Vinaya Pitaka (3): Khandhaka

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 386,194 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of various narratives. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (third part, khandhaka) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar to the I...

On duties to the student

Kd.18.14.1 Now at that time teachers did not conduct themselves properly towards their pupils … as in Kd.18.12.1 Instead of preceptor, one who shares his cell read teacher, pupil

Told is the Eighth Section: that on Observances.

In this Section are fifty-five items, fourteen observances. This is its key:

With sandals and sunshades, heads muffled up, drinking water,
did not greet, they did not ask, snake, the well behaved looked down upon, /
He took off, sunshade, and over his shoulder, and unhurriedly, withdrawal,
laying aside bowl and robe, and suitable, asked,[1] /
Should sprinkle,[2] and about washing, sandals with a dry and a damp[3] (cloth),
a senior, a newly ordained one should ask, and whether occupied, resorts, /
Learners, privies, drinking water, washing,[4] staff, agreement, thereupon[5]
the time, a moment, soiled, the ground-covering should be taken out, /
Supports, mattress and squatting mat, and couch and chair, spittoon,[6]
reclining board, cobwebs, corners, coloured red, black, not treated,[7] /
And rubbish, ground covering, supports, couch and chair,
mattress,[8] piece of cloth to sit upon, spittoon,[9] and reclining board, /
BD.5.322 Bowl and robe, and the ground, the edges away, the folds towards,
from East, and from West, from the North, then from the South, /
And cool, warm, by day, at night, and a cell, a porch,
attendance- and fire-hall, and the custom in privies, /
Water for drinking, for washing, and into pitchers of water for rinsing—
For the rhythm: an observance laid down for those incoming. /
Neither a seat, nor water, nor meeting, nor drinking water either,
they did not greet, they did not appoint,[10] and the well behaved spread it about. /
And a seat for a senior, water, and having gone to meet, drinking water,
sandals, on one side, and he should be greeted, should be appointed, / Vin.2.232
Occupied, resorts and a learner, privy, drinking- and washing-water,[11]
staff,[12] agreement, the time, if he is sitting down before one newly ordained, /
He should greet, he should explain, the method is as below.
The observance for these resident ones was pointed out by the Leader of the Caravan. /
Those going away and wood, clay,[13] having opened, not asking (for permission),
and they were lost, and unguarded, and the well behaved ones looked down upon. /
Having packed away, having closed, having asked (for permission), so may he set out,
monk or novice or park-attendant or lay follower, /
On stones, a heap, he should pack away, and he should close,
if he is able,[14] or an effort, and just where it does not leak, /
If the whole[15] leaks—to a village, and just there in the open air,
BD.5.323 “So the different things surely remain”: the observance for monks who are going away. /
They did not give thanks, through an elder, leaving alone, about four or five,
wanting to relieve himself, he was fainting: these are the observances for those giving thanks. /
The group of six monks wrongly dressed and further wrongly clothed,
and improperly, turning aside, encroaching on[16] (the space intended for) elders, /
And newly ordained monks, outer cloaks, and the well behaved looked down upon,
having dressed with the inner robe all round one for covering the three circles, waistband, one bundle, block, /
Not turning aside, properly clad, well-controlled, eyes cast down,[17]
lifting up the robes, with loud laughter, noise, and so the three swayings,[18] /
Arms akimbo, muffled up, crouching, properly clad, well controlled,
lifting up the robes, loud laughter,[19] little noise, the three swayings,[20] /
Arms akimbo, muffled up, and lolling, encroaching, not on a seat,
having spared (he should) not, when water,[21] having lowered, he should not splash, /
Receiver, neighbouring, outer cloak, and if cooked rice it should be received,
curry, tit-bits, for all, and an equal level,[22] /
Attentively, and thinking of the bowl,[23] and on continuous almsround, equal curry,
not from the top, coverings up, asking, captious-mindedly, /
Large, a round, door, whole hand, one should not talk,[24] BD.5.324 ball, breaking up, cheeks, shaking, scattering lumps of boiled rice, /
And then putting out the tongue, smacking the lips, making a hissing sound,
licking the fingers, the bowl, the lips, accepting with what is soiled, /
Until everyone,[25] when water,[26] having lowered, he should not splash,
receiver, neighbouring, outer cloak, and having lowered on the ground, /
With lumps of boiled rice, when returning, properly clad, crouching;
this refectory-observance was laid down by the dhamma-king. /
Wrongly dressed, improperly, and without deliberation,[27] hastily,
far, close, long, soon, here just those who walk for alms. / Vin.2.233
He may go properly clad,[28] well controlled,[29] his eyes cast down,[30]
lifting up the robes, with loud laughter, noise, and so the three swayings, /
Arms akimbo, muffled up, crouching, and having considered, hastily,
far, close, long, soon, a little seat, a spoon, /
Or a dish and if she sets it out, having raised (and) having uncovered,[31]
(the alms) may be received, he should not look at, and that is about curries as before, /
A monk should cover with the outer cloak, he should go properly clad,[32]
well controlled, and the eyes cast down, lifting up the robes, and with loud laughter, /
Little noise, the three swayings, arms akimbo, muffled up, crouching,
the first the seat, the refuse (tub), drinking water, washing water,
BD.5.325 the last if he so desires may eat, it may be thrown into, he should remove, /
He should put away, he should sweep, if empty (and) depleted he should attend (to them)
by a sign with the hand, he should not break into:[33] and the observance for those who walk for alms. /
Drinking water, washing water, fire, kindling wood and lunar mansions (and) quarters (and) thieves,
thinking, “there is nothing” having thrashed (them), a bowl, on the shoulder, then the robe, /
“Now,” having hung on the shoulder, the three circles, all round,
as is the observance for those who walk for alms so are the meanings in that for forest-dwellers. /
A bowl, on the shoulder, robe, on the head, and having put on, drinking water,
washing water, fire, and also kindling wood, a staff, /
Lunar mansions, or their positions, he should become skilled in the quarters:
the observance was laid down for these forest-dwellers by the Best of Teachers. /
In the open air, they were covered, and the well behaved looked down upon.
If a dwelling-place is soiled, first the bowl and robe, /
Mattress and squatting-mat, couch, and chair, spittoon,
reclining board (and) window corners, red colouring, black, not treated, /
Rubbish, near monks, lodgings, dwelling-place, drinking water,
near washing water, and to windward in the open space, /
To leeward, covering, supports and couch,[34]
chair, mattress, piece of cloth to sit upon, spittoon, and reclining board, /
And bowl and robe on the ground, the edges away from, the fold towards,
and the East, the West, the North, then the South, /
And cool and warm, by day (and) at night, and a cell, a porch,
attendance- and fire-hall, a privy, drinking water, /
BD.5.326 Pitcher of rinsing water, seniors, recitation (and) interrogation, study,[35]
dhamma, and a light, he should (not) extinguish, he should not open, nor should he close, /
When the senior turns, he should not touch him even with a corner;
the Great Sage laid down this observance for lodgings. /
If they are being hindered, doorway, fainting, the well behaved look down upon, Vin.2.234
he should throw out the ashes, bathroom, and flooring as before, /
Cell (and) porch, hall, chunam (and) clay (and) jar,
face, in front, not (encroaching on) elders, nor[36] newly ordained, if he is able, /
In front, above, a way, swampy, clay, a little chair,
and having extinguished, he may depart:[37] the observance for those in bathrooms. /
He did not rinse, according to seniority and in order, and he fell down, hastily,
forcibly,[38] groaning, toothwood, they relieved themselves, spitting, /
Rough, cesspool, hastily, forcibly, smacking, they left,[39]
outside and inside one should cough, a cord, and unhurriedly, /
Hastily, forcibly, groaning,[40] toothwood, and relieving oneself,
spitting, rough, and cesspool, privy shoes, /
Not too hastily, forcibly, shoes, smacking the lips,
one should not leave, one should not[41] get rid of, dirty,[42] and about the receptacle,[43] /
Privy, plaster flooring, and cell, porch,
and water in the pitcher for rinsing water: the observance in the privies are these. /
BD.5.327 Sandals, toothwood, and water for rinsing the mouth, a seat,
conjey, water, having washed, he should remove, soiled, and village, /
Inner clothing, waistband, fold, a bowl with water,
attendant, and precisely the three circles, all round, waistband, /
Fold, having washed, attendant, not too far away, he should receive,
while he is speaking, offence, going first, a seat, /
Water, (foot-) stool and stand, having gone to meet, inner clothing,
in the sun, he laid aside, crease, in a fold, let him eat, he may place,[44]
Drinking water, water, lowered, for a moment, but he should not lay aside,
bowl on the ground and robes, edges away, fold towards, /
He should remove, he should put away, and soiled, to bathe,
cold, hot, bathroom, chunam, clay, behind, /
And chair, robe, chunam, clay, if he is able, face,
front, elders, neither, and preparation, when leaving, /
Front, in the water, when bathing, having dressed, the preceptor,
and the inner clothing, outer cloak, chair, and about a seat, /
Footstool and stand, drinking water, recitation, interrogation,
if soiled he should clean it,[45] first the bowl and robes /
Piece of cloth to sit upon and sheet, and the mattress and squatting mat,
couch, chair, supports, spittoon, and the reclining board, /
Ground- (covering), cobwebs, windows, red, black, not treated,
ground-covering, supports, couch, chair, mattress, /
Piece of cloth to sit upon and sheet, spittoon and reclining board, bowl and robe, Vin.2.235
from the East, and from the West, from the North, and then from the South, /
And cool and warm, by day and night, and a cell, porch,
attendance- and fire-hall, privy, drinking water, water for washing, /
BD.5.328 Pitcher of water for rinsing, dissatisfaction remorse, and wrong view, important (rule),[46]
the beginning, mānatta, rehabilitation, censure, guidance,[47] /
Banishment, reconciliation, and suspension, if it is carried out,
he should wash, and he should make up, the dye, he should dye, turning it, /
And bowl, and also robe, and a requisite, cutting off,
service, commission, attendant, almsfood, entering, /
Nor to a cemetery, and also from a district, he should attend him for as long as life lasts;
this is the observance for one who shares a cell. These are for a preceptor: /
Exhortation, instruction, recitation, interrogation, and bowl, robe,
and requisite, ill, he should not be an attendant.[48] /
These observances for preceptors are also so for teachers;
as are the observances for those who share a cell, so they are for pupils. /
Those observances for incoming ones, and again for resident ones,
those going away, those giving thanks, in a refectory, those walking for almsfood, /
That observance for forest-dwellers, and also that for lodgings,
In a bathroom, a privy, and those for preceptors and those who share their cells, /
(As is) that observance for teachers, so is it for pupils.
Nineteen matters are spoken of in sixteen sections. /
Being imperfect in observance one does not perfect morality,
Impure in morality, of poor wisdom, one knows not one-pointedness of mind, /
The mind wavering, not one-pointed, sees not dhamma rightly,
not seeing true dhamma, one is not freed from ill. /
Being perfect in observance, one perfects morality too,
pure in morality, with wisdom, one knows too one-pointedness of mind, /
BD.5.329 The mind unwavering, one-pointed, rightly sees dhamma too,
beholding true dhamma, one is freed from ill. /
Wherefore the watchful son of the Conqueror should fulfil the observance,
the exhortation of the best of Buddhas—hence he will come to nibbāna. / Vin.2.236

Footnotes and references:




Oldenberg’s text: asiñceyya; Siamese: āsiñci.


Oldenberg’s text: all’; Siamese allen’.


paribhojaniya here abbreviated to pari.


Oldenberg’s text: katikan tato; Siamese katikaṭṭhitaṃ.


kheḷamallaka here abbreviated to mallaka.


Oldenberg: gerukā-kāḷa, akatā; Siamese: gerukā kāḷakākata.


Oldenberg: paṭipādakaṃ mañca-pīṭham, / bhisi; Siamese: patipādakā mañcakaṃ / pithaṃ bhisi.


kheḷamallaka here abbreviated to mallaka.


Oldenberg: paññape; Siamese: paññāpe.


Oldenberg: bhojani; Siamese: bhojanaṃ.


Oldenberg: kattarā; Siamese: kattaraṃ.


Oldenberg: matti ca; Siamese: mattikā.


Oldenberg: ussahati; Siamese: sace ussahati.


Oldenberg: sabbe; Siamese: sace.


Oldenberg: anupakhajjane; Siamese: jjanaṃ.


Oldenberg: -cakkhu; Siamese: cakkhunā.


pacālanā … calā.


Oldenberg:ukkhittacittā, ujjhaggi; Siamese: okkhittukkhittā ujjhagghi.


pacālanā … calā.


Oldenberg: na udake; Siamese: ca udake.


Oldenberg: samatitti; Siamese: samakanti.


Siamese here adds: samasūpañca titthikā / na tāva thero bhuñjeyya asampatte ca odane / sakkacaṃ pattasaññī ca sapadānam ca sūpakaṃ.


Oldenberg: na byāhare; Siamese: na vohare.


Oldenberg: yāva na sabbe, udake; Siamese: na tāva yāva na sabbe.


Oldenberg: yāva na sabbe, udake; Siamese: na tāva yāva na sabbe.


Oldenberg: asallakkhe ca sahasā; Siamese: asallakkhetvā sāhasā.


Oldenberg: paṭicchannena; Siamese paticchanno va.


Oldenberg: susaṃvut’ okkhittacakkhu; Siamese: saṃvut’ okkhittacakkhunā.


Oldenberg: susaṃvut’ okkhittacakkhu; Siamese: saṃvut’ okkhittacakkhunā.


Oldenberg: paṇāmetvā; Siamese: paṇāmakā.




Oldenberg: hatthivikāre, bhindeyya; Siamese: hatthakāre na bhindeyya.


Oldenberg: mañce ca; Siamese: mañcakaṃ.


Oldenberg: -paripucchanā, sajjhā, / dhammo, padīpañ ca vijjhāpe na vivare, na pi thake; Siamese: paripucchanā / sajjhā dhammo padīpañ ca na vivare na ca thake. /


Siamese omits na.


Oldenberg: vijjhāpetvā ca, pakkame; Siamese: vijjhāpetvā thaketvā ca.


Oldenberg reads uppajji for ubbhujitvā, and in the line below ubbhajjhi; Siamese ubbhuji in both places.


Oldenberg: sethena. At Kd.18.10.2 the corresponding word is sesenti. Siamese: sesakaṃ.


Oldenberg: sahasā ubbhajjitvāna; Siamese: sahasā ubbhuji ṭhite.


Siamese omits na.


Oldenberg: uhana, presumably for ūhatā of Kd.18.10.3; Siamese: ūhanā.


Oldenberg: pidharena ca; Siamese: piṭharena ca.


name, for upanāmetabbo at the end of Kd.18.11.4.


Oldenberg uklāpaṃ su sodheyya; Siamese: uklāp’ ussahaṃ sodheyya.


Oldenberg ācamanaṃ anabhirati kukkuccaṃ diṭṭhi ca garu; Siamese: ācama -anabhirati kukkuccaṃ diṭṭhikā garu.


Oldenberg has niyasaka above, for nissaya. Siamese niyassakaṃ. Cf. also AN.i.99 where niyassakamma should read nissayak-.


Oldenberg reads na pacchāsamaṇo sāve; Siamese bhave.

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