: (a decoction of) dung, BD.6.199 urine, ashes, clay.[30]
  27. Four (formal) acts: a (formal) act for which leave should be asked, a (formal) act at which a motion is put, a (formal) act at which a motion is put and is followed by one resolution, a (formal) act at which a motion is put and is followed by a resolution made three times.[31]
  28. And four further (formal) acts: a (formal) act in an incomplete (Order carried out) by what is not the rule; a (formal) act in a complete (Order carried out) by what is not the rule; a (formal) act in an incomplete (Order carried out) by the rule; a (formal) act in a complete (Order carried out) by the rule.[32]
  29. Four fallings away: falling away from moral habit … from good behaviour … from right views … from right mode of livelihood.
  30. Four legal questions: legal question concerning disputes … censure … offences … obligations.[33]
  31. Four defilements of an assembly: a monk who is poor in moral habit, evil in character is a defilement of an assembly; a nun … a lay follower … a female lay follower who is poor in moral habit, evil in character is a defilement of an assembly.[34]
  32. Four adornments of an assembly: a monk who is of moral habit, lovely in character is an adornment of an assembly; a nun … a lay follower … a female lay follower who is of moral habit, lovely in character is an adornment of an assembly.[35]
  33. There is the offence an incoming (monk) falls into, not a resident one[36]; there is the offence a resident (monk) falls into, not an incoming one[37]; there is the offence a resident monk falls into as well as an incoming one; there is the offence that neither a resident (monk) falls into nor an incoming one. There is the offence a (monk who is) going away falls into, not a resident one[38]; there is the offence a resident (monk) falls into, not one who is going away[39] … there is the offence that neither one who is going away nor a resident one falls into.
  34. BD.6.200 There is difference as to matter, not difference as to offence[40]; there is difference as to offence, not difference as to matter[41]; there is difference as to matter as well as difference as to offence[42]; there is difference neither as to matter nor as to offence.[43]
  35. There is similarity as to matter, not similarity as to offence[44]; there is similarity as to offence, not similarity as to matter[45]; there is similarity as to matter as well as similarity as to offence[46]; there is similarity neither as to matter nor as to offence.[47]
  36. There is the offence the preceptor falls into, not the one who shares his cell[48]; there is the offence one who shares a cell falls into, not the preceptor[49]; there is the offence the preceptor falls into as well as the one who shares his cell[50]; there is the offence neither … falls into.
  37. There is the offence the teacher falls into, not the pupil[51] … there is the offence neither the teacher nor the pupil falls into.
  38. For four reasons there is no offence in cutting short the rains: if the Order is split, or if there are those desirous of splitting an Order,[52] or if there is danger to life, or if there is danger to the Brahma-faring.[53]
  39. Four bad ways of verbal conduct: lying speech, slanderous speech, harsh speech, gossip.[54]
  40. Four good ways of verbal conduct: truthful speech, non-slanderous speech, BD.6.201 gentle speech, utterance of mantras.[55] Vin.5.127
  41. There is, in taking, a serious offence that one falls into,[56] a slight one in enjoining[57]; there is, in taking, a slight offence that one falls into, a serious one in enjoining; there is, in taking and in enjoining, a serious offence that one falls into; there is, in taking and in enjoining, a slight offence that one falls into.
  42. There is the individual who merits respectful greeting, does not merit standing up for[58] … standing up for, not respectful greeting[59] … respectful greeting as well as standing up for[60] … merits neither respectful greeting nor standing up for.[61]
  43. There is the individual who merits a seat, does not merit standing up for … who merits neither a seat nor standing up for.[62]
  44. There is the offence one falls into at a (right) time, not at a wrong time[63] … at a wrong time,[64] not at a right time … at a right time as well as at a wrong time … neither at a right time nor at a wrong time.
  45. There is the formal acceptance[65] allowable at a right time, not at a wrong time[66] … at a wrong time, not at a right time[67] … at a right time as well as at a wrong time[68] … allowable neither at a right time nor at a wrong time.[69]
  46. There is the offence one falls into in the border districts,[70] not in the middle ones[71] … in the middle districts, not in the border ones[72] … in the border districts as well as in the BD.6.202 middle ones … neither in the border districts nor in the middle ones.
  47. There is what is allowable in the border districts, not in the middle ones[73] … in the middle districts, not in the border ones[74] … in the border districts as well as in the middle ones[75] … neither in the border districts nor in the middle ones.
  48. There is the offence one falls into inside, not outside[76] … outside, not inside[77] … neither inside nor outside … inside as well as outside.
  49. There is the offence one falls into inside the boundary, not outside the boundary[78] … outside the boundary, not inside the boundary[79] … inside the boundary as well as outside the boundary[80] … neither inside the boundary nor outside the boundary.
  50. There is an offence one falls into in a village, not in a forest[81] … in a forest, not in a village[82] … in a village as well as in a forest[83] … neither in a village nor in a forest.
  51. Four reproving[84]: showing the matter, showing the offence, objection to living in communion, objection to the proper duties.
  52. Four preliminary things to be done.[85]
  53. Four occasions when things seem right.[86]
  54. Four Expiations (containing the words) “not for another”.[87]
  55. Four agreements of the monks.[88]
  56. Four BD.6.203 followings of a wrong course: he follows a wrong course through partiality (desire) … through hatred … through confusion … through fear.[89]
  57. Four non-followings of a wrong course: he does not follow a wrong course through partiality … hatred … confusion … fear.
  58. Possessed of four qualities an unconscientious monk, following a wrong course through partiality … hatred … confusion … fear, splits an Order.[90]
  59. Possessed of four qualities a modest monk, not following a wrong course through partiality … hatred … confusion … fear, makes harmonious an Order that was split.[91]
  60. Discipline should not be asked about of a monk[92] who is possessed of four qualities: if he follows a wrong course through partiality … fear.[93]
  61. Discipline should not be asked about by a monk[94] who is possessed of four qualities: if he follows a wrong course through partiality … fear.[95]
  62. Questions on Discipline should not be answered for a monk[96] who is possessed of four qualities … should not be answered by a monk[97] who is possessed of four qualities: if he follows a wrong course through partiality … fear.
  63. An explanation should not be given to a monk[98] who is possessed of four qualities … Vin.5.128
  64. Discipline should not be discussed together with a monk[99] who is possessed of four qualities: if he follows a wrong course through partiality … fear.
  65. There is an offence one who is ill falls into, not one who is not ill[100] … one who is not ill falls into, not one who is ill[101] … one who is ill falls into as well as one who is not ill[102] … neither one who is ill falls into nor one who is not ill.
  66. Four suspensions of the Pātimokkha are not legally valid.[103]
  67. Four suspensions of the Pātimokkha are legally valid.[104]
  68. Concluded are the Tetrads

    Its Summary

    Through one’s own speech, by body,
    and asleep, unconscious,
    And falling into, through doing,
    statements are four likewise, /
    BD.6.204 And by monks and nuns,
    and requisites, in the presence of,
    Unknowing, by body, and by means,
    one rises from is likewise fourfold, /
    With the acquisition, reprovings,
    and it is called probations
    Mānatta, and undergoings too,
    discovered by themselves, (formal) acceptance, /
    Great irregular (things), (formal) acts,
    again (formal) acts fallings away,
    Legal questions, and those poor in moral habit,
    adornment and on an incoming one, /
    One going away, difference as to matter,
    similarity, and about a preceptor,
    Teacher, reason, bad conduct, good conduct, /
    Taking, and individual,
    one who merits, and about a seat,
    At a (right) time, and also it is allowable,
    and it is allowable in the border districts, /
    Inside, and inside a boundary,
    and in a village, and reprovings,
    Preliminary duties, it seems right,
    “not for another,” and agreements, /
    A wrong course and not a wrong course too,
    unconscientious, and about a modest one,
    And two on whom may be asked,
    likewise two on what one may answer,
    Explanation, discussion, ill, and about suspension.

Footnotes and references:

1.

Vin-a.1328f. says one falls into the offence beginning with speaking Dhamma line by line (Bu-Pc.4)—a speech-door offence—and having received the deciding of a covering over (as) with grass he rises (from the offence) through another person’s proclamation, kammavācā.

2.

Vin-a.1329: through another’s proclamation one falls for not giving up a wrong view; confessing in the presence of an individual one rises (Cf. Vin.1.323, Vin.1.330).

3.

Again, one falls speaking Dhamma line by line, but on confessing the offence one rises through one’s own speech.

4.

One falls into a Formal Meeting through another’s proclamation made up to the third time; one rises through another’s proclamation (that one should live under) probation.

5.

One offends with the speech-door, rises by body through a covering over (as) with grass.

6.

This is the offence of lying down on a couch belonging to an Order, having spread it for oneself; Cf. Bu-Pc.14. The word for “asleep” is pasutta, “awake” is paṭibuddha; neither word appears to occur elsewhere in Vinaya. See Introduction, p.xv.

7.

acittake āpajjati means he falls into an acittakāpatti; acittaka occurs at Vin.5.207, but apparently not again in Vinaya.

8.

Vin-a.1329 here speaks of a collective offence, sabhāgāpattti, and says “whoever confesses one, falling into an offence of wrong-doing because of the confession, confesses a certain offence of Expiation and so on, and confessing that he falls into an offence of wrong-doing. But, falling into that offence of wrong-doing he rises from the offence of Pācittiya and so on, but rising from that offence of Pācittiya he falls into that”. See Vin.1.126.

9.

Vin-a.1329 says that in this tetrad one falls through doing the offence of not giving up a false view. Confessing, one rises through not-doing. One falls through not-doing, beginning with emission (Bu-Ss.1), one rises from through doing probation. One falls also through the doing of admonishment, rises from by doing (see e.g. Vin.3.174, Vin.4.236).

13.

DN.iii.232, AN.ii.246.

15.

A deviation from the four requisites as usually given: robe-material, bowl, etc. Vin-a.1330 says the first is one’s own requisites, the second belongs to the Order, the third to a cetiya (shrine), and the fourth is a householder’s requisite.

16.

Vin-a.1330: one falls in the presence of the Order into the offence of not giving up a pernicious view. But at the time of rising (from the offence), if there is nothing to be done by the Order, one rises in the absence of.

17.

Beginning with emission (Bu-Ss.1). “Of the Order” is meant throughout.

18.

Referring to “admonition” in the various Formal Meetings.

19.

I.e. when telling conscious lies and so on.

20.

This tetrad is like that on “unconscious”, acittaka.

21.

kammavācā.

22.

Vin-a.1330 seems to refer this to Vin.3.35 (Bu-Pj.1.10.6).

23.

Referring to the last tetrad.

24.

Referring to the last tetrad.

25.

Split into two dyads at Vin.5.118; the first three also form a triad at Vin.5.121.

26.

Split into two dyads at Vin.5.118; the first three also form a triad at Vin.5.121.

28.

Text sāmukkaṃsā. At Vin.1.16, Vin.1.18, Vin.2.156, etc., we find sāmukkaṃsikā Dhammadesanā: dukkhaṃ samudayaṃ nirodhaṃ maggaṃ. See MN-a.iii.92. On the other hand Vin-a.1330 explains cattāro sāmukkaṃsā by cattāro mahāpadesā, but the rest of its explanation is in line with MN-a.iii.92 and DN-a.277. The mahāpadesā therefore are probably not to be taken here in the sense given them at e.g. DN.ii.123ff.

29.

See e.g. Vin.4.83 (and BD.2.330 notes). “Food for the time being” probably refers to the five kinds of meals, given to be eaten at once.

31.

Forming two dyads at Vin.5.116.

34.

AN.ii.225, reading parisadussanā; above and AN.iii.210 read -dūsanā.

35.

AN.ii.225.

36.

Vin-a.1331 says here an incoming monk falls into an offence if he enters a vihāra with his sunshade up, his sandals on, his head covered—see Vin.2.207–8.

37.

The resident does not perform a resident’s duties, Vin.2.210.

40.

Vin-a.1331: the four Defeats differ as to matter, not as to offence; similarly the Formal Meetings.

41.

Vin-a.1331: if a monk and a nun come into physical contact with one another, there is a Formal Meeting for the monk and a Defeat for the nun. Likewise, eating garlic is an Pācittiya for a nun, wrong-doing for a monk.

42.

I.e. in the four Defeats together with the 13 Formal Meetings. So too, as between the Formal Meetings and the Undetermineds.

43.

Beginning with the four Defeats that monks and nuns fall into separately. The meaning is that they fall separately and that they fall into offences that they share.

44.

Vin-a.1331: if a monk and a nun are in physical contact, there is similarity of matter, not of offence.

45.

In regard to the Defeats and the Formal Meetings.

46.

In regard to the four Defeats for monks and nuns, and in regard to all the offences they have in common.

47.

In regard to the offences monks and nuns do not share.

48.

If either fails in carrying out his duties to the other.

49.

If either fails in carrying out his duties to the other.

50.

The remaining offences.

51.

The explanation of this tetrad is similar to the former one; see Vin.1.61.

52.

Vin.1.150f. (Kd.3.11.5ff.). The Pātimokkha may be recited in brief (Vin.1.112f.) and the Invitation curtailed (Vin.1.169f.) if these dangers are present.

53.

Dangers to life during the rains are specified at Vin.1.148f., and to the Brahma-faring at Vin.1.150.

54.

Stock, as at MN.iii.22, MN.iii.33, AN.ii.141. At DN.iii.232 the four are given under anariyavohārā.

55.

AN.ii.141; for references to mantabhāsa see GS.ii.144, n.1.

57.

“enjoining—payojento”. This appears to refer to Vin.3.53f.

58.

This seems to refer to nuns in a refectory.

59.

Referring to a monk who that day received ordination after he had spent sixty years under probation.

60.

An older monk from one who is newly ordained.

61.

A newly ordained monk by a more senior one.

62.

The meaning is much the same as in the preceding tetrad. The first clause here has the same meaning as the second clause there, and the second the same as the first.

63.

Eating, having been invited to do so, Bu-Pc.36.

64.

The offence of eating at a wrong time, Bu-Pc.37.

65.

paṭiggahita, see Vin.5.126.

66.

Vin-a.1332 refers this to “before a meal”; see Bu-Pc.46, Nuns’ Bi-Pc.15.

67.

A drink is allowable at a wrong time. “Not at a right time” refers to “the next day”.

68.

Food for seven days and for as long as life lasts.

69.

Meat that is not allowable, see Vin.1.218.

70.

Defined at Vin.1.197.

71.

Vin-a.1332 says, settling on a boundary in the sea one falls in bordering districts, not in middle ones.

72.

Wearing sandals with many linings (Kd.5.1.30), ordaining by a fivefold (Kd.8.4.1), constant bathing (see Bu-Pc.67), using hides as coverings (Kd.5.10.6ff.)—all allowed for border districts at Kd.5.13.13.

73.

See previous note.

74.

Presumably not ordaining by a group of five (Kd.8.4.1) and the opposites of the cases given in the last note but one above.

75.

Vin-a.1333 cites the five kinds of salts allowed as medicines (Kd.6.8.1).

76.

To lie down encroaching on (the space intended for elders): Bu-Pc.16; see also Vin.1.47, Vin.2.213, Vin.2.220, Vin.2.224, Vin.4.42.

77.

Going away and leaving a couch and so on that belong to the Order out in the open air, Bu-Pc.14.

78.

Vin-a.1333: an incoming monk, not fulfilling his duties, falls inside a boundary; one going away falls outside the boundary.

79.

Vin-a.1333: an incoming monk, not fulfilling his duties, falls inside a boundary; one going away falls outside the boundary.

80.

One who tells lies and so on falls inside and outside the boundary.

81.

See the Sekhiyas connected with “amid the houses”.

82.

A nun, waiting for the sun to rise, falls into an offence in a forest, not in a village.

83.

E.g. lying speech.

84.

Another four at Vin.5.125f.

85.

(Making ready) a broom, a light, water and a seat, Vin-a.1333. This has the appearance of being the duty of a novice who is preparing a cell for an older monk. A broom is allowed at Vin.2.130. Commentary gives another four pubbakiccā: the complete purity of the consent (chanda, see Bu-Pc.79), utukkhāna (? has this anything to do with khīyanaka, criticism, see BD.3.59, n.2), counting the monks, and exhortation.

86.

pattakallā; word at e.g. Bu-NP.18, Bu-NP.19. Vin-a.1333 says: Observance, as many monks are come who are eligible for a formal act, (if) collective offences are not to be found, and (if) individuals who are to be avoided are not in this, tasmiṃ.

88.

Referring to Bu-NP.2, Bu-NP.14, Bu-NP.29, Bu-Pc.9.

90.

See Kd.17

91.

See Kd.17

92.

See Vin.5.123.

93.

See Kd.17

94.

See Vin.5.123.

95.

See Kd.17

96.

See Vin.5.123.

97.

See Vin.5.123.

98.

See Vin.5.123.

99.

See Vin.5.123.

100.

See Nuns’ Bi-NP.4, Bi-NP.5; also above Vin.5.121.

102.

Lying speech and so on.

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