Vinaya Pitaka (4): Parivara

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 150,781 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It analyses the rules from various points of view. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (fourth part, parivara) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar...

As To Graduation (1. Units)

  1. Prv.7.1 BD.6.171 Vin.5.115 Things making for offences should be known.[1]
  2. Things not making for offences should be known.[2]
  3. An offence should be known.[3]
  4. What is not an offence should be known.[4]
  5. A slight offence should be known.[5]
  6. A serious offence should be known.[6]
  7. An offence that can be done away with should be known.[7]
  8. An offence that cannot be done away with should BD.6.172 be known.[8]
  9. A very bad offence should be known.[9]
  10. An offence that is not very bad should be known.[10]
  11. An offence for which amends are made should be known.[11]
  12. An offence for which amends are not made should be known.[12]
  13. An offence leading on to confession should be known.[13]
  14. An offence not leading on to confession should be known.[14]
  15. An offence that is a stumbling-block should be known.[15]
  16. An offence the description (of which) is “blamable” should be known.[16]
  17. An offence the description (of which) is “non-blamable”[17] should be known.
  18. An offence originated by action should be known.[18]
  19. An offence originated by non-action should be known.[19]
  20. An offence originated by action-and-non-action should be known.[20]
  21. The original offence should be known.[21]
  22. The subsequent offence should be known.[22]
  23. The secondary offences[23] of original BD.6.173 offences should be known.
  24. The secondary offences of subsequent offences should be known.[24]
  25. An offence confessed that comes to a reckoning should be known.[25]
  26. An offence confessed that does not come to a reckoning should be known.[26]
  27. A laying down should be known.[27]
  28. A supplementary laying (down should be known.[28]
  29. A laying down that has not yet occurred should be known.[29]
  30. A laying down (that holds good) everywhere should be known.[30]
  31. A laying down (that holds good only) for certain districts should be known.[31]
  32. A laying down that is shared should be known.[32]
  33. A laying down that is not shared should be known.[33]
  34. A laying down for one (Order only) should be known.[34]
  35. A laying down for both (Orders) should be known.[35]
  36. An offence that is a grave fault should be known.[36]
  37. An offence that is not a grave fault should be known.[37]
  38. An offence connected with the laity should be known.[38]
  39. An offence not connected with the laity should be known.
  40. An offence that is fixed (as to results) should be BD.6.174 known.[39]
  41. An offence that is not (so) fixed should be known.[40]
  42. The individual who was the first-doer (of an offence) should be known.[41]
  43. The individual who was not the first-doer should be known.[42]
  44. The individual who is an occasional offender should be known.[43]
  45. The individual who is a constant offender should be known.[44]
  46. The individual (at all these places) who reproves (for an offence) should be known.[45]
  47. The individual who is reproved should be known.[46]
  48. The individual who reproves according to what is not the rule should be known.[47]
  49. The individual who is reproved according to what is not the rule should be known.[48]
  50. The individual who reproves according to the rule should be known.[49]
  51. The individual who is reproved according to the rule should be known.[50]
  52. The individual who is certain should be known.[51]
  53. The individual who is not certain should be known.
  54. The individual incapable of offending should be known.[52]
  55. The individual capable of offending should be known.[53]
  56. The individual who has been suspended[54] should be known.
  57. The individual who has not been suspended should be known.[55]
  58. The individual who has been expelled should be BD.6.175 known.[56]
  59. The individual who has not been expelled should be known.
  60. An individual belonging to the same communion should be known.[57]
  61. An individual not belonging to the same communion should be known.
  62. Suspension (of the Pātimokkha) should be known.[58]
  63. Concluded are the Units

    Its Summary

    Things making for, offence, slight, that can be done away with, very bad,
    For which amends are made, and confession, stumbling-block,[59] blamable, originating by action, /
    By action-and-non-action, original, secondary,[60] coming to a reckoning, Laying down, not yet occurred, everywhere, and shared, for one, /
    Vin.5.116 Grave fault, laity, and fixed, first, occasional, reprover,
    Not the rule, the rule, fixed, incapable, suspended, expelled,
    The same, and suspension too: this is the summary[61] for the Units. /

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

The six originations of offences, by means of which an individual falls into an offence, Vin-a.1319.

[2]:

The seven decidings, Vin-a.1319.

[3]:

The sikkhāpada and the Analysis (Monks’ or Nuns’) where an offence is to be found should be known.

[4]:

Vin-a.1319 is apparently referring to Vin.3.33, Vin.3.35 when it cites “There is no offence, monks, for one who is not willing” (or, “does not agree”) as the way to begin the method of dealing with this clause; Cf. Vin.3.29f.

[5]:

The fivefold offence from which one is purified by a light or slight, lahuka, formal act (or, disciplinary action). See Vin.1.49 where the “light (formal) act” is “light” compared with the five formal acts of censure, guidance, banishment, reconciliation and suspension. Its nature is not specified, but see Vin-a.1195. In general, it would seem that, taking the seven classes of offence (see Vin.5.91) into account, the first, the Pārājika group, may be ignored because no disciplinary proceedings exist for a monk or nun once there has been for him or her expulsion from the Order for good; the second type of offence, Saṅghādisesa, is a serious one, garukāpatti; the five remaining types (thullaccaya, Pācittiya, Pāṭidesaniya, dukkaṭa and dubbhāsita) are therefore slight offences, lahukā āpattiyo.

[6]:

An offence entailing a Formal Meeting of the Order from which one is purified by a serious or weighty, garuka, disciplinary action. But at Vin.2.101 a garukā āpatti is taken as a Pārājika offence or one bordering on it. Vin-a.1195 names six serious formal acts: cha kammāni garukāni: agreement on a boundary, abolition of a boundary, giving of kaṭhina (privileges), suspension of kaṭhina (privileges), marking out the site for a hut, marking out the site for a vihāra. This and the next three items are found at Vin.1.65; ignorance of them four of the reasons why a monk may not ordain and so on; and with the next seven items they occur at Vin.1.354, Vin.2.88, Vin.2.204.

[7]:

sāvasesā, what has a remainder. This means all offences except Pārājikas have no “remainder” for there is nothing to be done by the Order for an expelled monk or nun.

[8]:

This is a Pārājika offence.

[9]:

According to Vin.4.31 this belongs to two offence-categories: Defeat and Formal Meeting.

[10]:

All the remaining kinds of offences, having excluded the two mentioned in the last note.

[12]:

Vin-a.1319 says this dyad is like the sāvasesā dyad.

[13]:

See Vin.2.3.

[14]:

Vin-a.1319 says this dyad is comprised in the “slight” dyad (i.e. the third in this Chapter). The penalties of the second part of the dyad do not include censure or confession, and so refer to a Defeat or a Formal Meeting offence, see Vin-a.1155 on Kd.11.

[15]:

antarāyikā and anantarāyikā āpatti. Vin-a.1319 says stumbling-blocks mean that if the seven classes of offence are transgressed intentionally they make a stumbling-block to heaven and a stumbling-block to deliverance. But for one transgressing them unknowingly, though it is a blamable offence for him, it is a stumbling-block neither to heaven nor to deliverance. For further references see BD.3.21, n.5.

[16]:

sāvajjapaññatti āpatti, blamable in or by the world, lokavajjā; anavajjapaññatti āpatti, not blamable in or by the (Vinaya) laying-down, paṇṇattivajjā, Vin-a.1319. These words appear to have been taken up at Mil.266 where several examples of behaviour not blamable in the world, but blamable in the Teaching are given.

[17]:

sāvajjapaññatti āpatti, blamable in or by the world, lokavajjā; anavajjapaññatti āpatti, not blamable in or by the (Vinaya) laying-down, paṇṇattivajjā, Vin-a.1319. These words appear to have been taken up at Mil.266 where several examples of behaviour not blamable in the world, but blamable in the Teaching are given.

[18]:

kiriyato—by action; for example, doing something, one falls into an offence involving Defeat, Vin-a.1319.

[19]:

akiriyato—for example, not doing something, one falls into an offence for not determining the robe-material.

[20]:

For example, doing and not doing something, one falls into an offence such as building a hut.

[21]:

pubbāpatti, the offence first fallen into, Vin-a.1319.

[22]:

The offence fallen into subsequently by those under probation (i.e. in offences entailing a Formal Meeting of the Order).

[23]:

antarāpatti. I follow Inception of Discipline § 32 and its notes, q.v., for this translation in preference to that given in Critical Pali Dictionary which says antarāpatti “probably = antarāyikā āpatti”. But Pali seldom uses two technical terms to describe the same thing. Critical Pali Dictionary may have been misled by the two occurrences of antarā in the uddāna or tabulation at the end of this Chapter. The first is, however, an abbreviation of antarāyikā, as at Vin.5.114 senā is an abbreviation of senāsana. At Vin.2.43, to which Critical Pali Dictionary refers, antarā is conceptually unconnected with āpattiṃ (antarā ekaṃ āpattiṃ āpajji) and simply means “meanwhile, during that time”. Vin-a.1319f. says this secondary offence is when one is purifying oneself from the root one. The second clause seems to refer to Kd.13.20.1 where the duration of concurrent probation for a number of offences is said to be agghena, depending on. Vin-a.1320 says, “But the Kurundiya says the original offence is the one first fallen into; the subsequent offence is one fallen into at the time of deserving mānatta; an offence secondary to the original one is one fallen into during probation; an offence secondary to subsequent offences means those fallen into while the monk was carrying out mānatta. This is construable by the one method.” See Kd.13.

[25]:

desitā gaṇanūpagā āpatti. Vin-a.1320 explains that what is confessed is that, having thrown off the responsibility (for his offence) he says, I will not fall again.

[26]:

Here, the offence confessed is, not having thrown off responsibility, with an impure activity of mind. For nuns it is a Defeat in the eight things—Nuns’ Bi-Pj.8.

[27]:

As at Vin.5.1.

[28]:

As at Vin.5.1.

[29]:

As at Vin.5.1.

[30]:

As at Vin.5.1.

[31]:

As at Vin.5.1.

[32]:

As at Vin.5.1.

[33]:

As at Vin.5.1.

[34]:

As at Vin.5.1.

[35]:

As at Vin.5.1.

[36]:

thullavajjā āpatti, heavily blamable offence. Cf. Vin.2.87; explained at Vin-a.1194 as offences of Defeat and Formal Meeting of the Order, and by Vin-a.1320 as garukāpatti, for which see above, BD.6.171, n.6, n.7.

[37]:

Vin-a.1320 lahukāpatti, also see above.

[38]:

See BD.5.115 and n.3 there. Vin-a.1320 says this is the Elder Sudhamma’s offence (for insulting speech, for which see Vin.2.15ff.), and it adds that the remaining offences are not connected with the laity.

[39]:

niyata, explained at Vin-a.1320 as pañcānantariyakammāpatti, the five kinds of offences that are actions the fruition of which comes with no delay. See e.g. Mil.25, Vb.378, Vism.177, MN.Q.i.35, n.2. A first deed of this type was done by Devadatta, Kd.17.3.9. See too Uttaravinicchaya 432, Buddhist Psychological Ethics, p.267, Atthasālinī 358, Vb-a.426f.

[40]:

This means all the remaining offences; they are not niyata. But see Uttaravinicchaya 740ff.

[41]:

Sudinna, the originator of the First Defeat.

[42]:

The maker of the supplementary laying-down: the first recluse and the female monkey, Vin.3.23.

[43]:

adhiccāpattika, as at MN.i.443f.

[44]:

abhiṇhāpattika, as at MN.i.442f.

[46]:

cudita.

[47]:

See Vin.2.250.

[48]:

See Vin.2.250.

[49]:

See Vin.2.250.

[50]:

See Vin.2.250.

[51]:

niyata, certain or fixed. See note above, used in relation to offences. Vin-a.1334 names these five offences, in explaining pañca puggalā niyatā, as those of cutting down if the proper measure has been exceeded: Bu-Pc.87, Bu-Pc.89, Bu-Pc.90, Bu-Pc.91, Bu-Pc.92. Vin-a.1320 says “possessed of mental states (dhammā) that are fixed by wrongnesses or fixed by rightnesses”, for which, with aniyata, Cf. Tikap.335. See also Ds.1028, Ds.1029, and Buddhist Psychological Ethics, p.267; also Pp.13: katamo ca puggalo niyato? Apart from the 13 types of men the rest are said to be aniyata.

[52]:

abhabbāpattika: Buddhas and Hermit Buddhas according to Vin-a.1320; also Uttaravinicchaya 434.

[53]:

Disciples, i.e. monks and nuns, Uttaravinicchaya 434. I know of no canonical reference to this or the preceding clause.

[54]:

ukkhitta, by a (formal) act of suspension, see e.g. Vin.1.49, Vin.2.21.

[55]:

Vin-a.1320: “He is not suspended by any of the four remaining (formal) acts, beginning with that of censure”—see Vin.1.49 for these.

[56]:

Thus: “Expel the nun Mettiyā” (Vin.3.162); “a seducer (of nuns) is to be expelled” (Vin.1.85); “the novice Kaṇḍaka is to be expelled” (Vin.1.85; called Kaṇṭaka at Vin-a.1320). Cf. below BD.6.330.

[57]:

samānasaṃvāsaka; as at Vin.4.154; Cf. Vin.3.28, Vin.3.47, etc.

[58]:

Vin-a.1321 says “Beginning with the phrase ‘Monks, one suspension of the Pātimokkha is not legally valid’ (Vin.2.241), the suspension of the Pātimokkha (pātimokkhaṭṭhapana) should be known.”

[59]:

Abbreviated here from antarāyikā to antarā; see above, BD.6.172, n.8.

[60]:

Again antarā, but here it is not an abbreviation.

[61]:

udāna should read uddāna; Cf. the end of the Triads at Vin.5.124.

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