Vinaya Pitaka (3): Khandhaka

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 386,194 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of various narratives. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (third part, khandhaka) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar to the I...

Kd.11.13.1Now at that time[1] unscrupulous, depraved monks who were followers of Assaji and Punabbasu were in residence at Kiṭāgiri. They indulged in the following kinds of bad habits: they planted and caused to be planted small flowering trees; they watered them and had them watered; they plucked them and had them plucked; they tied them up into (garlands) and had them tied up; they made garlands and had them made with a stalk on one side; they made garlands and had them made with a stalk on both sides; they made and had a branching flower-stalk made; they made a wreath and had one made; they made a garland worn round the forehead and had one made; they made and had an ear-ornament made; Vin.2.10 they made and had a breast-plate made. These (monks) took or sent garlands having a stalk on one side to wives of reputable families, to daughters of reputable families, to girls of reputable families, to daughters-in-law of reputable families, to female slaves of reputable families. They took or sent garlands having a stalk on both sides; they took or sent a branching flower-stalk; they took or sent a wreath … a garland worn round the forehead … an ear-ornament … a breastplate. These ate from one dish together with wives of reputable families, with daughters of reputable families, with girls of reputable families, with daughters-in-law of reputable families, with women slaves of reputable families; and they drank from the same beaker; they sat down on the same seat; they shared one couch; they shared one mat; they shared one coverlet; they shared one mat and coverlet. And they ate at the wrong time; and they drank intoxicants; and they wore garlands and used perfumes and cosmetics; they danced and sang and played musical instruments, and they sported. They danced when she danced; they sang when she danced; they played musical instruments when she danced; they sported when she BD.5.15 danced; they danced when she sang … they danced when she played musical instruments … they danced when she sported … they sported when she sported.

Kd.11.13.2 They played on a chequered board for gambling; they played on a draught-board: they played with imagining such boards in the air; they played a game of keeping stepping on to diagrams; they played with spillikans … at dice … tip-cat … brush-hand … with a ball … at blowing through toy pipes made of leaves … with a toy plough … at turning somersaults … with a toy windmill … with a toy measure of leaves … with a toy cart … with a toy bow … they played a game of guessing at letters … a mind-reading game … a game of mimicking deformities … they trained themselves in elephant lore … horse lore … carriage lore … archery … swordsmanship … then they ran in front of an elephant … a horse … a chariot; now they ran backwards, now they ran forwards; and they whistled and they snapped their fingers and they wrestled and they fought with fists; and, having spread out their upper robes as a stage, they said to a dancing-girl: “Dance here, sister”, and they applauded, and they indulged in various bad habits.


Kd.11.13.3 Now at that time a certain monk, having spent the rains among the people of Kāsī, while going to Sāvatthī so as to see the Lord, arrived at Kiṭāgiri. Then this monk, dressing early and taking his bowl and robe entered Kiṭāgiri for almsfood. He was pleasing whether he was approaching or departing, whether he was looking forward or looking behind, whether he was drawing in or stretching out (his arm), his eyes were cast down, he was possessed of pleasant deportment. People, having seen this monk, spoke thus: Vin.2.11

“Who can this be like an idiot of idiots, like a fool of fools, like a very supercilious person? Who will go up to him and give him alms? Our masters, the followers of Assaji and Punabbasu are polite, genial, pleasant of speech, beaming with smiles, saying: ‘Come, you are welcome’. They are not supercilious, they are easily accessible, they are the first to speak. Therefore alms should be given to them.”

A certain lay follower saw that monk walking for almsfood in Kiṭāgiri; seeing that monk, he went up to him, and having BD.5.16 gone up to him and greeted him, he said: “Honoured sir, are alms obtainable?”

“No, sir, alms are not obtainable.”

“Come, honoured sir, we will go to (my) house.”

Kd.11.13.4 Then that lay follower, having taken that monk to his house and made him eat, said:

“Where, honoured sir, will the master go?”

“I will go to Sāvatthī, sir, to see the Lord.”

“Then, honoured sir, in my name salute the Lord’s feet with your head and say: ‘Lord, the residence at Kiṭāgiri has been corrupted. At Kiṭāgiri are residing unscrupulous, depraved monks who are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu. They indulge in the following bad habits … they indulge in a variety of bad habits. Lord, those men who formerly had faith and were believing now have no faith and are not believing. Those who formerly were channels for gifts to the Order are now cut off; they neglect the well behaved monks, and the depraved monks stay on. It were good, Lord, if the Lord would send monks to Kiṭāgiri, so that this residence at Kiṭāgiri may be settled.’

“Very well, sir,” and that monk having answered the lay follower in assent, rising from his seat departed for Sāvatthī. Gradually he approached Sāvatthī, the Jeta Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s monastery and the Lord; having approached and greeted the Lord, he sat down at a respectful distance. Now it is the custom for Awakened Ones, for Lords to exchange greetings with in-coming monks. So the Lord said to this monk:

“I hope, monk, that it is going well with you, I hope that you are keeping going, I hope you have accomplished your journey with little fatigue? And where do you come from, monk?”

“Things go well, Lord, I am keeping going, Lord, and I, Lord, accomplished my journey with little fatigue. Now, I, Lord, having spent the rains among the people of Kāsī, and while coming to Sāvatthī to see the Lord, arrived at Kiṭāgiri. Then I, Lord, dressing early, and taking my bowl and robe, entered Kiṭāgiri for almsfood. Then, Lord, a certain lay follower saw me as I was walking in Kiṭāgiri for almsfood, Vin.2.12 and seeing me, he approached, and having approached, he BD.5.17 greeted me and said: ‘Honoured sir, are alms obtainable?’ ‘No, sir, alms are not obtainable I said. ‘Come, honoured sir, we will go to (my) house he said. Then, Lord, that lay follower, taking me to his house and feeding me, said: ‘Where, honoured sir, will the master go?’ I said: ‘I will go to Sāvatthī, sir, to see the Lord.’ Then he said: ‘Then, honoured sir … may be settled’. Therefore, Lord, do I come.”

Kd.11.13.6 Then the Lord on this occasion, in this connection, having had the Order of monks convened, asked the monks, saying:

“Monks, is it true, as is said, that monks who are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu, residing in Kiṭāgiri, are unscrupulous and depraved and indulge in the following bad habits: they plant small flowering trees … indulge in a variety of bad habits … and those men … and the depraved monks stay on?”

“It is true, Lord.”

The Awakened One, the Lord, rebuked them, saying:

“How, monks, can these foolish men indulge in bad habits such as these? How can they plant and cause small flowering trees to be planted, and water them and have them watered, and pluck them and have them plucked, and how can they tie them up into (garlands) and have them tied up? How can they make and have garlands made …? How can they take and send …? How can they eat … drink … sit … stand … eat … drink … run … dance and sing and play musical instruments and sport … play … train themselves … run … run round facing …? How can they whistle and snap their fingers and wrestle and fight with fists, and having spread out their upper robes as a stage, say to a dancing-girl: ‘Dance here, sister,’ and applaud and indulge in a variety of bad habits? It is not, monks, for pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased …”, and having rebuked them and given reasoned talk, he addressed Sāriputta and Moggallāna, saying:

“Do you go, Sāriputta and Moggallāna, and having gone to Kiṭāgiri, carry out a (formal) act of banishment[2] from Kiṭāgiri against those monks who are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu; these are those who share your cells.”

BD.5.18 “How, Lord, do we carry out a (formal) act of banishment from Kiṭāgiri against those monks who are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu? These monks are fierce and rough.”

“Well then, Sāriputta and Moggallāna, go together with many monks.”

“Very well, Lord,” Sāriputta and Moggallāna answered the Lord in assent.

Kd.11.13.7 “And thus, monks, should it be carried out. First, the monks who are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu Vin.2.13 should be reproved; having reproved them, they should be made to remember; having made them remember, they should be accused of an offence; having accused them of the offence, the Order should be informed by an experienced, competent monk, saying: ‘Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. These monks who are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu are those who bring families into disrepute and are of evil conduct; their evil conduct is seen and also heard and respectable families corrupted by them are seen and also heard. If it seems right to the Order, the Order should carry out a (formal) act of banishment from Kiṭāgiri against the monks who are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu by which the monks who are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu should not remain in Kiṭāgiri. This is the motion. Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. These monks who are … seen and also heard. The Order is carrying out a (formal) act of banishment from Kiṭāgiri against the monks who are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu by which the monks who are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu should not remain in Kiṭāgiri. If the carrying out of the (formal) act of banishment from Kiṭāgiri against the monks who are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu by which they should not remain in Kiṭāgiri is pleasing to the venerable ones, they should be silent; he to whom it is not pleasing should speak. And a second time I speak forth this matter … And a third time I speak forth this matter. The (formal) act of banishment from Kiṭāgiri against the monks who are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu by which they should not remain in Kiṭāgiri is carried out by the Order. It is pleasing to the Order, therefore it is silent. Thus do I understand this.

Twelve on an act not by rule

Kd.11.14.1 “Monks, if it is possessed of three qualities a (formal) act BD.5.19 of banishment comes to be not legally valid, not disciplinarily valid and one that is hard to settle …[3]

Twelve on an act by rule

Not in Horner’s translation.

Fourteen on desiring

… against the one who speaks dispraise of the Order. Monks, if an Order desires, it may carry out a (formal) act of banishment against these three (kinds of) monks.

“And, monks, if a monk is possessed of three further qualities an Order, if it so desires, may carry out a (formal) act of banishment against him: if he is possessed of bodily frivolity,[4] if he is possessed of verbal frivolity, if he is possessed of bodily and verbal frivolity. Monks, if a monk is possessed of these three qualities an Order, if it so desires, may carry out a (formal) act of banishment against him. And, monks, if a monk is possessed of three further qualities … against him: if he is possessed of bodily bad habits,[5] if he is possessed of verbal bad habits, if he is possessed of bodily and verbal bad habits. Monks, if a monk … a (formal) act of banishment against him. And, monks, if a monk is possessed of three further qualities … against him: if he is possessed of harming[6] by means of body, if he is possessed of harming by means of speech, if he is possessed of harming by means of body and speech. Monks, if a monk … against him. And, monks, if a monk is possessed of three further qualities, an Order, if it so desires, may carry out a (formal) act of banishment against him: if he is possessed of a wrong bodily mode of livelihood, if he is possessed of a wrong verbal mode of livelihood, if he is possessed of a wrong bodily and verbal mode of livelihood. Monks, if a monk is possessed of these three qualities an Order, if it so desires, may carry out a (formal) act of banishment against him. Vin.2.14

Kd.11.14.2 “Monks, if an Order so desires, it may carry out a (formal) act of banishment against three (kinds of) monks: against the one who is a maker of strife … as in Kd.11.4.2 … against BD.5.20 the one who speaks dispraise of the Order. Monks, if an Order so desires, it may carry out a (formal) act of banishment against these three (kinds of) monks. And, monks, if an Order so desires it may carry out a (formal) act of banishment against three further (kinds of) monks: against the one who is possessed of bodily frivolity, against the one who is possessed of verbal frivolity, against the one who is possessed of bodily and verbal frivolity … against the one who is possessed of wrong bodily and verbal mode of livelihood. Monks, if an Order so desires, it may carry out a (formal) act of banishment against these three (kinds of) monks.

Eighteen duties

Kd.11.15.1 “Monks, a monk against whom a (formal) act of banishment has been carried out should conduct himself properly. This is the proper conduct in this case … as in Kd.11.5 … he should not quarrel with monks.”

Kd.11.15.2 Told are the Eighteen Observances connected with a (Formal) Act of Banishment.

Kd.11.16.1 Then Sāriputta and Moggallāna at the head of an Order of monks, having arrived at Kiṭāgiri,[7] carried out a (formal) act of banishment from Kiṭāgiri against the monks who were followers of Assaji and Punabbasu, by which the monks who were followers of Assaji and Punabbasu should not stay in Kiṭāgiri. When the (formal) act of banishment had been carried out by the Order, these did not conduct themselves properly, they were not subdued, they did not mend their ways, they did not ask the monks for forgiveness, they abused them, they reviled them, they offended by following a wrong course through desire, by following a wrong course through hatred, by following a wrong course through stupidity, by following a wrong course through fear; and they went away and they left the Order. Those who were modest monks looked down on, criticised, spread it about, saying: “How can the monks who are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu, against whom a (formal) act of banishment has been carried out by the Order, not conduct themselves properly, not be subdued, BD.5.21 not mend their ways? Why do they not ask for forgiveness from the monks? Why do they abuse and revile them? Why do they, following a wrong course through desire … hatred … stupidity … fear, go away and leave the Order? “Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. Then the Lord on this occasion, in this connection, having had the Order of monks convened, questioned the monks, saying:

“Is it true, as is said, monks, that monks who are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu, against whom a (formal) act of banishment has been carried out by the Order, do not conduct themselves properly, are not subdued, … and leave the Order?”

“It is true, Lord.”

“How, monks, can these foolish men, against whom a (formal) act of banishment has been carried out by the Order, not conduct themselves properly … and leave the Order? It is not, monks, for pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased …” And having rebuked them, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying:

“Well then, monks, do not let the Order revoke the (formal) act of banishment.

Eighteen cases that should not be revoked

Kd.11.16.2 “Monks, if a monk is possessed of five qualities Vin.2.15 the (formal) act of banishment against him should not be revoked: if he ordains … as in Kd.11.6.2

Eighteen cases that should be revoked

Kd.11.16.3 … if he does not quarrel with monks. Monks, if a monk is possessed of these eight qualities the (formal) act of banishment may be revoked.

Told are the Eighteen Cases where a (Formal) Act of Banishment may be revoked.

Kd.11.17.1 “And thus, monks, should it be revoked. Monks, that monk against whom the (formal) act of banishment has been carried out, having approached the Order, having arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, having saluted the feet of the senior monks, having sat down on his haunches, having stretched forth his joined palms, should speak thus to it: ‘A (formal) act of banishment, honoured sirs, was carried out against me by the Order, but I am conducting myself properly, I am subdued, I am mending my ways. I ask for the revocation of the (formal) act of banishment’. And a second time it should be asked for, and a third time it should be asked for. BD.5.22 The Order should be informed by an experienced, competent monk, saying:

Kd.11.17.2 “‘Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. This monk So-and-so, against whom a (formal) act of banishment was carried out by an Order, is conducting himself properly, he is subdued, he is mending his ways, and he asks for the revocation of the (formal) act of banishment. If it seems right to the Order, the Order may revoke the (formal) act of banishment against the monk So-and-so. This is the motion. Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. This monk So-and-so … and he asks for the revocation of the (formal) act of banishment. The Order is revoking the (formal) act of banishment for the monk So-and-so. If the revocation of the (formal) act of banishment for the monk So-and-so is pleasing to the venerable ones, they should be silent; he to whom it is not pleasing should speak. And a second time I speak forth this matter … And a third time I speak forth this matter. It is pleasing to the Order, therefore it is silent. Thus do I understand this.’”

Told is the Third (Formal) Act: that of Banishment.

Footnotes and references:

1.

The whole of 13 occurs at Bu-Ss.13.1.1–Bu-Ss.13.1.7. See BD.1.314–322 where notes are given.

2.

pabbājaniyakamma. Cf. Kd.1.25.22; Kd.9.7.7.

3.

As in Kd.11.2–Kd.11.4, reading “act of banishment” for “act of censure”. Chapter 14 above does not occur in Bu-Ss.13

4.

kāyikena davena; Vin-a.1157 says this means physical enjoyment. Perhaps he takes food for fun or amusement or in sport, cf. AN.i.114, AN.ii.40, AN.ii.145, AN.iv.167.

5.

Vin-a.1157 says this means a transgression of the rules of training laid down concerning the doors of the body.

6.

Vin-a.1157 says this is called injury through not being trained in the rules of training laid down concerning the doors of the body. It means expulsion, nāsana, and ruin, vināsana.

7.

From here to the words, “It is true, Lord” = Bu-Ss.13.1.8 (Vin.3.183–4, translated with notes at BD.1.322–BD.1.324).