Vinaya Pitaka (4): Parivara

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 150,781 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It analyses the rules from various points of view. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (fourth part, parivara) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar...

4. Consecutive Repetitions

Prv.4.1.1 BD.6.132 Vin.5.91 [1] How many offences, how many classes of offence, how many matters is one trained in,[2] how many disrespects, how many respects, how many matters is one trained in, how many fallings-away, how many origins of offences, how many roots[3] of disputes, how many roots of censure, how many things to be remembered, how many matters making for schism, how many legal questions, how many decidings?

Five offences, five classes of offence, five matters that are trained in, seven offences, seven classes of offence, seven matters that are trained in, six disrespects, six respects, six matters that are trained in, four fallings-away, six origins of offences, six roots of disputes, six roots of censure, six things to be remembered, eighteen matters making for schism, four legal questions, seven decidings.

Prv.4.1.2 Herein what are the five offences? An offence involving Defeat, an offence requiring a Formal Meeting of the Order, an offence of Expiation, an offence to be Confessed, an offence of wrong-doing—these are the five offences.

Prv.4.1.3 Herein, what are the five classes of offence? The class of offence involving Defeat … the class of offence of wrong-doing—these are the five classes of offence.

Prv.4.1.4 Herein what are the five matters that are trained in? Abstaining from,[4] refraining from, avoidance of, restraint from, not doing, not committing, non-trespassing, not transgressing control,[5] bridge-breaking[6] in regard to the five classes of offence—these are the five matters that are trained in.[7]

Prv.4.1.5 BD.6.133 Herein what are the seven offences? An offence involving defeat, an offence requiring a Formal Meeting of the Order, a grave offence, an offence of Expiation, an offence to be Confessed, an offence of wrong-doing, an offence of wrong-speech—these are the seven offences.

Prv.4.1.6 Herein what are the seven classes of offence? The class of offence involving Defeat … the class of offence of wrong-speech—these are the seven classes of offence.

Prv.4.1.7 Herein what are the seven matters that are trained in? Abstaining from … bridge-breaking in regard to the seven classes of offence—these are the seven matters that are trained in.

Prv.4.1.8 Vin.5.92 Herein what are the six (kinds of) disrespect? Disrespect for the Buddha,[8] disrespect for Dhamma, disrespect for the Order, disrespect for the training, disrespect for diligence, disrespect for reciprocal courtesy[9]—these are the six (kinds of) disrespect.

Prv.4.1.9 Herein what are the six (kinds of) respect? Respect for the Buddha … respect for reciprocal courtesy—these are the six (kinds of) respect.

Prv.4.1.10 Herein what are the six matters that are trained in? Abstaining from … bridge-breaking in regard to the six (kinds of) disrespect—these are the six matters that are trained in.

Prv.4.1.11 Herein what are the four fallings away? Falling away from moral habit, falling away from good behaviour, falling away from (right) view, falling away from (right) mode of livelihood—these are the four fallings away.

Prv.4.1.12 BD.6.134 Herein what are the six origins of offences? There is an offence that originates from body, not from speech, not from mind; there is an offence that originates from speech, not from body, not from mind; there is an offence that originates from body and from speech, not from mind; there is an offence that originates from body and from mind, not from speech; there is an offence that originates from speech and from mind, not from body; there is an offence that originates from body and from speech and from mind—these are the six origins of offences.

Prv.4.1.13 Herein what are the six roots of disputes? As to this a monk becomes angry and bears ill-will.[10] Whatever monk becomes angry and bears ill-will, he lives without deference, disrespectful towards the Teacher … = Kd.14.14.3 down to the end of that paragraph. The word monk is here constantly omitted … thus there come to be no future effects of that evil root of disputes—these are the six roots of disputes.

Prv.4.1.14 Herein what are the six roots of censure? As to this a monk becomes angry … (this is identical with the last paragraph, reading censure instead of dispute) …—these are the six roots of censure.

Prv.4.1.15 Herein what are the six things to be remembered?[11] As to this, a monk should offer his fellow Brahma-farers a friendly act of body both in public and in private. This is a thing to be remembered making for affection, making for respect, it conduces to concord, to lack of dispute, to harmony, to unity. And again a monk should offer … a friendly act of speech … a friendly act of thought … to unity. And again, whatever are those lawful acquisitions, lawfully acquired, if they be even but what is put into the begging bowl—a monk should be one to enjoy sharing such acquisitions, to enjoy them in common with his virtuous fellow Brahma-farers. This too is a thing to be remembered … to unity. And again, whatever are those moral habits that are faultless, without flaw, spotless, without blemish, freeing, praised by wise men, untarnished, conducive to concentration—Vin.5.93 a monk should dwell united in virtues such as these with his fellow Brahma-farers, both in public and BD.6.135 in private. This too is a thing to be remembered … to unity. And again, whatever view is ariyan, leading onwards, leading him who acts according to it to the complete destruction of anguish—a monk should dwell united in a view such as this with his fellow Brahma-farers, both in public and in private. This too is a thing to be remembered … to unity.

Prv.4.1.16 Herein what are the eighteen matters making for schism? As to this, a monk explains non-dhamma as Dhamma= Kd.10.5.4 … he explains not a very bad offence as a very bad offence—these are the eighteen matters making for schism.

Prv.4.1.17 Herein what are the four legal questions? A legal question concerning disputes, a legal question concerning censure, a legal question concerning offences, a legal question concerning obligations[12]—these are the four legal questions.

Prv.4.1.18 Herein what are the seven decidings?[13] A verdict in the presence of, a verdict of innocence, a verdict of past insanity, a carrying out on (his) acknowledgement, a decision of the majority, a decision for specific depravity, a covering over (as) with grass—these are the seven decidings.

Concluded is the Chapter on the Questions: “How Many?”

Its Summary

Offence, classes of offence, trained in, sevenfold again,
Trained in and disrespects too, respects, and root too,
Again trained in, falling away, origin, disputes,
Censure, to be remembered, schism, and about legal question,
Just seven decidings are spoken of: these seventeen terms.


Prv.4.2.1 Could one fall into an offence involving Defeat by means of the first origin of offences? It should be said “Oh no”. Could one fall into an offence requiring a Formal Meeting of the Order? It should be said “One might”. Could one fall into a grave offence … an offence of Expiation … an offence to be Confessed … an offence of wrong-doing? It should be said “One might”. Could one fall into an offence of wrong speech? It should be said “Oh no”.

Prv.4.2.2 BD.6.136 Could one fall into … see Prv.4.2.1 … an offence of Expiation by means of the second origin of offences? It should be said “One might”. Could one fall into an offence to be Confessed? It should be said “Oh no”. Could one fall into an offence of wrong-doing? It should be said “One might”. Could one fall into an offence of wrong speech? It should be said “Oh no”.

Prv.4.2.3 Could one fall into … = Prv.4.2.1 … by means of the third origin of offences? …

Prv.4.2.4 Vin.5.94 Could one fall into an offence involving Defeat by means of the fourth origin of offences? It should be said “One might”. Could one fall into an offence requiring a Formal Meeting of the Order … = Prv.4.2.1

Prv.4.2.5 Could one fall into … = Prv.4.2.4 … an offence to be Confessed by means of the fifth origin of offences? It should be said “Oh no”. Could one fall into an offence of wrong-doing? It should be said “One might”. Could one fall into an offence of wrong speech? It should be said “One might”.

Prv.4.2.6 Could one fall … by means of the sixth origin of offences? … = Prv.4.2.4.

Concluded is the First Chapter: on the six Origins of Offences

Prv.4.3.1 How many offences does one fall into by means of the first origin of offences? One falls into five offences by means of the first origin of offences. A monk, thinking it is allowable, begging; himself, builds a hut without the site being marked out, exceeding the measure, involving destruction, not with an open space round it[14]; in the action there is an offence of wrong-doing; if one lump is still to come there is a grave offence[15]; when that lump has come there is an offence requiring a Formal Meeting of the Order.[16] A monk, thinking it is allowable, eats a meal at a wrong time—there is an offence of Expiation.[17] A monk, thinking it is allowable, eats solid food or soft food, having accepted it with his own hand from the hand of nun who is not a relation (and) has entered among the houses—there is an offence to be Confessed.[18] One falls into these five offences by means of the first origin of offences.

Of the four fallings away how many fallings away do these BD.6.137 offences appertain to? Of the seven classes of offence in how many classes of offence are they comprised? Of the six origins of offences by how many origins do they originate? Of the four legal questions which legal question? Of the seven decidings by how many decidings are they stopped? Of the four fallings away these offences appertain to two fallings away: it may be to falling away from moral habit, it may be to falling away from good behaviour. Of the seven classes of offence they are comprised in five classes of offence: it may be in the class of offence requiring a Formal Meeting of the Order; it may be in the class of offence that is a grave one; it may be in the class of offence of Expiation; it may be in the class of offence to be Confessed; it may be in the class of offence of wrong-doing. Of the six origins of offences they originate by means of one origin: they originate by body, not by speech, not by mind. Of the four legal questions the legal question concerning offences. Of the seven decidings they are stopped by three decidings: it may be by a verdict in the presence of and by the carrying out on (his) acknowledgement; it may be by a verdict in the presence of and by a covering over (as) with grass.

Prv.4.3.2 How many offences does one fall into by means of the second origin of offences? One falls into four offences by means of the second origin of offences. A monk, thinking it is allowable commands[19] Vin.5.95 “Build a hut for me”.[20] If they build a hut for him, the site not having been marked out, exceeding the measure,[21] involving destruction, not with an open space round it, in the action there is an offence of wrong-doing; if one lump is still to come there is a grave offence; when that lump has come there is an offence requiring a Formal Meeting of the Order. A monk, thinking it is allowable, makes someone who is not ordained teach Dhamma line by line, there is an offence of Expiation.[22] One falls into these four offences by means of the second origin of offences.

Of the four fallings away how many … see Prv.4.3.1 … by how BD.6.138 many decidings are they stopped? Of the four fallings away these offences appertain to two fallings away: it may be to falling away from moral habit, it may be to falling away from good behaviour. Of the seven classes of offence they are comprised in four classes of offence: it may be in the class of offence requiring a Formal Meeting of the Order; it may be in the class of offence that is a grave one; it may be in the class of offence of Expiation; it may be in the class of offence of wrong-doing. Of the six origins of offences they originate by means of one origin: they originate by speech, not by body not by mind. Of the four legal questions the legal question concerning offences. Of the seven decidings they are stopped by three decidings: … see Prv.4.3.1 … and by a covering over (as) with grass.

Prv.4.3.3 How many offences does one fall into by means of the third origin of offences? One falls into five offences by means of the third origin of offences. A monk, thinking it is allowable, having settled on (a site),[23] builds a hut, the site not having been marked out, exceeding the measure, involving destruction, not with an open space round it; in the action there is an offence of wrong-doing; if one lump is still to come there is a grave offence; when that lump has come there is an offence requiring a Formal Meeting of the Order.[24] A monk, thinking it is allowable, having asked for sumptuous foods for himself, eats them, there is an offence of Expiation.[25] A monk, thinking it is allowable, without restraining[26] nuns who are giving directions, eats, there is an offence to be Confessed.[27] One falls into these five offences by means of the third origin of offences.

Of the four fallings away how many … by how many decidings are they stopped? Of the four fallings away these offences appertain to two fallings away … Of the seven classes of offence they are comprised in five classes of offence: it may be in the class of offence requiring a Formal Meeting of the Order; it may be in the class of offence that is a grave one, it may be in the class of offence of Expiation; it may be in the BD.6.139 class of offence to be Confessed; it may be in the class of offence of wrong-doing. Of the six origins of offences they originate by means of one origin: they originate by body and by speech, not by mind. Of the four legal questions … and by a covering over (as) with grass.

Prv.4.3.4 How many offences does one fall into by means of the fourth origin of offences? One falls into six offences … A monk indulges in sexual intercourse, there is an offence involving Defeat.[28] A monk, thinking it is not allowable, begging himself, builds a hut Vin.5.96 without the site being marked out, exceeding the measure, involving destruction, not with an open space round it; in the action there is an offence of wrong-doing; if one lump is still to come there is a grave offence; when that lump has come there is an offence requiring a Formal Meeting of the Order.[29] A monk, thinking it is not allowable, eats a meal at a wrong time—there is an offence of Expiation.[30] A monk, thinking it is not allowable, eats solid food or soft food, having accepted it with his own hand from the hand of a nun who is not a relation (and) has entered among the houses—there is an offence to be Confessed.[31] One falls into these six offences by means of the fourth origin of offences.

Of the four fallings away how many … by how many decidings are they stopped? Of the four fallings away these offences appertain to two fallings away … Of the seven classes of offence they are comprised in six classes of offence: it may be in the class of offence involving Defeat; it may be in the class of offence requiring a Formal Meeting of the Order; it may be in the class of offence that is a grave one; it may be in the class of offence of Expiation; it may be in the class of offence to be Confessed; it may be in the class of offence of wrong-doing. Of the six origins of offences they originate by means of one origin: they originate by body and by mind, not by speech. Of the four legal questions … and by a covering over (as) with grass.

Prv.4.3.5 How many offences does one fall into by means of the fifth origin of offences? One falls into six offences … A monk of evil wishes,[32] overcome by desire, claims a non-existent state of BD.6.140 further-men which is not fact[33]—there is an offence involving Defeat.[34] A monk, thinking it is not allowable, commands “Build a hut for me”. If they build a hut for him, the site not having been marked out, exceeding the measure, involving destruction, not with an open space round it, in the action there is an offence of wrong-doing; if one lump is still to come there is a grave offence; when that lump has come there is an offence requiring a Formal Meeting of the Order.[35] A monk thinking it is not allowable, makes someone who is not ordained teach Dhamma line by line, there is an offence of Expiation.[36] If, not desiring to jeer at, not desiring to scoff at, not desiring to shame, (but having) a fondness for joking, he speaks of a low thing in low (words), there is an offence of wrong speech.[37] One falls into these six offences by means of the fifth origin of offences.

Of the four fallings away … by how many decidings are they stopped? Of the four fallings away these offences appertain to two fallings away … of the seven classes of offence they are comprised in six classes of offence: it may be in the class of offence involving Defeat; it may be in the class of offence requiring a Formal Meeting of the Order; it may be in the class of offence that is a grave one; it may be in the class of offence of Expiation; it may be in the class of offence of wrong-doing; it may be in the class of offence of wrong speech. Of the six origins of offences they originate by means of one origin: they originate by speech and by mind, not by body. Of the four legal questions … and by a covering over (as) with grass.

Prv.4.3.6 How many offences does one fall into by means of the sixth origin of offences? One falls into six offences … A monk, having arranged together (with others), steals the goods,[38] there is an offence involving Defeat.[39] Vin.5.97 A monk, thinking it is not allowable, having arranged, builds a hut, the site not having been marked out, exceeding the measure, involving destruction, not with an open space round it—in the action BD.6.141 there is an offence of wrong-doing; if one lump is still to come there is a grave offence; when that lump has come there is an offence requiring a Formal Meeting of the Order.[40] A monk, thinking it is not allowable, having asked for sumptuous foods for himself, eats them, there is an offence of Expiation.[41] A monk, thinking it is not allowable, without restraining nuns who are giving directions, eats, there is an offence to be Confessed.[42] One falls into these six offences by means of the sixth origin of offences.

Of the four fallings away how many … by how many decidings are they stopped? Of the four fallings away these offences appertain to two fallings away … Of the seven classes of offence they are comprised in six classes … see Prv.4.3.4 … it may be in the class of offence of wrong-doing. Of the six origins of offences they originate by means of one origin: they originate by body and by speech and by mind. Of the four legal questions … and by a covering over (as) with grass.

Concluded is the Second Chapter: on How Many Offences for the six Originations of Offences

Prv.4.4.1 Bodily origins have been proclaimed for the world’s welfare
by Him who had vision of the infinite,[43] vision of aloofness;
By this means how many offences have originated?
I ask this—explain, (thou who art) skilled in the Analyses. /
Bodily origins have been explained for the world’s welfare
by Him who had vision of the infinite, vision of aloofness;
By this means five offences have originated:
I explain this to you, (thou who art) skilled in the Analyses. /
Verbal origins have been proclaimed for the world’s welfare
… explain, (thou who art) skilled in the Analyses. /
Verbal origins have been explained for the world’s welfare …
four offences have originated:
I explain this to you, (thou who art) skilled in the Analyses. /
Bodily, verbal origins have been proclaimed … /
BD.6.142 Bodily, verbal origins have been proclaimed …
five offences have originated … /
Bodily, mental origins … six … /
Verbal, mental origins … six … /
Bodily, verbal, mental origins have been proclaimed for the world’s welfare
by Him who had vision of the infinite, vision of aloofness;
By this means how many offences have originated?
I ask this—explain, (thou who art) skilled in the Analyses. /
Vin.5.98 Bodily, verbal, mental origins have been proclaimed for the world’s welfare
by Him who had vision of the infinite, vision of aloofness;
By this means six offences have originated:
I explain this to you, (thou who art) skilled in the Analyses. /

Concluded is the Third Talk: on the Origin of Offences

Prv.4.5.1 Because of falling away from moral habit how many offences does one fall into? Because of falling away from moral habit one falls into four offences: a nun who knowing of a matter involving Defeat conceals it, falls into an offence involving Defeat[44]; if, being in doubt, she conceals it, she falls into a grave offence.[45] If a monk conceals an offence requiring a Formal Meeting of the Order he falls into an offence of Expiation.[46] If he conceals his own very bad offence he falls into an offence of wrong-doing.[47] Because of falling away from moral habit one falls into these four offences. Of the four fallings away how many fallings away do these offences appertain to … are they stopped? Of the four fallings away these offences appertain to two fallings away: it may be to falling away from moral habit; it may be to falling away from good behaviour. Of the seven classes of offence they are comprised in four classes of offence: it may be in the class of offence involving Defeat; it may be in the class of offence that BD.6.143 is a grave one; it may be in the class of offence of Expiation; it may be in the class of offence of wrong-doing. Of the six origins of offences they originate by means of one origin: they originate by body and by speech and by mind. Of the four legal questions … and by a covering over (as) with grass.

Prv.4.5.2 Because of falling away from good behaviour how many offences does one fall into? … one falls into one offence[48]: if one conceals a falling away from good behaviour one falls into an offence of wrong-doing.[49] Because of falling away from good behaviour one falls into this one offence. Of the four fallings away how many fallings away does this offence appertain to … of the seven decidings by how many decidings is it stopped? Of the four fallings away this offence appertains to one falling away: to falling away from good behaviour. Of the seven classes of offence it is comprised in one class of offence: in the class of offence of wrong-doing. Of the six origins of offences it originates by means of one origin: it originates by body and by speech and by mind. Of the four legal questions, the legal question concerned with offences. Of the seven decidings it is stopped by three decidings … and a covering over (as) with grass.

Prv.4.5.3 Because of falling away from (right) view how many offences does one fall into? … one falls into two offences: if one does not give up a depraved view though being admonished up to the third time, as a result of the motion there is an offence of wrong-doing; at the end of the resolutions there is an offence of Expiation.[50] Because of falling away from (right) view one falls into these two offences. Of the four fallings away how many fallings away do these offences appertain to … are they stopped? Of the four fallings away these offences appertain to one falling away: to falling away from good behaviour. Of the seven classes of offence they are comprised in two classes of offence: Vin.5.99 it may be in the class of offence of Expiation; it may be in the class of offence of wrong-doing. Of the six origins of offences they originate by means of one BD.6.144 origin: they originate by body and by speech and by mind Of the four legal questions … and by a covering over (as) grass.

Prv.4.5.4 Because of falling away from a (right) mode of livelihood how many offences does one fall into? … one falls into six offences: for the sake of livelihood, for the reason of livelihood one of evil wishes, overcome by desire, claims a non-existent state of further-men which is not fact[51]—there is an offence involving Defeat; for the sake of livelihood, for the reason of livelihood if one acts as a go-between there is an offence requiring a Formal Meeting of the Order[52]; for the sake of livelihood, for the reason of livelihood if one speaks saying “Whatever monk lives in your vihāra is an arahant” there is a grave offence involving recognition[53]; for the sake of livelihood, for the reason of livelihood if a monk, having asked for sumptuous foods for himself, eats them, there is an offence of Expiation[54]; for the sake of livelihood, for the reason of livelihood if a nun, having asked for sumptuous foods for herself, partakes of them, there is an offence to be Confessed;[55] for the sake of livelihood, for the reason of livelihood if one who is not ill, having asked for curry or conjey for himself, eats it, there is an offence of wrong-doing.[56] Because of falling away from (right) mode of livelihood one falls into these six offences. Of the four fallings away how many fallings away do these offences appertain to … are they stopped? Of the four fallings away these offences appertain to two fallings away: it may be to falling away from moral habit; it may be to falling away from good behaviour. Of the seven classes of offence they are comprised in six classes of offence … see Prv.4.3.4 above … offence of wrong-doing. Of the six origins of offences they originate by means of the six origins: it may be that they originate by body, not by speech, not by mind; it BD.6.145 may be that they originate by speech, not by body, not by mind; it may be that they originate by body and by speech, not by mind; it may be that they originate by body and by mind, not by speech; it may be that they originate by speech and by mind, not by body; it may be that they originate by body and by speech and by mind. Of the four legal questions … and a covering over (as) with grass.

Concluded is the Fourth Chapter: on Because of Falling Away

Prv.4.6.1 Because of legal questions concerning disputes how many offences does one fall into? Because of legal questions concerning disputes one falls into two offences: if one insults one who is ordained there is an offence of Expiation[57]; if one insults one who is not ordained there is an offence of wrong-doing.[58] Because of legal questions concerning disputes one falls into these two offences. Of the four fallings away how many fallings away do these offences appertain to … are they stopped? Of the four fallings away these offences appertain to one falling away: to falling away from good behaviour. Of the seven classes of offence they are comprised in two classes of offence: it may be in the class of offence of Expiation; it may be in the class of offence of wrong-doing. Of the six origins of offences they originate by means of three origins: it may be that they originate by body and by mind, not Vin.5.100 by speech; it may be that they originate by speech and mind, not by body; it may be that they originate by body and by speech and by mind. Of the four legal questions … and by a covering over (as) with grass.

Prv.4.6.2 Because of legal questions concerning censure how many offences does one fall into? … one falls into three offences: if one defames a monk with an unfounded charge of an offence involving Defeat, there is an offence requiring a Formal Meeting of the Order[59]; if one defames with an unfounded charge of an offence requiring a Formal Meeting of the Order, there is an offence of Expiation[60]; if one defames with an unfounded charge of falling away from good behaviour there BD.6.146 is an offence of wrong-doing.[61] Because of legal questions concerning censure one falls into these three offences. Of the four fallings away how many fallings away do these offences appertain to … are they stopped? Of the four fallings away these offences appertain to two fallings away: it may be to falling away from moral habit; it may be to falling away from good behaviour. Of the seven classes of offence they are comprised in three classes of offence: it may be in the class of offence requiring a Formal Meeting of the Order; it may be in the class of offence of Expiation; it may be in the class of offence of wrong-doing. Of the six origins of offences they originate by means of three origins: it may be that they originate by body and by mind, not by speech; it may be that they originate by speech and by mind, not by body; it may be that they originate by body and by speech and by mind. Of the four legal questions … and by a covering over (as) with grass.

Prv.4.6.3 Because of legal questions concerning offences how many offences does one fall into? … one falls into four offences: a nun who, knowing of a matter involving Defeat, conceals it, falls into an offence involving Defeat[62]; if, being in doubt, she conceals it, she falls into a grave offence[63]; if a monk conceals an offence requiring a Formal Meeting of the Order he falls into an offence of Expiation[64]; if he conceals a falling away from good behaviour he falls into an offence of wrong-doing.[65] Because of legal questions concerning offences one falls into these four offences. Of the four fallings away how many fallings away do these offences appertain to … are they stopped? Of the four fallings away these offences appertain to two fallings away: it may be to falling away from moral habit; it may be to falling away from good behaviour. Of the seven classes of offence they are comprised in four classes of offence: it may be in the class of offence involving Defeat; it may be in the class of offence that is a grave one; it may be in the class of offence of Expiation; it may be in the class of offence of wrong-doing. Of the six origins of offence they originate by means of one origin: they originate by body and by speech BD.6.147 and by mind. Of the four legal questions … and by a covering over (as) with grass.

Prv.4.6.4 Because of legal questions concerning obligations how many offences does one fall into? … one falls into five offences: if a nun, an imitator of one who has been suspended, though being admonished up to the third time does not give up (her course), as a result of the motion there is an offence of wrong-doing, as a result of two resolutions there are grave offences, at the end of the resolutions there is an offence involving Defeat[66]; if monks who are imitators of a schismatic, though being admonished up to the third time, do not give up (their course), there is an offence requiring a Formal Meeting of the Order[67]; if one, though being admonished up to the third time, does not give up depraved views there is an offence Vin.5.101 of Expiation.[68] Because of legal questions concerning obligations one falls into these five offences. Of the four fallings away how many fallings away do these offences appertain to … are they stopped? … to two fallings away … Of the seven classes of offence they are comprised in five classes of offence: it may be in the class of offence involving Defeat; it may be in the class of offence requiring a Formal Meeting of the Order; it may be in the class of offence that is a grave one; it may be in the class of offence of Expiation; it may be in the class of offence of wrong-doing. Of the six origins of offences they originate by means of one origin: they originate by body and by speech and by mind. Of the four legal questions … and by a covering over (as) with grass.

Prv.4.6.5 Leaving aside the seven offences, the seven classes of offence—of the four fallings away how many fallings away do the remaining offences appertain to? Of the seven classes of offence in how many classes of offence are they comprised? Of the six origins of offences by how many origins do they originate? Of the four legal questions which legal question? Of the seven decidings by how many decidings are they stopped? Leaving aside the seven offences, the seven classes of offence—it is not:[69] of the four fallings away to which falling away do BD.6.148 the remaining offences appertain, of the seven classes of offence in which class of offence are they comprised, of the six origins of offences by which origin do they originate, of the four legal questions which legal question, of the seven decidings by which deciding are they stopped? What is the reason for that? Leaving aside the seven offences and the seven classes of offence there are no other offences.

Concluded is the Fifth Chapter: on Because of Legal Questions

Concluded is Consecutive Repetitions

Its Summary

Questions on How many? origins, and likewise How many offences?
Origins, and fallings away, and so too about legal questions.

Footnotes and references:

1.

Note by Sujato: In Horner’s edition this chapter and the next were regarded as sections of the same chapter. I have adjusted this to follow the more logical structure of the Mahāsaṅgīti edition. Thus the following chapters are numbered one greater than in her edition. Also see note on Prv.10.

2.

vinītavatthu is explained below. Vin-a.1314 says “questions on discipline about those offences (just referred to); so, trained (vinīta), discipline (vinaya) and suppression (or, mastery, settling or suppression, vūpasama) are one in meaning”.

3.

mūla, root as cause; Cf. MN-a.i.12.

4.

The first four words occur at MN.iii.74 (the Commentary on which resembles the Vinaya Commentary) and all are to be found at Ds.299 = Vb.285.

5.

Vin-a.1315 says nothing about anatikkamo (not transgressing); of velā is (control) it says “from controlling is control (velanato velā). The meaning is controlling, driving out”. Three kinds of velā are given at MN-a.ii.95 (kāla-, sīma- and sīla-) where velā-anatikkamo comes under the third kind. See also Vb.285ff. where the above sequence of words is applied to each of the five sīlas. At Ds-a.219 velā anatikkamo is also taken as one phrase. I have followed this apparently well recognized practice above.

6.

setughāta. See AN.i.220f., AN.i.261, AN.ii.145f.; also Vin.1.59, Vin.3.6, Vin.4.24. Setu, the bridge, seems taken, however, in rather a different sense above. Vin-a.180 calls it magga; but Vin-a.1315 on above passage Cf. Atthasālinī 219 says “bridge means: it ties, binds, obstructs the way out (or, outlet, niyyāna, i.e. to safety). Bridge-breaking is the destroying of these descriptions”). The broken bridge therefore should provide the way out. This is in antithesis to the traditional symbolism of “bridge” as the necessary means for passage from the hither to the further shore.

7.

The meaning is that the five classes of offence are to be trained in by these methods.

8.

As at DN.iii.244, AN.iii.340.

9.

Paṭisanthāra. Described as āmisa- and dhamma- at AN.i.93. See also AN.iii.362, Dhp-a.iv.111; spoken of only as twofold at Vin-a.1315 and DN-a.1034.

11.

As at DN.iii.245; MN.i.322; AN.iii.288; Cf. DN.ii.80; MN.ii.250.

15.

As at Vin.3.151.

16.

As at Vin.3.151.

19.

Vin.1.155 reads samādisati; above -diyati.

21.

Not at Vin.3.153 or in the following paragraphs there.

23.

saṃvidahitvā; word does not appear to be in Bu-Ss.6.

26.

nivāretvā; forms of this verb are in the narrative portion of Pāṭidesaniya, but not in the sikkhāpada.

32.

Vin.3.90 reads pāpabhikkhu; above we get bhikkhu pāpiccho icchāpakato.

38.

For saṃvidhāvahāra see Vin.3.47. Vin.3.53, Vin.3.64 (in Bu-Pj.2); above reading bhikkhu saṃvidahitvā bhaṇḍaṃ avaharati.

43.

anantadassin; Cf. SN.i.143.

44.

Nuns’ Bi-Pj.6; Vin.4.216.

45.

Not in Nuns’ Bi-Pj.6.

46.

This may refer to Bu-Pc.64 where there is an offence of Pācittiya for concealing a monk’s very bad offence, duṭṭhullā āpatti. This is so defined at Vin.4.128 (also at Vin.4.31) as to include the 13 Formal Meeting offences. See too Vin-a.866.

47.

Possibly referring to Vin.2.67f. (Kd.13.34) where if a monk has fallen into an offence entailing a Formal Meeting of the Order (see previous note) and thinks it is one and conceals it “he should be made to confess an offence of wrong-doing”, yo chādeti so dukkaṭaṃ desāpetabbo.

49.

At Vin.1.172 falling away from good behaviour is defined as a grave offence, one of Expiation, one to be confessed, one of wrong-doing, one of wrong speech. Therefore to conceal any of these entails wrong-doing.

50.

Vin.4.136, at the end of Bu-Pc.68.

53.

Vin.3.102 in Bu-Pj.4, but where the word paṭivijānantassa, involving recognizing, is absent. It occurs, however, in the Commentary on this passage, Vin-a.502.

55.

Nuns’ Bi-Pd.1–8. The eight items of sumptuous food are defined at Vin.4.88. A Nuns’ Pātidesanīya concerns each one of them, but lacks the words attano atthāya, though the sentiment is there.

62.

See above Prv.4.5.1.

63.

See above Prv.4.5.1.

64.

See above Prv.4.5.1.

65.

See above Prv.4.5.2

66.

Vin.4.119 in Nuns’ Bi-Pj.7.

67.

Bu-Ss.10; but it does not use the word bhedakānuvattaka, imitator or follower of a schismatic.

69.

I.e. this is a question not properly formulated.

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