Vinaya Pitaka (4): Parivara

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 150,781 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It analyses the rules from various points of view. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (fourth part, parivara) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar...

As To Graduation (3. Triads)

  1. Prv.7.3.1 There is the offence one falls into while the Lord is alive, not after the parinibbāna[1]; there is the offence one falls into after the parinibbāna, not while the Lord is alive[2]; there is Vin.5.120 the offence one falls into both while the Lord is alive as well as after the parinibbāna.[3]
  2. There is the offence one falls into at a right time, not at a wrong time; there is the offence one falls into at a wrong time, not at a right time; there is the offence BD.6.186 one falls into at a right time as well as at a wrong time.[4]
  3. There is the offence one falls into during the night, not by day … by day, not during the night … during the night as well as by day.[5]
  4. There is the offence that one of ten years’ standing falls into, not one of less than ten years’ standing[6]; there is the offence that one of less than ten years’ standing falls into, not one of ten years’ standing; there is the offence that one of ten years’ standing and one of less than ten years’ standing fall into.
  5. There is the offence that one of five years’ standing falls into, not one of less than five years’ standing[7]; there is the offence that one of less than five years’ standing falls into, not one of five years’ standing; there is the offence that one of five years’ standing and one of less than five years’ standing fall into.
  6. There is the offence that one of skilled mind falls into[8]; there is the offence that one of unskilled mind falls into[9]; there is the offence that one of indeterminate mind falls into.[10]
  7. There is the offence that one having a pleasant feeling falls into[11]; there is the offence that one having a painful feeling falls into[12]; there is the offence that one having neither a painful nor a pleasant feeling falls into.[13]
  8. Three grounds for reproof according to what has been seen, heard, or suspected.[14]
  9. Three methods of taking votes: the secret, the open, and whispering in the ear.[15]
  10. Three objections[16]: (to) great wishes,[17] discontent,[18] unsubduedness.[19] BD.6.187
  11. Three permissions: small wishes,[20] content, subduedness. And three further objections: (to) great wishes, discontent, immoderation.[21]
  12. Three permissions: small wishes, content, moderation.[22]
  13. Three layings down: a laying down, a supplementary laying down, a laying down that has not yet occurred.[23]
  14. And three further layings down: a laying down (that holds good) everywhere, a laying down (that holds good only) for some regions, a laying down that is shared.
  15. And three further layings down: a laying down that is not shared, a laying down for one (Order only), a laying down for both (Orders).
  16. There is the offence an ignorant person falls into, not the wise man[24]; there is the offence the wise man falls into, not the ignorant person; there is the offence the ignorant person falls into as well as the wise man.
  17. There is the offence one falls into on the next new-moon day, not on the next full-moon day[25] … on the next full-moon day, not the next new-moon day[26] … on the next new-moon day as well as on the next full-moon day.
  18. There is what is allowed on the next new-moon day, not on the next full-moon day[27]; … on the next full-moon day, not on the next new-moon day[28] … on the next new-moon day as well as on the next full-moon day.
  19. There is the offence one falls into in the cold weather, not in the hot weather, not in the rains[29] … in the hot weather, not in the cold weather, not in the rains[30] … in the rains, not in the cold weather, not in the hot weather.[31]
  20. There is the offence an Order falls into, not a BD.6.188 group, not an individual[32] … a group falls into, not an Order, not an individual[33] … an individual falls into, not an Order, not a group.[34]
  21. There is what is allowed for an Order, not for a group, not for an individual[35]; there is what is allowed for a group, not for an Order, not for an individual[36]; there is what is allowed for an individual, not for an Order, not for a group.[37]
  22. Three concealings: one conceals the subject, not the offence; one conceals the offence, not the subject; one conceals the subject as well as the offence.[38]
  23. Three coverings: a covering to the bathroom, a covering to the water, a covering by clothes.[39]
  24. Three things are hidden, not open[40]: women-folk practise (their ways) in concealment, not openly; the mantras of brahmins are practised in concealment, not openly; a false view Vin.5.121 is practised in concealment, not openly.
  25. Three things shine forth when they are unveiled, not in concealment[41]: the moon’s disc shines forth when it is unveiled, not when it is hidden; the sun’s disc … not when it is hidden; the Dhamma-and-Discipline proclaimed by the Tathāgata shines forth when it is unveiled, not when it is hidden.
  26. Three times for the appropriation of lodgings: the earlier, the later, the intervening.[42]
  27. There is the offence one who is ill falls into, not one who is not ill[43]; there is the offence one who is not ill falls into, not one who is ill[44]; there is the offence one who is ill falls into as BD.6.189 well as one who is not ill.[45]
  28. Three suspensions of the Pātimokkha are not legally valid.[46]
  29. Three suspensions of the Pātimokkha are legally valid.[47]
  30. Three probations: concealed probation,[48] unconcealed probation,[49] purifying probation.[50]
  31. Three mānattas: concealed mānatta,[51] unconcealed mānatta,[52] the mānatta for a fortnight.[53]
  32. Three interruptions for a monk who is under probation: dwelling with, dwelling away separated from, not announcing.[54]
  33. There is the offence one falls into inside, not outside[55]; there is the offence one falls into outside, not inside[56]; there is the offence one falls into inside as well as outside.
  34. There is the offence one falls into inside a boundary, not outside a boundary[57]; there is the offence one falls into outside a boundary, not inside a boundary[58]; there is the offence one falls into inside a boundary as well as outside a boundary.
  35. By three ways does one fall into an offence: one falls by means of body … by means of speech … by means of body, by means of speech.
  36. By three further ways does one fall into an offence: in the midst of an Order,[59] in the midst of a group,[60] in the presence of an individual.[61]
  37. In three ways does one arise from an offence: one arises by means of body, one arises by means of speech, one arises by means of body, by means of speech.[62]
  38. By three further ways does one arise from an offence: in the midst of an Order, in the midst of a group, in the presence of an individual.[63]
  39. Three givings of a verdict of past insanity are not legally valid.[64]
  40. Three givings of a verdict of past insanity are legally valid.[65]
  41. An Order, if it so desires, may carry out a (formal) act of censure against a monk who is possessed of three qualities: if he is a maker of strife, a maker of quarrels, a maker of BD.6.190 disputes, a maker of contention, a maker of legal questions in an Order; if he is ignorant, inexperienced, full of offences not rid of them; if he lives in company with householders in unbecoming association with householders.[66]
  42. An Order, if it So desires, may carry out a (formal) act of guidance … association with householders.[67]
  43. An Order, if it so desires, may carry out a (formal) act of banishment against a monk who is possessed of three qualities: if he is a maker of strife … a maker of legal questions in an Order; if he is ignorant … not rid of them; if he brings a family into disrepute, is of depraved conduct, and if his depraved conduct is seen and also heard.[68]
  44. An Order, if it so desires, may carry out a (formal) act of reconciliation against a monk who is possessed of three qualities: if he is a maker of strife … if he is ignorant … not rid of them; if he reviles and abuses householders.[69]
  45. An Order, if it so desires, may carry out a (formal) act of suspension against a monk … Vin.5.122 for not seeing an offence … if he is a maker of strife … not rid of them; if (though) he has fallen into an offence he does not wish to see the offence.[70]
  46. An Order, if it so desires, may carry out a (formal) act of suspension against a monk … for not making amends for an offence … if he is a maker of strife … not rid of them: if (though) he has fallen into an offence he does not wish to make amends for the offence.[71]
  47. An Order, if it so desires, may carry out a (formal) act of suspension against a monk who is possessed of three qualities for not giving up a pernicious view: if he is a maker of strife … not rid of them; if he does not wish to give up the pernicious view.[72]
  48. An Order, if it so desires, may plan something hard[73] for a monk who is possessed of three qualities: if he is a maker of strife … not rid of them; if he lives in company with householders, in unbecoming association with householders.
  49. A (formal) act may be carried out against a monk who is possessed of three qualities: if he is unconscientious[74] and if BD.6.191 he is ignorant[75] and if he is not a regular (monk).[76]
  50. And a (formal) act may be carried out against a monk who is possessed of three further qualities: if, in regard to morality, he has fallen away from moral habit[77]; if, in regard to behaviour, he has fallen away from right behavior[78]; if, in regard to view, he has fallen away from right view.[79]
  51. And a (formal) act may be carried out against a monk who is possessed of three further qualities: if he is possessed of bodily frivolity, if he is possessed of verbal frivolity, if he is possessed of bodily and verbal frivolity.[80]
  52. And … who is possessed of three further qualities: if he is possessed of bodily bad behaviour … verbal bad behaviour … bodily and verbal bad behaviour.[81]
  53. And … who is possessed of three further qualities: if he is possessed of harming by means of body … harming by means of speech … harming by means of body and speech.[82]
  54. And … who is possessed of three further qualities: if he is possessed of a wrong bodily mode of livelihood … a wrong verbal mode of livelihood … a wrong bodily and verbal mode of livelihood.[83]
  55. And … who is possessed of three further qualities: if, having fallen into an offence and a (formal) act has been carried out against him, he ordains, gives guidance, makes a novice attend him.[84]
  56. And … who is possessed of three further qualities: if he falls into that same offence for which a (formal) act was BD.6.192 carried out (against him) by an Order, or into another that is similar, or into one that is worse.[85]
  57. And … who is possessed of three further qualities: if he speaks dispraise of the Buddha of Dhamma … of the Order.[86]
  58. If a monk is possessed of three qualities: if he is unconscientious and if he is ignorant and if he is not a regular monk (but if) he has suspended the Observance in the midst of an Order (but if other monks) have snubbed him, saying: “That’s enough, monk; let there be no strife, no quarrel, no dispute, no contention,” the Observance may be carried out by the Order.[87]
  59. If a monk is possessed of three qualities … there may be Invitation by the Order.[88]
  60. No agreement of an Order should be given to a monk who is possessed of three qualities: if he is unconscientious … not a regular monk.[89]
  61. If a monk is possessed of three qualities he should not speak[90] in the Order: if he is unconscientious … not a regular monk.
  62. A monk who is possessed of three qualities should not be put in any separate place[91]; if he is unconscientious … not a regular monk.
  63. If a monk is possessed of three qualities Vin.5.123 he should not live in dependence … If a monk is possessed of three qualities he should not give guidance: if he is unconscientious … not a regular monk.
  64. If a monk who is possessed of three qualities obtains leave[92] the giving of the leave is not sufficient: if he is unconscientious … not a regular monk.
  65. If a monk is possessed of three qualities he should not issue commands[93]: if he is unconscientious … not a regular monk.
  66. If a monk is possessed of three qualities he should not ask about Discipline[94] … not a regular monk.
  67. Discipline should not be asked about by means of monk who is possessed of three qualities[95]: … not a BD.6.193 regular monk.
  68. (Questions on) Discipline should not be answered by a monk who is possessed of three qualities[96]: … not a regular monk.
  69. (Questions on) Discipline should not be answered through a monk who is possessed of three qualities[97]: … not a regular monk.
  70. An explanation should not be given to a monk who is possessed of three qualities[98]: … not a regular monk.
  71. Discipline should not be discussed together with a monk who is possessed of three qualities[99]: … not a regular monk.
  72. One should not be ordained by a monk who is possessed of three qualities[100]: … not a regular monk.
  73. Guidance should not be given to[101] a monk who is possessed of three qualities: … not a regular monk.
  74. A novice should not be made to attend on a monk who is possessed of three qualities[102]: if he is unconscientious and ignorant and not a regular monk.
  75. Three Observances: on the fourteenth (day), the fifteenth (day),[103] and the Observance of “being all together”.[104]
  76. And three further Observances: Observance in an Order,[105] Observance in a group,[106] Observance for an individual.[107]
  77. And three further Observances: the Observance at which the rules are recited,[108] the Observance at which there is entire purity,[109] the Observance where there is determination.[110]
  78. Three Invitations: the fourteenth (day), the fifteenth (day),[111] and the Invitation of “being all together”.[112]
  79. And three further Invitations: Invitation in an Order,[113] Invitation in a group,[114] Invitation for an individual.[115]
  80. And three further Invitations: Invitation by the threefold formula,[116] Invitation by the twofold formula,[117] Invitation of those keeping the rains (all) together.[118]
  81. Three (persons) doomed to the Downfall, to Niraya[119]: he who, not getting rid of this,[120] is not a Brahma-farer though pretending to be a Brahma-farer; and he who, though not a pure BD.6.194 Brahma-farer, makes an unfounded charge of non-Brahma faring against one who is faring a pure Brahma-faring[121]; and he who speaks like this and is of this view: “There is no defect in sense-pleasures” comes to indulgence among the sense-pleasures.[122]
  82. Three roots of unskill: greed is a root of unskill, hatred is a root of unskill, confusion is a root of unskill.
  83. Three roots of skill: non-greed is a root of skill, non-hatred is a root of skill, non-confusion is a root of skill.
  84. Three ways of bad behavior: bad behaviour through body, bad behaviour through speech, bad behaviour through thought.
  85. Three ways of good behavior: good behaviour through body … speech … thought.
  86. Dependent on three reasons was a meal (to be eaten) by a triad (of monks) laid down by the Lord: for the restraint of evil-minded individuals; for the living in comfort of well-behaved monks lest those of evil desires should split an Order by means of a faction; Vin.5.124 and out of compassion for families.[123]
  87. Devadatta, overcome and his mind controlled by three bad qualities is doomed to the Downfall, to Niraya, staying there for an aeon, incurable: evil desire, evil friendship, coming to a halt midway in his career because his special attainments are of trifling value.[124]
  88. Three agreements: agreement as to a walking staff[125]; agreement as to string[126]; agreement as to a walking staff and string.[127]
  89. Three (kinds of) shoes that are in fixed places and cannot be handed on: privy shoes, urinal shoes, rinsing shoes.[128]
  90. Three (kinds of) foot-rubbers: a stone, a pebble, sea-scum.[129]
  91. Concluded are the Triads

    Its Summary

    While he is alive, at the right time,
    and during the night, ten, five, through skill,
    Feeling, grounds for reproof,
    votes, twice objections, /
    Layings down, and two further, ignorant,
    and at the next new-moon day, is allowed, BD.6.195 In the cold weather, an Order, for an Order,
    and concealings, a covering, /
    Things hidden, and unveiled, lodgings, those who are ill,
    The Pātimokkha, probation, mānattas, those under probation, /
    Inside, and inside a boundary, does one fall, and again further,
    Does one arise, and further too,
    verdicts for past insanity are twofold, /
    (Act of) censure, and of guidance,
    of banishment, reconciliation,
    Not seeing, not making amends for,
    and not giving up a (wrong) view, /
    Something hard, (formal) act,
    as to the higher morality,
    frivolity, bad behaviour, harming,
    Mode of livelihood, having fallen, that same (offence),
    dispraise, and about Observance, /
    Invitation, and agreement,
    remaining, and in a separate (place),
    He should not speak, he should not give,
    likewise he should not get leave, /
    He should not issue commands,
    two on what should not be asked about,
    And similarly two on he should not answer,
    and he should not be given an explanation, /
    Discussion, ordination, guidance, and novices,
    Three triads on Observance, three triads on Invitation, /
    (Persons in) the Downfall, unskilled, skilled, two on behaviour,
    A meal by a triad, bad qualities, agreement, and about shoes,
    Similarly things that are foot-rubbers:
    this is the summary for the Triads.

Footnotes and references:

1.

Vin-a.1324 takes as an example the offence of shedding a Tathāgata’s blood; see e.g. Vin.1.89.

2.

Vin-a.1324 bases its two examples on two statements attributed to the Buddha and standing next to one another at DN.ii.154: (1) “‘At present, Ānanda, monks address one another with the epithet āvuso. After I am gone should not so address (one another). (2) Ānanda, a monk who is an elder should be addressed by a newly ordained monk as bhante or āyasmā.’ Because addressing an elder with the epithet āvuso one falls into an offence after the Lord’s parinibbāna, not while he is alive. Setting aside these two offences, one falls into the rest both while the Lord is living and also after the parinibbāna.”

3.

Vin-a.1324 bases its two examples on two statements attributed to the Buddha and standing next to one another at DN.ii.154: (1) “‘At present, Ānanda, monks address one another with the epithet āvuso. After I am gone should not so address (one another). (2) Ānanda, a monk who is an elder should be addressed by a newly ordained monk as bhante or āyasmā.’ Because addressing an elder with the epithet āvuso one falls into an offence after the Lord’s parinibbāna, not while he is alive. Setting aside these two offences, one falls into the rest both while the Lord is living and also after the parinibbāna.”

4.

Vin-a.1324: one falls into an offence at the right time, not at a wrong time for eating (though one is already satisfied) what is not left over (Bu-Pc.36). But at a wrong time, not at a right time, one falls into the offence of eating at a wrong time (Bu-Pc.37). For the remainder (of the offences) one falls at the right time as well as at the wrong time.

5.

See the Dyads, Vin.5.116. Vin-a.1322 = Vin-a.1324 except that Vin-a.1324 adds “during the night as well as by day the remaining” (offences can be fallen into).

7.

See Vin.1.81.

8.

Vin-a.1325 says such as making one who is not ordained speak Dhamma line by line (Bu-Pc.4) or teaching Dhamma unaccompanied to a woman (Bu-Pc.7).

9.

Vin-a.1325 gives catch-words indicating the Defeats, Bu-Ss.1, Bu-Ss.2, Bu-Ss.3, Bu-Ss.4, Bu-Ss.8, Bu-Ss.9, Bu-Ss.10, Bu-Pc.74, Bu-Pc.75.

10.

Cf. Vin.2.91f. where the Order is spoken of as skilled, unskilled, and indeterminate in mind.

11.

Sexual intercourse.

13.

No doubt “the remainder”.

16.

Vin-a.1325 says that (these are) three objections of the Lord’s. Other things he objected to are given at e.g. Vin.1.238.

17.

Cf. AN.iv.280, MN-a.i.96. “Great wishes,” mahicchatā, explained at AN.i.74, AN-a.211, and “discontent” asantuṭṭhitā, at AN.i.77. AN-a.115, and all three at DN-a.903. For the triad see DN.iii.115.

18.

Cf. AN.iv.280, MN-a.i.96. “Great wishes,” mahicchatā, explained at AN.i.74, AN-a.211, and “discontent” asantuṭṭhitā, at AN.i.77. AN-a.115, and all three at DN-a.903. For the triad see DN.iii.115.

19.

Cf. AN.iv.280, MN-a.i.96. “Great wishes,” mahicchatā, explained at AN.i.74, AN-a.211, and “discontent” asantuṭṭhitā, at AN.i.77. AN-a.115, and all three at DN-a.903. For the triad see DN.iii.115.

20.

Fourfold at AN.i.76, AN.iv.118, as well as threefold also at AN.i.76.

21.

Immoderation (in eating) defined at Pp.21.

22.

Moderation (in eating) defined at AN.ii.184, and more generally at AN.iii.283.

23.

See Vin.5.1.

24.

Referring to monks of ten and of less than ten years’ standing, and of five and of less than five years’ standing: see Kd.1.31.5Kd.1.31.8, Kd.1.35, Kd.1.53.9Kd.1.53.13.

25.

Vin-a.1325 says this is not entering on the rains, see Kd.3.4.3: an offence of wrong-doing.

26.

kāle and juṇhe. See Kd.4.17.4ff. Vin-a.1325 calls this not inviting according to the “great Invitation”.

27.

Vin-a.1325: entering on the rains is allowed, kappati, on the next new-moon day, not on the next full-moon day.

28.

Vin-a.1325 says Invitation by means of the Great Invitation is allowed on the next full-moon day, not on the next new-moon day.

29.

Referring to Kd.8.20.

30.

Referring to Bu-NP.24.

31.

Perhaps referring to Kd.8.15.2, Kd.8.15.7, Kd.8.15.14; also Bu-NP.24.

32.

The Order falls into an offence either carrying out by way of complete purity the Observance (Kd.2.22, and see Kd.2.3.3, Kd.2.26) or an Observance that has been determined on, adhiṭṭhānuposatha. This latter refers to Kd.2.26.9 where the word adhiṭṭhātabbaṃ is used.

33.

Carrying out a recital of the rules and an Observance that has been determined on. Probably referring to the group (of four, three or two monks) at Kd.2.26.10.

34.

Kd.2.26.8, Kd.2.26.9. Of this triad Vin-a.1326 says it is the same as Invitation.

35.

An Order’s Observance (see Kd.2) and an Order’s Invitation (Kd.4.1.13, Kd.4.1.14).

36.

A group’s Observance (Kd.2.26) and a group’s Invitation (Kd.4.5.2ff.).

37.

An Observance that has been determined on (Kd.2.26.9) and an Invitation that has been determined on (Kd.4.5.2ff.)

39.

Vin.2.22, where these three kinds are allowed.

40.

AN.i.282f.

41.

AN.i.283; last sentence quoted at Mil.190.

43.

Asking for a different medicine from the one procured; see Bu-Pc.47.2.2. For this and the next clause see below, Vin.5.128, among the Fours.

44.

Asking for medicines, as in Nuns’ Bi-NP.6, Bu-NP.7, Bu-NP.8, Bu-NP.9, Bu-NP.10.

45.

The remaining offences.

46.

Vin.2.242; see below, Vin.5.128.

47.

Vin.2.242; see below, Vin.5.128.

50.

Vin.2.59 (Kd.13.26), Vin.5.126 gives these and one other among the Fours. See also Vin.5.118 in the Twos.

53.

pakkhamānatta, see Vin.5.118 and Vin-a.1170 which give four kinds of mānatta as does Vin.5.126 in the Fours.

59.

Kd.2.15.5. Offence of wrong-doing for speaking Dhamma, unbidden, in the midst of an Order. Cf. Kd.2.16.9.

60.

Vin-a.1327 says the method is the same.

61.

Vin-a.1327 says the method is the same.

62.

Vin-a.1327: one arises by means of the deciding which is the covering over (as) with grass.

73.

āgāḷhāya ceteyya—expression appears to occur here only. Vin-a.1327 glosses by daḷhabhāvāya ceteyya; and goes on to say an Order may carry out a (formal) act of suspension for one against whom an act of censure was out if he has not fulfilled his obligations.

74.

alajjin, as at Vin.3.179, Vin.1.77.

75.

He does not know what is Dhamma and what is not-dhamma, Vin-a.1327.

76.

apakatatta. See Kd.12.1, Kd.12.5 for pakatatta, regular monk; also Kd.9.4.8, and definition of regular monk at Vin-a.1147. Vin-a.1327 says “he does not know what is an offence and what is not”, and hence cannot carry out a formal act.

77.

This triad is at Vin.2.4; Cf. also Vin.1.63. Vin-a.1327 says this means he has fallen into two classes of offence (Defeat and Formal Meeting).

78.

The five classes of offence.

79.

Taking up an extreme view, antaggāhikā diṭṭhi, Vin-a.1327. See Vin.1.172. There are 10 such views, see Vin.5.138. Commentary further says that a formal act may he carried out against those who neither see an offence, make amends for one, nor give up a wrong view.

80.

Vin.2.13. The first member of the triad appears to mean playing at dice (Vin-a.1327) though Vin-a.1147 says “bodily play”; the second may be producing a drumming sound with the mouth; and the third is dancing and singing.

81.

Vin.2.13. These mean transgressing the rules of training laid down concerning the doors of the body and of speech.

82.

Harming through not training in the rules of training regarding body and speech, Vin.2.13.

83.

Going messages on foot or sorcery or accepting teachings on the Dispensation from lay-people.

84.

Cf. Vin.2.5, etc.

85.

Vin.2.4, etc.

86.

Vin.2.4, etc.

87.

The main theme of Kd.19 is the suspension of the Pātimokkha.

89.

Cf. Nuns’ Bi-Pc.75.

90.

voharitabbaṃ, glossed by na kiñci vattabbaṃ.

91.

na kismiñci paccekaṭṭhāne ṭhapetabbo, as at AN.iv.347. Vin-a.1328 says he should not be set in a high place, jeṭṭhakaṭṭhāne, that is to say in a specially honoured position. AN.iv.160 adds that if he has been put in such a place, there is no chance to carry out a formal act of the Order.

92.

okāsakammaṃ kārāpentassa. See Vin.1.114 okāsaṃ kārāpetvā; Vin.2.5, Vin.2.23, etc. okāsaṃ kāretabbo.

93.

savacanīyaṃ na dātabbaṃ. Vin.2.5, etc. read na savacanīyaṃ kātabbaṃ, and Vin-a.1328 ādātabbaṃ: his speech should not be taken up, not listened to.

94.

Cf. Kd.2.15.6.

95.

Cf. Kd.2.15.8.

99.

See Vin.5.189.

105.

Cf. Kd.2.24.

108.

Kd.2.26.1 (Cf. Kd.2.15.1). These three items appear with two others, Vin.5.133.

117.

Kd.4.15.1. The onefold formula of the Mahāvagga is not mentioned in the Parivāra above.

118.

Kd.4.15.1. The onefold formula of Mahāvagga is not mentioned in the Parivāra above.

120.

Vin-a.1328: this pretence.

121.

Vin.3.90. According to Vin-a.1328 a pure Brahma-farer is a monk whose cankers are destroyed.

122.

Cf. MN.i.305; see GS.i.244, n.2 on pālabyataṃ, indulgence. The whole triad occurs at AN.i.265f.

123.

Whole triad at Kd.17.3.13 (Vin.2.196).

125.

Vin.2.131. See for this and next below Prv.9.1.