Vinaya Pitaka (4): Parivara

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 150,781 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It analyses the rules from various points of view. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (fourth part, parivara) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar...

3. Summary Of Origins

Prv.3.1 BD.6.123 Vin.5.86 Impermanent are all constructs,[1] painful, not self, and constructed,
And certainly nibbāna is a description meaning not-self.

When the moon of the Buddha has not appeared,
when the sun of the Buddha has not risen
The very name of those rules held in common[2] is not known.

When they have performed various austerities,
and have fulfilled the perfections,
The Great Heroes uprise, having become Vision
in the world with the Brahmās;

They teach True Dhamma: the slaying of anguish, the bringing of happiness.
Aṅgīrasa[3] the Sakyan Sage, compassionate for all beings,

The best of all creatures, the lion, taught the three Piṭakas:
The Suttantas, the Abhidhamma, and the Vinaya—a great special quality.

Thus is True Dhamma led on if Vinaya endures.
The two Analyses, the Khandhakas, and the Headings

Are garlands fastened by Parivāra which is just a strand in the Thread.[4]
For this Parivāra itself “origin” is regularized,[5]

And in the Thread below division and source are shown as different.[6]
Therefore “He who is well behaved and desires the rule
must train in Parivāra”.

BD.6.124 At the Observance they[7] recite what was laid down[8] in the two Analyses,
(Saying) I will declare the origin according to the method: listen to me.

That which is the First Defeat, and next the Second,
A Go-between and Admonishment and an Extra Robe,

Wools, Dhamma-line-by-line, Fact, and Arranging,
Set on Theft, Teaching, and Woman Thief, Without Consent are thirteen.

These thirteen[9] were thought out by learned men according to the Origin-method:
In each the origins are shown to be the same.

Intercourse,[10] semen,[11] contact,[12] the first Undetermined (offence),
Arrived first,[13] procured through (the intervention),[14] together with a nun in private,[15]

With food,[16] and two in private,[17] the fingers,[18] sporting in the water,[19]
Vin.5.87 A blow,[20] also raising,[21] and fifty-three Trainings,[22]

Below the collar-bone,[23] village,[24] full of desire,[25] palm,[26] and application,[27] ablution,[28]
Having kept the rains,[29] and exhortation,[30] on not waiting on a woman instructor.[31]

These trainings are seventy-six done by body and by thought,[32]
All are from one origin as is the First Defeat.

Concluded is First Defeat Origin


Not given,[33] form,[34] further,[35] lewd (words),[36] pleasures for self,[37]
Unfounded,[38] belonging to something else,[39]
the second Undetermined (offence),

Should tear away,[40] should apportion,[41] lying,[42] insult,[43] slander,[44]
Very bad,[45] should dig the ground,[46] growth,[47] in evasion,[48]
in making look down on,[49]

Throwing out,[50] and sprinkling,[51] sake of gain,[52] having eaten,[53]
“Come”,[54] in disrespect,[55] should frighten,[56] and should hide,[57] living thing,[58]

Knowing it contains living things,[59] (formal) act,[60]
under (twenty),[61] in communion,[62] expulsion,[63]
Regarding a rule,[64] perplexity,[65] confusion,[66]
and with an unfounded charge,[67]

Remorse,[68] legitimate,[69] having given (away),[70]
should apportion to an individual,[71]
“What to you?”,[72] not at a right time,[73] should tear away,[74]
misapprehension,[75] and with Niraya,[76]

Group,[77] division,[78] not sure,[79] kaṭhina,[80] discomfort,[81] quarters,[82]
Revile,[83] quick-tempered,[84] grudging,[85] and pregnant,[86] giving suck,[87]

Two years,[88] probationer (not agreed on) by the Order,[89]
likewise three on girls,[90]
BD.6.126 And three on a maiden,[91] less than twelve,[92] not agreed on,[93]

Sufficiently,[94] dwelling-place of grief,[95] favoritism,[96] and every year,[97] two:[98]
These are seventy rules of training, done triad-wise as to origin:

By body and mind, not speech; speech and mind, not bodily,
They arise by three doors as does the Second Defeat.

Concluded is Second Defeat Origin

Go-between,[99] hut,[100] vihāra,[101] and getting (it) washed,[102] acceptance,[103]
Asking,[104] more than the asking,[105] on two,[106] and by a messenger,[107]

Silk,[108] two on pure portions,[109] six years,[110] piece of cloth to sit on,[111]
They neglect,[112] and likewise on silver,[113] two on various transactions,[114]

Mended in less,[115] for the rains,[116] yarn,[117] and about a consideration,[118]
And door,[119] giving,[120] sewing,[121] cake,[122] reason,[123] and fire,[124]

Treasure,[125] needle,[126] and couch,[127] cotton,[128] piece of cloth to sit on,[129] and itch,[130]
And for the rains,[131] for the Well-farer,[132] asking,[133] getting another thing in exchange,[134]

Two on belonging to an Order,[135]
two on belonging to a company,[136]
to an individual,[137] light,[138] heavy,[139]
Two on remains of food,[140] and cloths,[141] and about recluses’ robe-material[142]:

BD.6.127 Thou understandeth that these offences may arise by six causal occasions:
By body, not by speech or mind; by speech, not by body or thought,[143]

By body and speech, but not by mind; by body and mind, not by speech;
Vin.5.88 By speech and mind, not by body: they may arise from the three doors.
These, being six-origined, are similar to the Go-Between.

Concluded is the Go-Between Origin

A schism,[144] one who imitates,[145]
one difficult to speak to,[146] disrepute,[147]
very bad offence,[148] and view,[149]
Consent,[150] and two on loud laughter,[151]
and two on noise,[152] one should not talk,[153]

On the ground,[154] on a low seat,[155] standing,[156]
going behind,[157] and at the side of a path,[158]
A fault,[159] a (nun-)imitator,[160] taking hold of,[161] should restore,[162] renouncing,[163]

In some,[164] two on in company,[165] struck,[166]
should unsew,[167] and about an ailing (woman),[168]
Company again,[169] should not settle,[170]
and monastery,[171] invitation,[172]

Every half,[173] two on the woman who lives with her,[174] robe,[175] waiting on[176]:
These thirty-seven offences from body, speech and mind
Are all from one origin as is Admonishing.

Concluded is Admonishing Origin

Three on kaṭhina (privileges) removed,[177]
the first (rule on) the bowl,[178] medicine,[179]
BD.6.128 Special,[180] and also[181] dangerous,[182] and[183] two on setting-forth,[184]

Quarters,[185] out-of-turns,[186] not left over,[187] invited,[188]
Assigning,[189] of a king,[190] at a wrong time,[191]
giving directions,[192] and about forest (-lodgings),[193]

In envy,[194] and a hoard,[195] before,[196] after,[197] and at a wrong time,[198]
For five days,[199] to be handed back,[200] and two on a household robe,[201]

On the lower part of the body,[202] also on a seat[203]—these twenty-nine
May from the three doors arise by body and speech but not by mind:
All, being of dual origin, are the same as the Kaṭhina.

Concluded is Kaṭhina Origin

Sheep’s wool,[204] two on sleeping-place,[205]
removable,[206] eating a meal,[207]
Group,[208] at a wrong time,[209] stored,[210]
water for cleansing the teeth,[211] unclothed ones,[212]

Fighting,[213] an army,[214] sham-fight,[215]
fermented liquor,[216] bathing at less,[217]
On disfigurement,[218] two concerning confession,[219]
garlic,[220] should stand close,[221] dancing,[222]

Bathing,[223] covering-cloth,[224] sleeping-place,[225]
in (her own) region,[226] likewise outside,[227]
BD.6.129 During the rains,[228] picture-gallery,[229] sofa,[230] spinning yarn,[231]

(Household-) work,[232] and with her own hand,[233]
and about a residence where there is no monk,[234]
Sunshade,[235] and vehicle,[236] petticoat,[237] ornament,[238] perfume,[239] scented,[240]

Nun,[241] and probationer,[242] woman novice,[243] woman householder,[244]
Without (her) vest[245]—forty-four offences.

By body, not by speech or mind; by body and mind, not by speech,
All, being of dual origin, are the same as that concerning Sheep’s Wool.

Concluded is Sheep’s Wool Origin

Line,[246] except,[247] not agreed on,[248] and likewise after (sun-)set,[249]
Vin.5.89 The two spoken on worldly knowledge,[250] and asking without leave[251]:

These seven rules of training by speech, not by body and mind,
By speech and mind are born, but cannot be born by body.
All are of dual origin as in Dhamma-line-by-line.

Concluded is Dhamma-Line-by-Line Origin

Highway,[252] boat,[253] sumptuous,[254] with a woman,[255] should let grow,[256]
Grain,[257] and likewise being invited,[258] and the eight to be Confessed[259]:

These fifteen trainings by body, not by speech, not by thought;
By body and speech are born, they cannot be born of mind;

They are born by body and mind, they are not born by speech; BD.6.130
(And) by body, speech and by mind—
the fourfold origin Laid down by the Buddha’s knowledge is as with Highway.

Concluded is Highway Origin

Caravan set on theft,[260] overhearing,[261] and about asking for curry,[262]
Night,[263] and secluded,[264] in an open place,[265] and the seventh about a cul-de-sac[266]:

Are born of body and mind, they are not born of speech;
By means of three doors (from which offences) are born, these, dual in origin,
Have origins (as) Caravan Set on Theft, proclaimed by the Kinsman of the Sun.

Concluded is Caravan-Set-on-Theft Origin

Tathāgatas do not teach true Dhamma to someone holding a sunshade,[267]
Neither to one holding a staff,[268] nor to those holding a knife,[269] a weapon,[270]

Nor to one wearing shoes,[271] sandals,[272] in a vehicle,[273] on a bed,[274] who is lolling,[275]
(Wearing) a turban,[276] nor muffled up[277]: eleven, not less,

Are born of speech and thought, they are not born of body.
In the Dhamma-teaching all are agreed upon as having one origin.

Concluded is Dhamma-Teaching Origin

Fact[278] is born of body, not of speech, not of mind;
And it is born of speech, not of body, not of mind;

It is born of body and speech, it is not born of mind.
So, speaking about Fact means it is born in three ways.

Concluded is Speaking-about-Fact Origin

BD.6.131 Woman thief[279] by speech, by mind, this too is born of body.
This ordination of a woman thief is born from three doors;
The dual origin spoken of by the King under Dhamma is not made.

Concluded is Ordination-of-Woman-Thief Origin

Without the consent[280] by speech, not of body and not of mind;
If born of body and speech, then it is not born of mind;

If born of speech and mind, then it is not born of body.
Vin.5.90 It is born from three doors—a fourth (causal) occasion is not made.

Concluded is Without-the-Consent Origin

The abstract of the thirteen (classes of) origin
has indeed been well taught.
The impossibility of an occasion for confusion
is in accordance with the rules as guide:[281]
Bearing this in mind,
wise men do not get confused about origin.

Concluded is the Abstract under the Head of Origin

Footnotes and references:


Cf. Dhp.277, Dhp.278.


sabhāgadhamma. Here dhamma has to be taken in its meaning of rule or offence; sabhāga is in common, here to monks and nuns. This does not imply that each rule applies to monk and nun alike: some offences could be committed only by monks, others only by nuns. All of these are collected in this Chapter. Cf. Vin.1.126 sabhāgā āpatti, a collective offence.


An epithet of the Buddha.




niyato kata, explained at Vin-a.1305 as niyatakata niyatasamuṭṭhāna.


sambhedanidānañ c’aññaṃ. The reference appears to be to the mixture, sambheda, of origins of an offence, here divisioned below, by various combinations of body, speech and thought. Nidāna, the source or provenance, is usually the place where a rule was laid down. This Chapter is not itself concerned with these places: they are given in Chapter 8 of which verse 6 is cited at Vin-a.1305.


Monks and nuns.


The rules of training.


That is, the thirteen divisions that now follow. In these the offences from both Vibhaṅgas are grouped according to the kind and number of ways they can be originated by monk or nun. All fall into position and not one rule is omitted. There are a few slight discrepancies between the titles as given above and at the end of the divisions.


Of the 75 Trainings (Sekhiya), 22 are referred to separately in following parts of this Section, i.e. Nos. Bu-Sk.11Bu-Sk.14, Bu-Sk.43, Bu-Sk.57Bu-Sk.72. So the above 53 refer to Trainings Nos. Bu-Sk.1Bu-Sk.10, Bu-Sk.15Bu-Sk.36, Bu-Sk.38Bu-Sk.42, Bu-Sk.44Bu-Sk.56, Bu-Sk.73Bu-Sk.75.


Nuns’ Bi-Pj.5.


Nuns’ Bi-Ss.3.


Nuns’ Bi-Ss.5


Nuns’ Bi-Pc.3.


Not the usual citta here, but mānasika.


Bu-Pj.3; viggaha above is an abbreviation of manussaviggaha.


Bu-Pj.4; uttariṃ above abbreviating uttarimanussadhamma.


Bu-Ss.4, here reading atthakāminaṃ against attakā- of Vin.3.133 and Vin-a.1307.


Bu-Pc.79, reading dhammakaṃ against dhammi- of Vin.4.152 and Vin-a.1307.


Bu-Pc.81. Though the words chandaṃ datvā occur in Bu-Pc.79, datvā here belongs, according to Vin-a.1307, to cīvaraṃ datvā of Bu-Pc.81.


Nuns’ Bi-Ss.6.


Nuns’ Bi-NP.2.


Nuns’ Bi-NP.3.


Nuns’ Bi-Pc.18.


Bu-NP.6; above the word is viññatt’.


Bu-NP.7: -uttari abhihaṭṭuṃ.


Bu-NP.17. This key-word, riñcati, does not occur in the sikkhāpada, but is to be found in the narrative leading up to it, Vin.3.235.


Nuns’ Bi-NP.4.


Bi-NP.11. Note reversal of the order; both offences are concerned with a cloth.


Nuns’ Bi-Pc.8, Bi-Pc.9.


manas here instead of the more usual citta; Cf. verse 16.


Nuns’ Bi-Pj.6


Nuns’ Bi-Pj.7.


Nuns’ Bi-Pj.8.


Nuns’ Bi-Ss.4.


Nuns’ Bi-Pc.20.


Reading cāpi with Vin-a.1311 instead of text’s vāpi.


Again reading ca for text’s .


Nuns’ Bi-Ss.1.


Nuns’ Bi-NP.1.


Nuns’ Bi-Pc.15.


Nuns’ Bi-Pc.1.


Bi-Pc.31. Commentary places Bi-Pc.31 after Bi-Pc.32; cf. the reversal found above, Vin.5.87, Nuns’ Bi-NP.12 and Bi-NP.11. Moreover, the word seyyā, sleeping-place above, appears as mañca, couch, in the sikkhāpada.


Nuns’ Bi-Pc.37.


Bi-Pc.38, bahi here for sikkhāpada’s tiro.


Nuns’ Bi-Pc.49, Bi-Pc.50.


Nuns’ Bi-Pc.2.


Nuns’ Bi-Pd.1Bi-Pd.8.


Nuns’ Bi-Pc.11.


Bu-Sk.64, reading seyyā against sayana at Vin.4.202.


bhūtaṃ. This appears to refer to Bu-Pc.8 which has not yet been included.


Nuns’ Bi-Ss.2.


Nuns’ Bi-Pc.80.


dhammanetti, explained at Vin-a.1314 as Vinayapāḷidhamma.

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