Vinaya Pitaka (4): Parivara

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 150,781 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It analyses the rules from various points of view. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (fourth part, parivara) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar...

As To Graduation (2. Dyads)

[1]

  1. Prv.7.2.1 There is the offence in which (contemporary) awareness counts (as a factor) for acquittal; there is the offence in which (contemporary) awareness does not count (as a factor) for acquittal.[2]
  2. There is an offence for the attainer of the acquired; there is the offence for the attainer of what is not acquired.[3] BD.6.176
  3. There is the offence that is connected with true Dhamma[4]; there is the offence that is not connected with true Dhamma.[5]
  4. There is an offence connected with one’s own requisites[6]; … with another’s requisites.[7]
  5. There is an offence connected with one’s own individual[8]; … with another’s individual.[9]
  6. There is (the occasion when one) falls into a serious offence when speaking the truth,[10] a slight one when speaking a lie[11].
  7. There is (the occasion when one) falls into a serious offence when speaking a lie,[12] a slight one when speaking the truth.[13]
  8. There is the offence one who is on the ground falls into,[14] not one who is in the air[15]; there is the offence one who is in the air falls into,[16] not one who is on the ground.[17]
  9. One falls into an offence while one is setting out not while entering[18]; one falls into an offence while one is entering, not while setting out.[19]
  10. There is the offence one falls into while taking[20]; … while not taking.[21]
  11. There is the offence BD.6.177 one falls into while undertaking[22]; … while not undertaking.[23]
  12. There is the offence one falls into when one is doing[24]; … is not doing.[25]
  13. There is the offence one falls into while giving[26]; … while not giving.[27]
  14. There is the offence one falls into while accepting[28]; … while not accepting.[29]
  15. There is the offence one falls into through using[30]; … through not using.[31]
  16. There is the offence one falls into during the night, not by day[32]; … by day, not during the night.[33]
  17. There is the offence one falls into at sunrise;[34] … not at sunrise.[35]
  18. There is the offence one falls into while cutting off;[36] … while not cutting off.[37]
  19. There is the offence one falls into by concealing[38]; while not concealing.[39]
  20. There is the offence one falls into by wearing (using)[40]; … not using (wearing).[41]
  21. There are two Observances: BD.6.178 that on the fourteenth day and that on the fifteenth.[42]
  22. Two Invitations: that on the fourteenth day and that on the fifteenth.[43]
  23. Two (formal) acts: the (formal) act for which leave should be asked, and the (formal) act at which a motion is put.
  24. And there are two further (formal) acts: the (formal) act at which a motion is put and is followed by one resolution, and the (formal) act at which a motion is put and is followed by a resolution made three times.[44]
  25. Two matters for a (formal) act[45]: the matter of a (formal) act for which leave should be asked, and the matter of a (formal) act at which a motion is put.
  26. And two further matters for a (formal) act: the matter for a (formal) act at which a motion is put and is followed by one resolution, and the matter for a (formal) act at which a motion is put and is followed by a resolution made three times.
  27. Two defects[46] in a (formal) act: the defect in a (formal) act for which leave should be asked, the defect in the motion for a (formal) act.
  28. And two further defects in a (formal) act: the defect in a (formal) act where a motion is put and is followed by one resolution, and the defect in a (formal) act where a motion is put and is followed by a resolution made three times.
  29. Two excellences[47] in a (formal) act: the excellence of a (formal) act for which leave should be asked, and the excellence of a (formal) act where there is a motion.
  30. And two further excellences in a (formal) act: the excellence of a (formal) act at which a motion is put and is followed by one resolution, and the excellence of a (formal) act at which a motion is put and is followed by a resolution made three times.
  31. Two grounds for belonging to a different communion: either of oneself one makes oneself belong to a different communion,[48] or a complete Order suspends one for not seeing or not making amends for (an offence) or for not giving up (a wrong view).[49]
  32. Two grounds BD.6.179 for belonging to the same communion: either of oneself Vin.5.117 one makes oneself belong to the same communion,[50] or the Order restores one who was suspended for not seeing or not making amends for (an offence) or for not giving up (a wrong view).[51]
  33. Two (groups of) offences involving Defeat: for monks and for nuns.
  34. Two (groups of) offences entailing a Formal Meeting of the Order.
  35. Two (groups of) grave offences.
  36. Two of offences of Expiation.
  37. Two of offences to be confessed.
  38. Two of wrong-doing.
  39. Two of wrong speech: for monks and for nuns.
  40. Seven offences, seven classes of offence.[52]
  41. An Order is split by two methods: by a (formal) act[53] or by a voting-ticket.[54]
  42. Two individuals should not be ordained: one lacking the full age,[55] one lacking a limb.[56]
  43. And two further individuals should not be ordained: one who has fallen away from the matter,[57] and the karaṇadukkaṭaka.[58]
  44. And two further individuals should not be ordained: he who is not complete,[59] and he who is complete but has not asked.[60]
  45. One should not live in dependence on two individuals: on an unconscientious one[61] nor on an ignorant one.[62]
  46. Guidance should not be given by two individuals: by an unconscientious one[63] and by a conscientious one if one has not requested him.[64]
  47. Guidance should be given to two individuals: the ignorant one and the conscientious one if he requests.[65]
  48. Two individuals are incapable of BD.6.180 falling into an offence: Buddhas and Hermit Buddhas.
  49. Two individuals are capable of falling into an offence: monks and nuns.
  50. Two individuals are incapable of consciously falling into an offence: the ariyan individuals who are monks and nuns.
  51. Two individuals are capable of consciously falling into an offence: ordinary individuals who are monks and nuns.
  52. Two individuals are incapable of consciously transgressing a matter that goes too far[66]: ariyan individuals who are monks and nuns.
  53. Two individuals are capable of consciously transgressing a matter that goes too far: ordinary individuals who are monks and nuns.
  54. Two kinds of protest: one protests by means of the body, one protests by means of speech.[67]
  55. There are two (kinds of) being sent away[68]: there is the individual who has not arrived at the point of being sent away but who, if the Order sends him away, is sometimes rightly sent away, sometimes wrongly sent away.[69]
  56. Two kinds of restoration[70]: there is the individual who has not arrived at the point of being restored but who, if the Order restores him, is sometimes rightly restored, sometimes wrongly restored.[71]
  57. Two acknowledgements: either he acknowledges by body or he acknowledges by speech.[72]
  58. Two acceptances: either he accepts by body[73] or he accepts by means of something attached to the body.[74]
  59. Two objectings to[75]: either he objects by body or he objects by speech.
  60. Two harmings: harming to the training and harming to possessions.[76]
  61. Two reprovings: either he reproves by body or he reproves by speech.[77]
  62. Two impediments to (the removal of) the kaṭhina BD.6.181 privileges: the residence-impediment and the robes-impediment.[78]
  63. Two non-impediments to (the removal of) the kaṭhina privileges: the residence-non-impediment and the robes-non- impediment.[79]
  64. Two (kinds of) robe-material: that (given by) householders[80] and the rag-heap (robe-material).[81]
  65. Two (kinds of) bowl: the iron bowl, the clay bowl.[82]
  66. Two (kinds of) circular (bowl-rests[83]): made of tin, made of lead.[84]
  67. Two (kinds of) allottings of a bowl[85]: either one allots by body or one allots by speech.
  68. Two (kinds of) Vin.5.118 allottings of a robe: either one allots by body or one allots by speech.[86]
  69. Two (kinds of) assignment: assignment in the presence of and assignment in the absence of.[87]
  70. Two disciplines: for monks and for nuns.
  71. Two things belonging to discipline[88]: what has been laid down and what is in conformity with what has been laid down.[89]
  72. Two subduings of discipline: bridge-breaking in regard to what is not allowable, behaving with moderation in regard to what is allowable.[90]
  73. In two ways one falls into an offence: one falls by means of body and one falls by means of speech.[91]
  74. In two ways one rises from an offence: one rises by means of body and one rises by means of speech.[92]
  75. Two probations: BD.6.182 probation for concealing, probation for not concealing.[93]
  76. And two further probations: purifying probation,[94] concurrent probation.[95]
  77. Two mānattas: mānatta for concealing, mānatta for not concealing.[96]
  78. And two further mānattas: mānatta for a fortnight,[97] concurrent mānatta.[98]
  79. For two kinds of individuals there is an interruption[99]: for him who is under probation[100] and for him who is undergoing mānatta.[101]
  80. Two disrespects: disrespect for a person and disrespect for Dhamma.[102]
  81. Two salts: the natural and the made.[103]
  82. And two further salts: sea(-salt), black salt.[104]
  83. And two further salts: rock-salt, culinary salt.[105]
  84. And two further salts: the “Sambhar Lake” (salt),[106] pakkhālaka.[107]
  85. Two enjoyments: inner enjoyment and outer enjoyment.[108]
  86. Two modes of address: low mode of address and high mode of address.[109]
  87. In two ways is there BD.6.183 slander: in making dear or in desiring dissension.[110]
  88. In two ways is a group-meal entered upon: by being invited or by asking.[111]
  89. Two (periods for) beginning the rains: the earlier and the later.[112]
  90. Two suspensions of the Pātimokkha are not legally valid.[113]
  91. Two suspensions of the Pātimokkha are legally valid.[114]
  92. Two foolish men[115]: he who carries out a task unasked and he who, when asked, does not carry out a task.[116]
  93. Two wise men: he who does not carry out a task unasked and he who, when asked, carries out a task.
  94. And two further foolish men: he who thinks what is allowable is in what is not allowable and he who thinks what is not allowable is in what is allowable.
  95. Two wise men: he who thinks what is not allowable is in what is not allowable and he who thinks what is allowable is in what is allowable.[117]
  96. And two further foolish men: he who thinks there is an offence in what is not an offence and he who thinks there is not an offence in an offence.
  97. Two wise men: he who thinks there is an offence in an offence and he who thinks there is not an offence in what is not an offence.
  98. And two further foolish men: he who thinks there is Dhamma in what is not-dhamma and he who thinks there is not-dhamma in Dhamma.
  99. Two wise men: he who thinks there is not-dhamma in not-dhamma and he who thinks there is Dhamma in Dhamma.
  100. And two further foolish men: he who thinks there is not-discipline in Discipline and he who thinks there is Discipline in not-discipline.
  101. Two wise men: he who thinks there is not-discipline in not-discipline and he who thinks there is Discipline in Discipline.
  102. Of two individuals the cankers grow: he who is remorseful when he should not be remorseful and he who is not remorseful when he should be remorseful.[118] BD.6.184 Vin.5.119
  103. Of two individuals the cankers do not grow: he who is not remorseful when he should not be remorseful and he who is remorseful when he should be remorseful.
  104. And of two further individuals the cankers grow: he who thinks what is allowable is in what is not allowable and he who thinks what is not allowable is in what is allowable.
  105. Of two individuals the cankers do not grow: he who thinks what is not allowable is in what is not allowable and he who thinks what is allowable is in what is allowable.
  106. And of two further individuals the cankers grow: he who thinks there is an offence in what is not an offence and he who thinks there is not an offence in an offence.
  107. Of two individuals the cankers do not grow: he who thinks there is not an offence in what is not an offence and he who thinks there is an offence in an offence.
  108. And of two further individuals the cankers grow: he who thinks that Dhamma is in not-dhamma and he who thinks there is not-dhamma in Dhamma.
  109. Of two individuals the cankers do not grow: he who thinks there is not-dhamma in not-dhamma and he who thinks there is Dhamma in Dhamma.
  110. And of two further individuals the cankers grow: he who thinks there is not-discipline in Discipline and he who thinks there is Discipline in not-discipline.
  111. Of two individuals the cankers do not grow: he who thinks there is not-discipline in not-discipline and he who thinks there is Discipline in Discipline.
  112. Concluded are the Dyads

    Its Summary

    Awareness, and acquirers, True Dhamma, and requisites, individuals,
    Truth, the ground, while setting out, taking, undertaking, /
    Doing, giving, accepting, through using, and by night,
    Sunrise, cutting off, concealing, and wearing, Observances, /
    Invitation, (formal) acts and further, matter, further ones, and defects,
    And two further ones, excellence, different one, and just the same, /
    Defeat, Order, grave offence, Expiation, Confession,[119]
    BD.6.185 Wrong-doing, and also wrong speech, and seven classes of offence, /
    Is split, ordination, similarly a further two,
    Should not live, should not be given, incapable, and also capable, /
    Consciously, and that go too far, protests, being sent away,
    Restoration, and acknowledgement, acceptance, objecting to, /
    He harms, and reprovings, kaṭhina, and similarly two,
    Robes, bowls, what are circular, allottings, likewise two, /
    And assignments, disciplines, and belonging to discipline, subduings,
    And one falls, one rises from, probations, a further two, /
    Two mānattas, and further, interruption, disrespect,
    Two salts, a further three,[120] enjoyment, and by mode of address, /
    And slander, groups, the rains, suspensions, tasks, allowable,
    No offence, non-dhamma, Dhamma, in Discipline, similarly the cankers.

Footnotes and references:

1.

Again, Cf. Uttaravinicchaya, p.267ff.

2.

See remarks on āpatti (no) saññāvimokkhā at Milinda’s Questions i, Introduction, p.xlviii.

3.

This seems to be an offence of speaking about what is and about what is a fact, laddhasamāpattikassa āpatti. On samāpatti see BD.2.177, n.5, and Buddhist Psychological Ethics, p.321. See too Vin.4.25, where there is an offence of Pācittiya for speaking of a condition of further men—if it is a fact—to one who is not ordained; but if he speaks about what is not a fact, abhūtārocana, there is Defeat (Bu-Pj.4). See too Vin.4.7.

4.

Vin-a.1321: beginning with Dhamma line by line (Vin.4.14, Bu-Pc.4).

5.

Vin-a.1321: an offence of speech that is very bad.

6.

Commentary instances three such offences, all of Forfeiture: in enjoying, not having given up (Bu-NP.5); in hoarding bowls and robes (Bu-NP.1, Bu-NP.21, Nuns’ Bi-NP.1); in not washing soiled robes (Bu-NP.4).

7.

Vin-a.1321 refers this to a clause found in the sikkhāpada of Bu-NP.14.

8.

Commentary describes this offence in accordance with an offence involving Defeat (Bu-Pj.1) laid down at Vin.3.35.

9.

Going by Commentary this refers to Bu-Ss.2.

10.

In Bu-Ss.3 at Vin.3.129 for saying to a woman sikharaṇī’si. See Uttaravinicchaya 443.

11.

Bu-Pc.1, for telling a conscious lie. See too Vin.3.59, Vin.3.66 in Bu-Pj.2.

12.

Proclaiming what is not a fact, e.g. at Vin.3.93ff. (in Bu-Pj.4).

13.

Proclaiming what is a fact.

14.

Vin-a.1321 says, “if he is sitting down to one side within a boundary and says, ‘I will carry out a (formal) act of the Order with an incomplete (Order),’ he falls, being one who is on the ground. Therefore he is called one who is not in the air” (vehāsagata). Does this refer to Vin.2.128ff.? If so it is an offence of wrong-doing.

15.

Apparently referring to Bu-Pc.18, for Vin-a.1321 takes the words of the Old Commentary, on its sikkhāpada: (a monk), sitting down in a lofty cell (vehāsakuṭi) on a couch or chair with removable feet, falls, being one who is in the air. But if he, having put them out on the ground, should not he down, he worn not fall (into an offence). Because of this he is called one who is not on ground. See too Uttaravinicchaya 448.

16.

Apparently referring to Bu-Pc.18, for Vin-a.1321 takes the words of the Old Commentary, on its sikkhāpada: (a monk), sitting down in a lofty cell (vehāsakuṭi) on a couch or chair with removable feet, falls, being one who is in the air. But if he, having put them out on the ground, should not he down, he worn not fall (into an offence). Because of this he is called one who is not on ground. See too Uttaravinicchaya 448.

17.

Apparently referring to Bu-Pc.18, for Vin-a.1321 takes the words of the Old Commentary, on its sikkhāpada: (a monk), sitting down in a lofty cell (vehāsakuṭi) on a couch or chair with removable feet, falls, being one who is in the air. But if he, having put them out on the ground, should not he down, he worn not fall (into an offence). Because of this he is called one who is not on ground. See too Uttaravinicchaya 448.

18.

Probably referring to Vin.2.211 (Kd.18.3) which gives the gamikānaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ vattaṃ described by Vin-a.1321 as gamiyo gamiyavattaṃ apūretvā; and at Uttaravinicchaya 451 as gamiko gamikavattāni apūretvāna.

19.

This seems to refer to Vin.2.207 (Kd.18.1): entering a monastery with one’s sandals on and one’s sunshade up. See too Uttaravinicchaya 450. Cf. also Vin.1.194 (Kd.5.12); and Vin.2.130f. (Kd.15.23.2, Kd.15.23.3) where there is an offence of wrong-doing.

20.

I.e. an oblation with water, Nuns’ Bi-Pc.5.

21.

I.e. not taking one of the three ways for disfiguring a new robe, Bu-Pc.58.

22.

Vin-a.1322 by using the words mugabbata and titthiyavata appears to be referring to Vin.1.90f. (Kd.1.70, Kd.1.71)—the offence incurred being one of wrong-doing.

23.

The 94 vatta, customs, duties, for a monk under probation to whom Vin-a.1322 refers are given at Vin.2.31f. But the Commentary also refers to a monk against whom a disciplinary act of censure has been carried out.

24.

Sewing a robe, Bu-Pc.26. Uttaravinicchaya 459 more full.

25.

Not doing the duties of a preceptor. These are stated at e.g. Vin.1.50ff.

26.

Giving a robe to a nun who is not a relation, Bu-Pc.25.

27.

Not giving robe-material and so on to those who share one’s cell and to pupils. See Bu-Pc.59.

28.

Accepting robe-material from a nun who is not a relation, Bu-NP.5 (Vin.3.209).

29.

This seems to refer to Kd.20.9.5 (Vin.2.264) since Vin-a.1322 uses a phrase found there: na bhikkhave ovādo na gahetabbo. Cullavagga uses forms of the verb gaṇhāti; above passage has paṭigaṇhanto. The offence is one of wrong-doing.

30.

paribhoga. This offence consists in using and not giving up something that should be given up, as at e.g. Vin.3.202 (in Bu-NP.2) where, because of not forfeiting a robe to be forfeited, but using it, there is an offence of wrong-doing.

31.

Nuns’ Bi-Pc.24.

33.

This is an offence for not shutting the door while one is meditating in solitude; Cf. Atthasālinī 95.

34.

A number of offences: after one night, Bu-NP.2; after six nights Kd.18 (?); after 7 days, Bu-NP.23; after ten days, Bu-NP.1, Bu-NP.21; after a month. Bu-NP.3.

35.

Eating after one has been invited.

36.

Cutting down vegetable growth, bhūtagāma, is Bu-Pc.11; and cutting off aṅgajāta is in Bu-Pj.1.

37.

Not cutting one’s hair or nails: for the former there is an “allowance” for the latter an offence of wrong-doing at Kd.15.27.1ff. (Vin.2.133).

38.

chādeti; presumably as e.g. in Bu-Pc.1 and Nuns’ Bi-Ss.12 in both of which the word is paṭicchādeti.

39.

A monk coming naked to a monastery falls into an offence of wrong-doing, Vin.3.212 (in Bu-NP.6).

40.

I.e. garments made of bark, grass—a grave offence, Vin.1.305f.

41.

I.e. not using “this bowl till it breaks”—Bu-NP.22.

42.

Vin.1.104 and cf. the triad at Vin.5.123.

43.

Vin.1.160, and again see Vin.5.123.

44.

See e.g. Vin.2.89, Vin.4.152; and another class of six formal acts at Vin.1.317. These two dyads from a tetrad at Vin.5.126.

45.

kammavatthu not given elsewhere in Vinaya. See preceding note.

46.

See Vin.5.213. The three defects referring to four (formal) are given at Kd.9.2.4. See also Kd.9.2.1.

47.

See below, Vin.5.213Vin.5.214. If the four formal acts were carried out by rule in a complete assembly, there were “four excellences”.

48.

See Vin.1.135.

49.

As at Vin.1.340; see also Vin.1.340.

51.

As at Vin.1.340.

52.

Because the two have the same name they are shown in the dyads, Vin-a.1323. Given also in the Septets, Vin.5.134.

53.

Probably referring to Devadatta at Vin.2.198.

54.

Probably again referring to Devadatta at Vin.2.199.

55.

addhānahīno; interpreted by Vin-a.1323 as ūnavīsativasso, and thus referring to Bu-Pc.65. See Vin.5.129 for this and next four items.

56.

aṅgahīno. At Vin.1.91 one whose hands, etc., have been cut off is not allowed to go forth.

57.

He seems to be one who has fallen from (the root of) the matter: eunuchs (Vin.1.85), animals (Vin.1.88), hermaphrodites (Vin.1.89).

58.

This comprises the remaining eight “incapable individuals”, abhabbapuggalā (i.e. not qualified for ordination because of something bad they have in this existence), beginning with him who is in communion by theft (Vin.1.86). See Vin-a.515. Also the five who are not to be ordained, Vin.5.129.

59.

I.e. as to bowl and robe, see Vin.1.90, Vin.1.95.

60.

Ordination must be asked for by the candidate, Vin.1.56f.

62.

Vin-a.1323 says even if he is of sixty years’ standing.

63.

See Vin.1.91. Some rules for guidance and being in dependence are given at Vin.1.80f.

64.

This may refer to Kd.1.73.1, Kd.1.73.2.

65.

See Vin.1.62ff., Vin.1.80f. for the second case.

66.

See Vin.1.55.

67.

Allowances for “protesting” against formal acts given at Vin.1.115. Silently protesting by signalling with the hand (hatthivikāra as at Vin-a.1323) occurs at e.g. Vin.1.158, Vin.1.352.

68.

nissāraṇā.

70.

osāraṇā.

72.

Vin-a.1323 says “he acknowledges by signalling with the hand and so on”. (hatthavikāra), see note above.

73.

It would seem that many things may be accepted by means of the body, see e.g. Bu-NP.5, Bu-NP.6, Bu-NP.16, Bu-NP.18, Bu-Pc.40, etc.

75.

paṭikkhepā. The Buddha objects (by speech) to various things at Vin.1.238 (Kd.6.32.2).

76.

Three ways of harming are given at Vin.2.13: bodily, verbal, and both. Cf. Vin-a.1157 and Vin-a.1323 for harming because one has not been trained in the three trainings. Injury to possessions refers to the person who wrongly makes use of possessions belonging to an Order or an individual, as probably in Bu-NP.30. Bu-Pc.15, Bu-Pc.17.

77.

Several examples of reproving verbally are given in Mahāvagga and Cullavagga. See BD.4, BD.5, Indexes under Reprove for an offence. (NOTE: Not in SuttaCentral edition.)

80.

See e.g. Vin.1.280 (Kd.8.1.34).

83.

Name abbreviated here from pattamaṇḍala to maṇḍala.

85.

adhiṭṭhāna, allotting. Rules about bowls are at Bu-NP.21, Bu-NP.22. In Bu-NP.22 we get the expression adhiṭṭhita, of a bowl; but see BD.2.121, n.4. There is also the pre-ordination requirement that the preceptor points out the bowl and robes to the candidate with the words, “This is a bowl for you … this an outer cloak … upper robe … inner robe,” Vin.1.94.

88.

venayika is not being used here in its more usual sense of “leader away” as at Vin.3.3. Here it means, according to Vin-a.1323, things accomplished for discipline, for the goal; see BD.5, Introduction, p.xx.

89.

See Vin.1.250f., Vin.2.288, Vin.3.231. The “laid down” is concerned with what is and what is not allowable in the whole of the Vinaya-piṭaka; and what is in accordance with this should be seen among the four principal appeals to authority (mahāpadesa), Vin-a.1323. For mahāpadesa see AN.ii.167 and Guide § 120.

90.

Subduing is sallekha. Bridge-breaking is breaking conditions, paccaya. See AN.i.261: bridge-breaking in singing and dancing—activities which nuns are forbidden to see in Nuns’ Bi-Pc.10, and monks at Vin.2.108 (a dukkaṭa for them). See too BD.1.13, n.2.

91.

Examples can be found easily.

92.

By body, i.e. by the deciding (of the legal question) which is a covering over (as) with grass. When it has been pointed out to one, one rises from an offence by means of speech. On āpattivuṭṭhāna see Kd.1.36.10, Kd.2.3.5.

93.

On concealed and unconcealed offences and the duration of the probation incurred see Kd.13.

95.

Vin.2.48. These four probations also occur in the tetrads, Vin.5.126.

96.

See Kd.13.

97.

pakkhamānatta probably refers specially to Kd.13.1, Kd.17.1. See too Vin.4.242 (Nuns’ Bi-Ss.13) which also seems to be referred to at Vin-a.1170f.

98.

See Kd.13. These four kinds of mānatta are given as a tetrad at Vin.5.126 and are mentioned at Vin-a.1170f.

99.

ratticcheda, a breaking of the nights thus affecting the time he has to spend carrying out his penalties and so purifying himself of his offence.

103.

jātima kārima. These names do not appear to occur elsewhere in the Pali canon.

104.

sāmudda and kāḷaloṇa are the two first salts allowed as medicines for monks at Vin.1.202. Vin-a.1090 says “sea-salt (sāmuddika) exists on the sea-shore as does sand. Black-salt (kāḷaloṇa) is the ordinary salt”. On black-salt see Sir George Watt, Commercial Products of India, London 1908, p.56.

105.

sindhava and ubbhida are the next two salts allowed at Vin.1.202. The fifth and last there is bila, not mentioned above. Vin-a.1090 says sindhava is white and a mountain salt, and ubbhida, the culinary salt, is produced (as is) a shoot from the ground. Is this Sir George Watt’s ushasuta? See next note below.

106.

romaka. Neither this nor the following occurs at Vin.1.202. Monier-Williams says that this is a kind of saline earth and the salt extracted from it. Sir George Watt, Commercial Products of India, p.963 says “Susruta, the father of Indian medicine, speaks of four kinds of salt, and these correspond with the four chief grades known today, viz. Saindhava, the rock-salt of Sind and Kohat; Sāmudra, produced from the sea; Romaka or Sākam bari, Sambhar Lake salt; and Pānsuja or Ushasuta, salt produced from saline earth”.

107.

I cannot identify this salt. Has it anything to do with pakkhāleti, to wash, to cleanse?

108.

According to Vin-a.1324 the inner enjoyment, paribhoga, is the enjoyment of food; the outer is smearing, makkhana, the head and so on.

111.

See Bu-Pc.32.

115.

From here to the end of the paragraph is very clearly linked with AN.i.84–86, the Bālavagga.

116.

bhāraṃ na vahati. Vin-a.1324, in order to emphasize that an elder is not doing an elder’s tasks or duties, kicca, quotes Vin.1.113: anujānāmi bhikkhave therena bhikkhunā sāmaṃ vā Dhammaṃ bhāsitaṃ paraṃ vā ajjhesituṃ. That these duties are Vinaya tasks is clear also from AN.ii.155 though this Commentary appears to see the stupidity as that of a newly ordained monk doing the tenfold task of an elder without having been asked by an eider to do so. “Unasked” is anāgata, not told.

117.

According to AN.ii.155 the unallowable is lion’s flesh and so on (see Vin.1.220) and the allowable crocodile flesh and cat flesh.

118.

Pp.26.

119.

Abbreviated to: pārāji, saṅghā, (thullaccayaṃ), pācitti, pāṭidesani.

120.

Not of course a further three salts, but a further three dyads each naming two salts.