Vinaya Pitaka (3): Khandhaka

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 386,194 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of various narratives. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (third part, khandhaka) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar to the I...

Questions of Upāli on harmony in the Saṅgha

Kd.10.6.1 BD.4.511 Then the venerable Upāli approached the Lord; having approached, having greeted the Lord, he sat down at a respectful distance. As he was sitting down at a respectful distance, the venerable Upāli spoke thus to the Lord: “Lord, in regard to a case where there is strife for an Order … differences for an Order, if the Order not having investigated that case, not having got to the root of it,[1] achieves unanimity in the Order, is that unanimity in the Order legally valid, Lord?”

“Upāli, in regard to a case where there is strife for an Order … that unanimity is not legally valid, Upāli.”

“But, Lord, in regard to a case where there is strife for an Order … differences in an Order, if the Order having investigated that case, having got to the root of it, achieves unanimity in the Order, is that unanimity in the Order legally valid, Lord?”

“Upāli, in regard to a matter where there is strife for an Order, quarrels, contention, dispute, schism in an Order, dissension in an Order, altercation in an Order, differences in an Order, if the Order, having investigated that case, having got to the root of it, achieves unanimity in the Order, that unanimity in the Order is legally valid, Upāli.”

Kd.10.6.2 “How many (kinds of) unanimity in an Order are there, Lord?”

“There are these two (kinds of) unanimity in an Order, Upāli. There is, Upāli, unanimity in an Order that has not arrived at the meaning but has arrived at the letter; there is, Upāli, unanimity in an Order that has both arrived at the meaning and arrived, at the letter. And what, Upāli, is unanimity in an Order that has not arrived at the meaning but has arrived at the letter? Upāli, in regard to a case where there is strife for an Order … differences in an Order, if the Order, not having investigated that case, not having got to the root of it, achieves unanimity in the Order, this is called, Upāli, unanimity in an Order that has not arrived at the meaning but has arrived at the letter. And what, Upāli, is unanimity in an Order that has both arrived at the meaning and arrived at the letter? Upāli, in regard to a case where there is strife for an Order … differences in an Order, if the Order, having investigated that case, having got to the root BD.4.512 of it, achieves unanimity in the Order, this is called, Upāli, unanimity in an Order that has both arrived at the meaning and arrived at the letter. These, Upāli, are the two (kinds of) unanimity in an Order.”

Kd.10.6.3 Then the venerable Upāli, rising from his seat, having arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, having saluted the Lord with joined palms, addressed the Lord with verses:

“In the Order’s affairs and deliberations
and in matters arising for investigation,
what kind of man is here most needed?
How is a monk fit for leadership here? Vin.1.359

“Above all, one blameless in moral habit,
of careful conduct, his faculties well controlled,
opponents do not censure him in respect of a rule,
for there could be nothing to say against him.

“Such a one, firm in purity of moral habit,
is confident, he speaks ably,[2]
he is not afraid at an assembly, he does not tremble,
he does not sacrifice the meaning[3] to irrevelant talk.

“When asked a question in an assembly,
he neither hesitates nor is ashamed,
his timely sensible words,
fitting as explanation, delight the learned assembly.

“With esteem for senior monks
and confident in his own teachers, able to weigh,
familiar with what should be spoken,
and skilled in obstructing his opponents,

Opponents come under his control,
and the many-folk come under his tuition,
and he does not neglect his own creed,
(skilful) at question and answer, unhurting.

BD.4.513 “Able in doing a messenger’s duty,
and well-informed in what they tell him of the Order’s affairs,
sent by a group of monks he is obedient,
but he does not therefore think, ‘I am doing this’.

“Into whatever matters one falls,
whatever is an offence and how one removes it—
both these analyses are well handed down to him.
He is skilled in the features of offences and removal,

“Being sent away and good habits—he goes by these:
he is sent away and what are the grounds,
restoration of a person who has completed this[4]
he knows this too, skilled (as he is) in analysis.

“With esteem for senior monks, for newly ordained,
for elders and for those of middle standing,
a helper of the multitude, clever herein,
monk such as this is fit for leadership here.”

The Tenth Section: that on (the monks of) Kosambī Vin.1.360

This is its key:

The splendid conqueror at Kosambī,
dispute about seeing an offence,
one may suspend for this or that,
whatever is an offence of his it should be seen, /
Within a boundary, just there, five, and only one, attainment,
and Pārileyya, Sāvatthī, and Sāriputta, Kolita, /
Kassapa the Great, Kaccāna, Koṭṭhita, and about Kappina,
and Cunda the Great, Anuruddha, Revata, Upāli,[5] /
Ānanda, and Rāhula too, Gotamī, Anāthapiṇḍika,
and Visākhā, Migāra’s mother,
and separate lodgings, and equal material gains also, /
Leave for absence should not be granted to anyone, Upāli inquired,
irreproachable as to moral habit,
unanimity in the conqueror’s instruction.

Finished is the Great Division[6] Vin.1.361

Footnotes and references:

1.

amūlā mūlaṃ gantvā.

2.

visayha.

3.

atthaṃ na hāpeti, or, does not neglect the goal; cf. Snp.37, Ja.i.251.

4.

taṃvusita, i.e. one who has been sent away but is now fit for restoration.

5.

Upālivhaya (Oldenberg and Siamese edition). Sinhalese edition reads Upālicūbhaye.

6.

Oldenberg’s Vinayapitakaṃ, Vol. I, ends here.