Vinaya Pitaka (3): Khandhaka

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 386,194 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of various narratives. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (third part, khandhaka) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar to the I...

On one who had formerly been a member of another sect

Kd.1.38.1 Now at that time the one who had formerly been a member of another sect[1] when he was being spoken to by his preceptor regarding a rule, having refuted the preceptor, went over to the fold of that same sect (as before), but having come back again, he asked the monks for ordination.[2] The monks told this matter to the Lord. He said:

“Monks, he who was formerly a member of another sect … having refuted the preceptor and going over to the fold of that same sect (as before), on coming back should not be ordained. But, monks, whoever else was formerly a member of another sect and desires the going forth in this dhamma and discipline and desires ordination, to him you should grant probation[3] for four months.[4]

Kd.1.38.2 BD.4.86 “And thus, monks, should it be granted: first, having made him have his hair and beard cut off, having got (someone) to present[5] him with yellow robes, having made him arrange his upper robes over one shoulder, having made him honour the monks’ feet, having made him sit down on his haunches, having made him salute with joined palms, he should be told: ‘Speak thus: “I go to the enlightened one for refuge, I go to dhamma for refuge, I go to the Order for refuge. And a second time I go … And a third time I go … to the Order for refuge.”[6]

Kd.1.38.3 “Monks, if he who was formerly a member of another sect has approached the Order … has saluted with joined palms, he should speak thus to it: ‘I, honoured sirs, so and so, formerly a member of another sect, desire ordination in this dhamma and discipline. Therefore do I, honoured sirs, ask the Order for probation for four months.’[7] And a second time he should ask. And a third time he should ask. The Order should be informed by an experienced, competent monk, saying: ‘Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. This one, so and so, formerly a member of another sect, desires ordination in this dhamma and discipline. He asks the Order for probation for four months. If it seems right to the Order, the Order may grant probation to so and so, formerly a member of another sect, for four months. This is the motion.

Kd.1.38.4‘Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. This one, so and so, formerly a member of another sect, desires ordination in this dhamma and discipline. He asks the Order for probation for four months. The Order is granting probation for four months to so and so, formerly a member of another sect. If the granting of probation for four months to so and so, formerly a member of another sect, is pleasing to the venerable ones, they should be silent; he to whom it is not pleasing should speak. Probation for four months is granted by the Order to so and so, formerly a member of another sect. Vin.1.70 It is pleasing to the Order; therefore it is silent. Thus do I understand this.’

Kd.1.38.5 “Monks, a former member of another sect becomes one who BD.4.87 succeeds thus, one who fails thus. And how, monks, does a former member of another sect become one who fails? Herein, monks, a former member of another sect enters a village at too early a time,[8] he returns too late in the day.[9] Thus, monks, does a former member of another sect become one who fails. And again, monks, a former member of another sect comes to be one whose resort[10] (for alms) is among prostitutes,[11] or he comes to be one whose resort (for alms) is among widows,[12] or he comes to be one whose resort (for alms) is among grown girls,[13] or he comes to be one whose resort (for alms) is among eunuchs, or he comes to be one whose resort (for alms) is among nuns.[14] Thus, too, monks, does a former member of another sect become one who fails.

Kd.1.38.6 “And again, monks, a former member of another sect in regard to those various things which have to be done by his fellows in the Brahma-faring, comes to be not dexterous therein, not vigorous, not possessed of consideration for those kinds of things,[15] not able to act himself, not able to direct (others). Thus too, monks, does a former member of another sect become one who fails. And again, monks, a former member of another sect comes to be one who is not of keen BD.4.88 desire[16] as to the recitation, as to the interrogation, as to the higher morality, the higher thought, the higher wisdom. Thus too, monks, does a former member of another sect become one who fails.

Kd.1.38.7 “And again, monks, a former member of another sect becomes angry, displeased, dissatisfied if dispraise is being spoken of the teacher, the views, the approval, the persuasion, the creed[17] of that fold of a sect from which he has come over; he becomes pleased, elated, satisfied if dispraise is being spoken of the awakened one or of dhamma or of the Order; or else he becomes pleased, elated, satisfied if praise is being spoken of the teacher, the views, the approval, the persuasion, the creed of that fold of a sect from which he has come over; he becomes angry, displeased, dissatisfied if praise is being spoken of the awakened one or of dhamma or of the Order. This, monks, is the knitting together[18] in regard to what may be the failure[19] of a former member of another sect. It is thus, monks, that a former member of another sect becomes one who fails. Therefore, monks, if there come a former member of another sect who has failed, he should not be ordained.

Kd.1.38.8–Kd.1.38.10 “And how, monks, does a former member of another sect become one who succeeds? Herein, monks, a former member of another sect does not enter a village at too early a time, he does not return too late in the day. Thus, monks, does a former member of another sect become one who succeeds. And again, monks … point by point the contrary of Kd.1.38.5, Kd.1.38.6, Kd.1.38.7 Vin.1.71 … This, monks, is the knitting together in regard to what may be the success of a former member of another sect. It is thus, monks, that a former member of another sect becomes one who succeeds. Therefore, monks, if there come a former member of another sect who has succeeded, he may be ordained.

Kd.1.38.11 “If, monks, a former member of another sect comes naked, BD.4.89 a robe belonging to a preceptor[20] should be looked about for. If he comes without the hair of his head cut off, the Order should be asked for permission for shaving it close.[21] Monks, if those come who are fire-worshipping matted hair ascetics they may be ordained, probation should not be given to these. What is the reason for this? These, monks, affirm deeds, they affirm what ought to be done.[22] If, monks, there come a former member of another sect who is a Sakyan by birth, he may be ordained, probation should not be given to him. I, monks, will give this special privilege to (my) relations.”

Kd.1.38.12 The Talk on Former Members of Another Sect.

The Seventh Portion for Repeating.

Footnotes and references:

1.

See above Kd.1.31.6.

2.

Cf. Vin.2.279, in regard to nuns.

3.

This is probation before ordination into the Order took place. It is not the probation which forms part of the penalty for breaking a Saṅghādisesa rule. Vin-a.990 says that it is called probation, parivāsa, for members of other sects and also probation for the unconcealed, appaṭicchannaparivāsa, and can be given to naked wanderers, naked ascetics, ājīvakas, and to unclothed ascetics, acela, but not to anyone who has a cloak or a blanket made of the skin of wild animals. Cf. appaṭicchannaparivāsa at Vin.5.126. If Buddhaghosa’s explanation is right, the “unconcealed probation” of Critical Pali Dictionary is erroneous.

4.

Cf. this sentence with Snp.p.102, DN.i.176.

5.

See BD.2.53, BD.2.55, etc.

6.

Same method used at Kd.1.54.3 for letting novices go forth.

7.

Quoted at DN-a.ii.362.

8.

Vin-a.991 says that he enters a village when he ought to be doing services for the monks.

9.

Vin-a.991 says that he comes back when the monks are meditating or having the exposition and interrogation, and does not do what is due to a preceptor or teacher.

10.

gocara, animals’ feeding ground, pasture, then applied to places where monks accept alms-food.

11.

vesiyā, also meaning a low-class woman. Vin-a.991 calls them women who fall easily into transgression on account of their beauty. On vesiyagocara see also Vb-a.339, AN-a.iii.278 The gocaras are referred to below, BD.4.417. Also at AN.iii.128, where it is said that if a monk goes to them he is thought of as a depraved monk and is mistrusted even if he is kuppadhamma (variant reading akuppa-), bound for the immovable (see GS.iii.98, n.1). At Vb.246 (quoted Vism.17) a sixth gocara is added: liquor-shop, and the six are called agocara. These are referred to at Dhp-a.iii275.

12.

Vin-a.990, Vb-a.339 define widows as women whose husbands are dead or absent.

13.

thullakumāriyo. Cf. below, BD.4.198. Vin-a.991 says these are girls who have attained their youth or who are past it; Vb-a.339, AN-a.iii.278 say that they are mahallika, i.e. grown-up girls, Vb-a. adding that they are “not placed”, i.e. unmarried (cf. same expression in regard to kulakumāriyo at AN-a.iv.12). See Ja.iv.219 where thullakumārika does not mean “coarse” but “grown-up”, of full age, vayappatta; unmarried is implied by the context. On kumāribhūtā as maiden, unmarried girl, see BD.3, Introduction, p.xlix.

14.

Not necessarily visiting the nuns’ quarters, for see story of Udāyin asking Uppalavaṇṇā for one of her robes when she visited the monks’ dwelling-place, Vin.3.208.

15.

Same expression occurs at Vin.4.211.

16.

tibbacchanda; cf. DN.iii.252, DN.iii.283 for seven other matters for which a monk should have tibbacchanda.

17.

ādāya, here used as a noun.

18.

saṅghātanikaṃ, the unifying. The word also occurs at MN.i.322, AN.iii.10 in the simile of the house with the peaked roof. There is no justification for the “decisive moment” of Vinaya Texts i.190. The sentence comes as a conclusion to the ways, already mentioned, in which failure (and below, success) may be manifested.

19.

anārādhanīyasmiṃ.

20.

upajjhāyamūlaka cīvara. According to Vin-a.994, having made a preceptor his master, issara, he has some claim on him as to bowl and robes. At Vin.3.204, there is the expression mūlacīvara. See Kd.1.26.1 where if one who shares a cell has no robe his preceptor should try to get one for him.

21.

bhaṇḍukamma. Cf. below, end of Kd.1.48.2.

22.

kammavādino kiriyavādino. Cf. DN.i.53, DN.i.115, AN.i.62, Vin.1.233, Vin.3.2. See also A.K. Coomaraswamy, Some Pali Words, Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, Vol.4, No.2, p.119ff.

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: