by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 150,781 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160
The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It analyses the rules from various points of view. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (fourth part, parivara) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar...
When they have performed various austerities,
and have fulfilled the perfections,
The Great Heroes uprise, having become Vision
in the world with the Brahmās;
Thus is True Dhamma led on if Vinaya endures.
The two Analyses, the Khandhakas, and the Headings
And in the Thread below division and source are shown as different.
Therefore “He who is well behaved and desires the rule
must train in Parivāra”.
That which is the First Defeat, and next the Second,
A Go-between and Admonishment and an Extra Robe,
Wools, Dhamma-line-by-line, Fact, and Arranging,
Set on Theft, Teaching, and Woman Thief, Without Consent are thirteen.
These thirteen were thought out by learned men according to the Origin-method:
In each the origins are shown to be the same.
These trainings are seventy-six done by body and by thought,
All are from one origin as is the First Defeat.
Concluded is First Defeat Origin
Remorse, legitimate, having given (away),
should apportion to an individual,
“What to you?”, not at a right time, should tear away,
misapprehension, and with Niraya,
By body and mind, not speech; speech and mind, not bodily,
They arise by three doors as does the Second Defeat.
Concluded is Second Defeat Origin
Treasure, needle, and couch, cotton, piece of cloth to sit on, and itch,
And for the rains, for the Well-farer, asking, getting another thing in exchange,
Two on belonging to an Order,
two on belonging to a company,
to an individual, light, heavy,
Two on remains of food, and cloths, and about recluses’ robe-material:
By body and speech, but not by mind; by body and mind, not by speech;
Vin.5.88 By speech and mind, not by body: they may arise from the three doors.
These, being six-origined, are similar to the Go-Between.
Concluded is the Go-Between Origin
A schism, one who imitates,
one difficult to speak to, disrepute,
very bad offence, and view,
Consent, and two on loud laughter,
and two on noise, one should not talk,
On the ground, on a low seat, standing,
going behind, and at the side of a path,
A fault, a (nun-)imitator, taking hold of, should restore, renouncing,
Concluded is Admonishing Origin
Concluded is Kaṭhina Origin
By body, not by speech or mind; by body and mind, not by speech,
All, being of dual origin, are the same as that concerning Sheep’s Wool.
Concluded is Sheep’s Wool Origin
These seven rules of training by speech, not by body and mind,
By speech and mind are born, but cannot be born by body.
All are of dual origin as in Dhamma-line-by-line.
Concluded is Dhamma-Line-by-Line Origin
These fifteen trainings by body, not by speech, not by thought;
By body and speech are born, they cannot be born of mind;
They are born by body and mind, they are not born by speech; BD.6.130
(And) by body, speech and by mind—
the fourfold origin Laid down by the Buddha’s knowledge is as with Highway.
Concluded is Highway Origin
Are born of body and mind, they are not born of speech;
By means of three doors (from which offences) are born, these, dual in origin,
Have origins (as) Caravan Set on Theft, proclaimed by the Kinsman of the Sun.
Concluded is Caravan-Set-on-Theft Origin
Are born of speech and thought, they are not born of body.
In the Dhamma-teaching all are agreed upon as having one origin.
Concluded is Dhamma-Teaching Origin
Fact is born of body, not of speech, not of mind;
And it is born of speech, not of body, not of mind;
It is born of body and speech, it is not born of mind.
So, speaking about Fact means it is born in three ways.
Concluded is Speaking-about-Fact Origin
Concluded is Ordination-of-Woman-Thief Origin
Without the consent by speech, not of body and not of mind;
If born of body and speech, then it is not born of mind;
If born of speech and mind, then it is not born of body.
Vin.5.90 It is born from three doors—a fourth (causal) occasion is not made.
Concluded is Without-the-Consent Origin
The abstract of the thirteen (classes of) origin
has indeed been well taught.
The impossibility of an occasion for confusion
is in accordance with the rules as guide:
Bearing this in mind,
wise men do not get confused about origin.
Concluded is the Abstract under the Head of Origin
Footnotes and references:
Cf. Dhp.277, Dhp.278.
sabhāgadhamma. Here dhamma has to be taken in its meaning of rule or offence; sabhāga is in common, here to monks and nuns. This does not imply that each rule applies to monk and nun alike: some offences could be committed only by monks, others only by nuns. All of these are collected in this Chapter. Cf. Vin.1.126 sabhāgā āpatti, a collective offence.
An epithet of the Buddha.
niyato kata, explained at Vin-a.1305 as niyatakata niyatasamuṭṭhāna.
sambhedanidānañ c’aññaṃ. The reference appears to be to the mixture, sambheda, of origins of an offence, here divisioned below, by various combinations of body, speech and thought. Nidāna, the source or provenance, is usually the place where a rule was laid down. This Chapter is not itself concerned with these places: they are given in Chapter 8 of which verse 6 is cited at Vin-a.1305.
Monks and nuns.
The rules of training.
That is, the thirteen divisions that now follow. In these the offences from both Vibhaṅgas are grouped according to the kind and number of ways they can be originated by monk or nun. All fall into position and not one rule is omitted. There are a few slight discrepancies between the titles as given above and at the end of the divisions.
Not the usual citta here, but mānasika.
manas here instead of the more usual citta; Cf. verse 16.
Reading cāpi with Vin-a.1311 instead of text’s vāpi.
Again reading ca for text’s vā.
dhammanetti, explained at Vin-a.1314 as Vinayapāḷidhamma.