Vinaya Pitaka (3): Khandhaka

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 386,194 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of various narratives. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (third part, khandhaka) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar to the I...

On the group of five

Kd.1.6.1 Then it occurred to the Lord: “Now, to whom should I first teach dhamma? Who will understand this dhamma quickly?” Then it occurred to the Lord: “Indeed, this Āḷāra the Kālāma[1] is learned, experienced, wise, and for a long time has had little dust in his eyes. Suppose I were to teach dhamma first to Āḷāra the Kālāma? He will understand this dhamma quickly.”

Kd.1.6.2 But then an invisible devatā announced to the Lord: “Lord, Āḷāra the Kālāma passed away seven days ago.” And the knowledge arose to the Lord that Āḷāra the Kālāma had passed away seven days ago. Then it occurred to the Lord: “Āḷāra the Kālāma was of great intelligence. If he had heard this dhamma, he would have understood it quickly.”

Kd.1.6.3 Then it occurred to the Lord: “Now, to whom should I first teach dhamma? Who will understand this dhamma quickly?” Then it occurred to the Lord: “Indeed, this Uddaka, Rāma’s son,[2] is learned, experienced, wise, and for a long time has had little dust in his eyes. Suppose I were to teach dhamma first to Uddaka, Rāma’s son? He will understand this dhamma quickly.”

Kd.1.6.4 But then an invisible devatā announced to the Lord: “Lord, Uddaka, Rāma’s son, passed away last night.” And the knowledge arose to the Lord that Uddaka, Rāma’s son, had passed away last night. Then it occurred to the Lord: “Uddaka, Rāma’s son, was of great intelligence. If he had BD.4.11 heard this dhamma, he would have understood it quickly.”

Kd.1.6.5 Then it occurred to the Lord: “Now, to whom should I first teach dhamma? Who Vin.1.8 will understand this dhamma quickly?” Then it occurred to the Lord: “That group of five monks[3] who waited on me when I was self-resolute in striving[4] were very helpful. Suppose I were to teach dhamma first to the group of five monks?”

Kd.1.6.6 Then it occurred to the Lord: “But where is this group of five monks staying at present?[5] Then the Lord with deva-vision, purified and surpassing that of men, saw the group of five monks staying near Benares at Isipatana in the deer-park. Then the Lord, having stayed at Uruvelā for as long as he found suiting, set out on tour for Benares.

Kd.1.6.7 Upaka, a Naked Ascetic,[6] saw the Lord going along the highroad between Gayā and the (Tree of) Awakening; seeing him, he spoke thus to the Lord: “Your reverence, your sense-organs are quite pure, your complexion very bright, very clear. On account of whom have you, your reverence, gone forth, or who is your teacher, or whose dhamma do you profess?”

Kd.1.6.8 When this had been said, the Lord addressed Upaka, the Naked Ascetic, in verses:[7]

“Victorious over all, omniscient am I,
Among all things undefiled,
Leaving all, through death of craving freed,
By knowing for myself, whom should I follow?[8]

“For me there is no teacher,
One like me does not exist,
In the world with its devas
No one equals me.[9]

BD.4.12 “For I am perfected in the world,
The teacher supreme am I,[10]
I alone am all-awakened,[11]
Become cool am I, nibbāna-attained.

“To turn the dhamma-wheel
I go to Kasi’s city,
Beating the drum of deathlessness
In a world that’s blind become.”

Kd.1.6.9 “According to what you claim, your reverence, you ought to be[12] victor of the unending[13]” (Upaka said).

“Like me, they are victors indeed,
Who have won to destruction of the cankers;
Vanquished by me are evil things,
Therefore am I, Upaka, a victor.”[14]

When this had been said, Upaka, the Naked Ascetic, having said, “It may be (so),[15] your reverence,” having shaken his head,[16] went off taking a different road.

Kd.1.6.10 BD.4.13 Then the Lord, walking on tour, in due course approached Benares, the deer-park of Isipatana, the group of five monks. The group of five monks saw the Lord coming in the distance; seeing him, they agreed among themselves, saying: “Your reverences, this recluse Gotama is coming, he lives in abundance, Vin.1.9 he is wavering in his striving, he has reverted to a life of abundance.[17] He should neither be greeted, nor stood up for, nor should his bowl and robe be received; all the same a seat may be put out, he can sit down if he wants to.”

Kd.1.6.11 But as the Lord gradually approached this group of five monks, so this group of five monks, not adhering to their own agreement, having gone towards the Lord, one received his bowl and robe, one made ready a seat, one brought water for washing the feet, a foot-stool, a foot-stand.[18] The Lord sat down on the seat made ready, and the Lord, while he was sitting down, washed his feet.[19] Further, they addressed the Lord by name and with the epithet of “your reverence.”[20]

Kd.1.6.12 When this had been said, the Lord spoke thus to the group of five monks: “Do not, monks, address a Truthfinder by name, and with the epithet ‘your reverence’. A Truthfinder, monks, is a perfected one, a fully awakened one. Give ear, monks, the deathless has been found; I instruct, I teach dhamma. Going along in accordance with what has been enjoined, having soon realised here and now by your own super-knowledge that supreme goal of the Brahma-faring[21] for the sake of which young men of family rightly go forth from home into homelessness, you will abide in it.”

Kd.1.6.13 BD.4.14 When this had been said, the group of five monks spoke thus to the Lord: “But you, reverend Gotama, did not come to a state of further-men,[22] to the eminence of truly ariyan vision of knowledge, by this conduct, by this course, by this practice of austerities. So how can you now come to a state of further-men, to the eminence of the truly ariyan vision of knowledge, when you live in abundance, are wavering in striving, and have reverted to a life of abundance?”

Kd.1.6.14 When this had been said, the Lord spoke thus to the group of five monks: “A Truthfinder, monks, does not live in abundance, he does not waver in striving, he does not revert to a life of abundance. A Truthfinder, monks, is a perfected one, a fully awakened one. Give ear, monks, the deathless has been found; I instruct, I teach dhamma. Going along in accordance with what has been enjoined, having soon realised here and now by your own super-knowledge that supreme goal of the Brahma-faring for the sake of which young men of family rightly go forth from home into homelessness, you will abide in it.”

Kd.1.6.15 And a second time did the group of five monks speak thus to the Lord … And a second time did the Lord speak thus to the group of five monks … And a third time did the group of five monks speak thus to the Lord: Vin.1.10 “But you, reverend Gotama, did not come to a state of further-men … by this practice of austerities … to a life of abundance?”

Kd.1.6.16 When this had been said, the Lord spoke thus to the group of five monks: “Do you allow, monks, that I have never spoken[23] to you like this before?”

“You have not, Lord.”

“A Truthfinder, monks, is a perfected one, a fully awakened one. Give ear … you will abide in it.” And the Lord was able to convince the group of five monks.[24] Then the group of five monks listened to the Lord again, gave ear to him and aroused their minds for profound knowledge.[25]

Kd.1.6.17 BD.4.15 Then[26] the Lord addressed the group of five monks, saying: “These[27] two (dead) ends,[28] monks, should not be followed by one who has gone forth. Which two? That which is, among sense-pleasures, addiction to attractive sense-pleasures, low, of the villager,[29] of the average man,[30] unariyan, not connected with the goal[31]; and that which is addiction to self-torment, ill, unariyan, not connected with the goal. Now, monks, without adopting either of these two (dead) ends, there is a middle course, fully awakened to by the Truthfinder, making for vision,[32] making for knowledge, which conduces to calming,[33] to super-knowledge,[34] to awakening,[35] to nibbāna.

Kd.1.6.18 “And what, monks, is this middle course fully awakened to by the Truthfinder, making for vision, making for knowledge, which conduces to calming, to super-knowledge, to awakening, to nibbāna? It is this ariyan eightfold Way itself, that is to say: right view, right thought, right speech, right action, right mode of living, right endeavour, right mindfulness, right concentration.[36] This, monks, is the middle course, fully awakened to by the Truthfinder, making for vision, making BD.4.16 for knowledge, which conduces to calming, to super-knowledge to awakening, to nibbāna.

Kd.1.6.19 “And this, monks, is the ariyan truth of ill: birth is ill, and old age is ill and disease is ill and dying is ill, association with what is not dear is ill, separation from what is dear is ill, not getting what one wants is ill—in short the five groups of grasping are ill.

Kd.1.6.20 “And this, monks, is the ariyan truth of the uprising of ill:[37] that which is craving connected with again-becoming, accompanied by delight and passion, finding delight in this and that, that is to say: craving for sense-pleasures, craving for becoming, craving for de-becoming.[38]

Kd.1.6.21 “And this, monks, is the ariyan truth of the stopping of ill: the utter and passionless stopping of that very craving, its renunciation, surrender, release, the lack of pleasure in it.[39]

Kd.1.6.22 “And this, monks, is the ariyan truth of the course leading to the stopping of ill[40]: this aryan eightfold Way itself, that is to say: right view … right concentration. Vin.1.11

Kd.1.6.23 On thinking, ‘This is the ariyan truth of ill’, among things not heard before by me, monks, vision arose, knowledge[41] arose, wisdom[42] arose, higher knowledge[43] arose, light arose. On thinking, ‘Now that which is the ariyan truth of ill must be completely known’ … ‘Now that which is the ariyan truth of ill is completely known’, among things not heard before by me, monks, vision arose, knowledge arose, wisdom arose, higher knowledge arose, light arose.

Kd.1.6.24 “On thinking, ‘This is the ariyan truth of the uprising of ill’ … light arose. On thinking, ‘Now that which is this BD.4.17 ariyan truth of the uprising of ill must be given up’[44] … ‘… is given up’ … light arose.

Kd.1.6.25 “On thinking, ‘This is the ariyan truth of the stopping of ill’ … light arose. On thinking, ‘Now that which is this ariyan truth of the stopping of ill must be realized’ … ‘… is realised’ … light arose.

Kd.1.6.26 “On thinking, ‘This is the ariyan truth of the course going to the stopping of ill’ … light arose. On thinking, ‘Now that which is this ariyan truth of the course leading to the stopping of ill must be made to become’ … ‘… is made to become’ … light arose.

Kd.1.6.27 “And so long, monks, the vision of knowledge of these four ariyan truths, with the three sections and twelve modes[45] as they really are, was not well purified by me, so long was I, monks, not thoroughly awakened with the supreme full awakening as to the world with its devas, with its Māras, with its Brahmās, with its recluses and brahmins, its creatures with devas and men. This I knew.

Kd.1.6.28 “But when, monks, the vision of knowledge of these four ariyan truths, with the three sections and twelve modes as they really are, was well purified by me, then was I, monks, thoroughly awakened with the supreme full awakening as to the world … with its recluses and brahmins, its creatures with devas and men. This I knew.

Kd.1.6.29 “Moreover, the vision of knowledge arose in me: ‘Freedom of mind is for me unshakeable, this the last birth, there is not now again-becoming.’[46]” Thus spoke the Lord; delighted, the group of five monks rejoiced in the Lord’s utterance. Moreover, while this discourse[47] was being uttered, dhamma-vision, dustless, stainless, arose to the venerable Koṇḍañña that “whatever is of the nature to uprise, all that is of the nature to stop.”

Kd.1.6.30 And when the Lord had rolled the dhamma-wheel, the earth devas made this sound heard[48]: Vin.1.12 “The supreme dhamma-wheel rolled thus by the Lord at Benares in the deer-park at BD.4.18 Isipatana cannot be rolled back by a recluse or brahmin or deva or by Māra or by Brahmā or by anyone in the world.” Having heard the sound of the earth devas, the devas of the Four Great Kings[49] made this sound heard … the Thirty devasYama’s devas … the Happy devas … the devas who delight in creation … the devas who delight in the creation of others … the devas of Brahmā’s retinue made this sound heard: “The supreme dhamma-wheel rolled thus by the Lord at Benares in the deer-park at Isipatana cannot be rolled back by a recluse or brahmin or deva or by Māra or by Brahmā or by anyone in the world.”

Kd.1.6.31 In this wise in that moment, in that second, in that instant, the sound reached as far as the Brahma-world, and the ten thousandfold world-system[50] trembled, quaked, shook violently and a radiance, splendid, measureless, surpassing the devas’ own glory,[51] was manifest in the world. Then the Lord uttered this solemn utterance: “Indeed, Koṇḍañña has understood, indeed, Koṇḍañña has understood.” Thus it was that Aññata Koṇḍañña[52] became the venerable Koṇḍañña’s name.[53]

Kd.1.6.32 Then the venerable Aññata Koṇḍañña, having seen dhamma,[54] attained dhamma,[55] known dhamma,[56] plunged into dhamma, having crossed over doubt, having put away uncertainty, having attained without another’s help to full confidence in the teacher’s instruction,[57] spoke thus to the Lord: “May I, Lord, receive the going forth[58] in the Lord’s presence, may I receive ordination?[59]

“Come, monk[60],” the Lord said, “well taught is dhamma. BD.4.19 Fare the Brahma-faring for making an utter end of ill.” So this came to be this venerable one’s ordination.

Kd.1.6.33 Then the Lord exhorted, instructed those remaining monks with dhamma-talk. Then while they were being exhorted, instructed by the Lord with dhamma-talk, dhamma-vision, dustless, stainless, arose to the venerable Vappa[61] and to the venerable Bhaddiya,[62] that “whatever is of the nature to uprise, all that is of the nature to stop.”

Kd.1.6.34 These, having seen dhamma, attained dhamma, known dhamma … having attained without another’s help to full confidence in the teacher’s instruction, spoke thus to the Lord: “May we, Lord, receive the going forth in the Lord’s presence, may we receive ordination?”

“Come, monks,” the Lord said, “well taught is dhamma, fare Vin.1.13 the Brahma-faring for making an utter end of ill.” So this came to be these venerable ones’ ordination.

Kd.1.6.35 Then the Lord, eating the food brought back by these,[63] exhorted, instructed those remaining monks with dhamma-talk, saying: “Let the group of six[64] live on whatever the three monks bring when they have walked for almsfood.”

Kd.1.6.36 Then while they were being exhorted, instructed by the Lord with dhamma-talk, dhamma-vision, dustless, stainless, arose to the venerable Mahānāma[65] and to the venerable Assaji,[66] that “whatever is of the nature to uprise, all that is of the nature to stop.”

Kd.1.6.37 These, having seen dhamma, attained dhamma … having attained without another’s help to full confidence in the teacher’s instruction, spoke thus to the Lord: “May we, Lord, receive the going forth in the Lord’s presence, may we receive ordination?”

“Come, monks,” the Lord said, “well taught is dhamma, fare the Brahma-faring for making an utter end of ill.” So BD.4.20 this came to be these venerable ones’ ordination.

Kd.1.6.38 Then the Lord addressed the group of five monks, saying: “Body, monks, is not self.[67] Now were this body self, monks this body would not tend to sickness, and one might get the chance of saying in regard to body, ‘Let body become thus for me, let body not become thus for me’. But inasmuch, monks, as body is not self, therefore body tends to sickness, and one does not get the chance of saying in regard to body, ‘Let body become thus for me, let body not become thus for me’.

Kd.1.6.39 Feeling is not self … and one does not get the chance of saying in regard to feeling, ‘Let feeling become thus for me, let feeling not become thus for me’.

Kd.1.6.40 “Perception[68] is not self … The habitual tendencies are not self … one does not get the chance of saying in regard to the habitual tendencies, ‘Let the habitual tendencies become thus for me, let the habitual tendencies not become thus for me’.

Kd.1.6.41 “Consciousness is not self … Vin.1.14 … Inasmuch, monks, as consciousness is not self, therefore consciousness tends to sickness, and one does not get the chance to say in regard to consciousness, ‘Let consciousness become such for me, let consciousness not become thus for me.’

Kd.1.6.42 What do you think about this, monks? Is body permanent or impermanent?”

“Impermanent, Lord.”

“But is that which is impermanent painful or pleasurable[69]?”

“Painful, Lord.”

“But is it fit to consider that which is impermanent, painful, of a nature to change, as ‘This is mine, this am I, this is my self’?”

“It is not Lord.”

Kd.1.6.43 “Is feeling … perception … are the habitual tendencies … is consciousness permanent or impermanent?”

BD.4.21 “Impermanent, Lord.”

“But is that which is impermanent painful or pleasurable?”

“Painful, Lord.”

“But is it (it to consider that which is impermanent, painful of a nature to change, as ‘This is mine, this am I, this is my self’?”

“It is not so, Lord.”

Kd.1.6.44 “Wherefore, monks, whatever is body, past, future, present or internal or external, or gross or subtle, or low or excellent whether it is far or near—all body should, by means of right wisdom, be seen, as it really is, thus: This is not mine, this am I not, this is not my self.

Kd.1.6.45 “Whatever is feeling … whatever is perception … whatever are the habitual tendencies … whatever is consciousness past, future, present, or internal or external, or gross or subtle, or low or excellent, whether far or near—all consciousness should, by means of right wisdom, be seen as it really is, thus: This is not mine, this am I not, this is not my self.

Kd.1.6.46 “Seeing in this way, monks, the instructed[70] disciple of the ariyans disregards[71] body and he disregards feeling and he disregards perception and he disregards the habitual tendencies and he disregards consciousness; disregarding he is dispassionate; through dispassion he is freed; in freedom the knowledge comes to be: ‘I am freed’[72], and he knows: Destroyed is birth, lived is the Brahma-faring, done is what was to be done, there is no more of being such or such.”

Kd.1.6.47 Thus spoke the Lord; delighted, the group of five monks rejoiced in what the Lord had said. Moreover while this discourse was being uttered, the minds of the group of five monks were freed from the cankers without grasping. At that time there were six perfected ones in the world.

The First Portion for Recital. Vin.1.15

Footnotes and references:

1.

The teacher to whom, according to the biographical record (also preserved in the Ariyapariyesanā Sutta, MN 26.), Gotama first went for instruction after he had gone forth (from home into homelessness).

2.

According to the same account, the teacher to whom Gotama went next when he had mastered Āḷāra’s teaching. See Mrs. Rhys Davids, Manual of Buddhism. 57ff. for some remarks on both these teachers, and E.J. Thomas, Life of Buddha, p.184. Mil.236 says that Āḷāra and Uddaka were Gotama’s fourth and fifth teachers; and Thig-a.2 that he went first to Bhaggava (not mentioned at Mil.236).

3.

Añña-Koṇḍañña, Bhaddiya, Vappa, Mahānāma, Assaji, as below BD.6.31ff. See Dictionary of Pali Proper Names; Mrs. Rhys Davids, Manual of Buddhism, 62f.; and “Unknown Co-founders of Buddhism”, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 1927.

4.

padhānapahitattaṃ.

5.

Quoted at Bv-a.18.

6.

ājivika, “man of the livelihood”, Buddhist India, p.143. At Divyāvadāna 393 Upaka appears to be called Upaganena.

7.

Verses also at MN.i.171; quoted at Kv.289; Thig-a.220.

8.

This verse = Dhp.353.

9.

This verse is quoted at Mil.235. Cf. also Mahāvastu iii.326.

10.

Cf. Snp.179.

11.

Or, “I am unique, the all-awakened.”

12.

arah’ asi, also meaning “you deserve to be, are worthy or fit to be”. There is also the reading arahā asi, as at Kv.289, and see Psalms of the Sisters, 129f.

13.

anantajina. Vin-a.964 merely says “You are set on becoming a victor of the unending.” Ananta, the unending, may refer to dhamma, also to nibbāna.

14.

This verse and Upaka’s remarks are quoted at Kv.289.

15.

hupeyya. MN.i.171, Snp-a.258, Thig-a.220 read huveyya (which is interchangeable with hupeyya). It is a dialectical form of bhaveyya. According to B.M. Barua, The Ājīvikas, p.50, it is an expression found in the “Ājīvika language” and “is not a recognised Pali word.” He translates “perhaps it may be so,” Oldenberg “it may be so,” Chalmers, preserving the patois, “mebbe” E.J. Thomas, The Life of Buddha, p.83, “would that it might be so”, Dictionary of Pali Proper Names (under Upaka) “it may be so”; while Mrs. Rhys Davids, To Become or not to Become, p.85, would prefer “may he become”, the “he” referring to the man, every man, to whom Gotama was prepared to teach his message. She suggests that he will have rehearsed this message to Upaka, and maintains that what has survived—“a glaringly imperfect misrepresentation”—makes omission and glossing all but certain.

16.

I think that as the text stands, had Upaka been convinced or even interested he would not have departed by a different road (ummagga, also meaning the wrong road). It is perhaps odd that this episode, if it shows disagreement, is presumed to have occurred at the beginning of Gotama ministry. But it may be included to emphasize his determination to preach first of all to the “five” in accordance with his decision; or to show that Upaka spoke somewhat as a prophet—in the “key”, below, BD.4.127, he is called Upako isi, Upaka the seer. According to Thig-a.220f., when Upaka was an old man, tormented by his wife’s gibes, he sought Gotama and went forth into homelessness; he then soon attained the stage of non-returning and died. From this account it does not appear that he had had any great urge earlier to become one of Gotama’s disciples.
In the translation above I have put a slight bias on three words, each of which admits of more than one rendering, so as to mark consistently what seems to me to be Upaka’s apparent failure to be convinced: (1)arahasi = (a) you ought to be (slightly contemptuous), (b) you are worthy to be (respectful); (2) huveyya, discussed in preceding note; (3) sīsam okampetvā, having shaken his head. Okampeti may mean, according to Pali-English Dictionary, both to wag and to shake. Indians shake their heads from side to side to show disagreement, but wag them up and down to show agreement.

17.

bahulla. As Mrs. Rhys Davids observes. Manual of Buddhism, 69, this means literally “muchness”, Vin-a.964 taking it to mean abundance of robes, etc.

19.

As at MN.ii.139.

20.

āvusovādena.

21.

At MN.i.197, MN.i.201, this goal is said to be unshakeable freedom of mind.

23.

bhāsitaṃ. MN.i.172 reads vabbhācitaṃ. Vin-a.965 and MN-a.ii.191 explain by vākyabhedaṃ.

24.

From here the Majjhima version diverges.

25.

aññācittaṃ upaṭṭhāpesuṃ; cf. DN.i,230, DN.i231.

26.

Cf. SN.v.420.

27.

See Mrs. Rhys Davids, Manual of Buddhism, p.109 for a literal translation of the First Utterance, and a discussion of many of its terms; also E.J. Thomas, Life of Buddha, p.87. This Utterance given at SN.iv.330, SN.v.420, and the “middle course” part of it at MN.i.15, to whose Commentary (MN-a.i.104f.) Vin-a.965 refers.

28.

anta is end, then contrast, extreme, opposite, side. See Manual of Buddhism, p.118, for discussion of the meaning. SN-a.iii.297 explains by koṭṭhāsā, parts, divisions. MN-a.i.104 says “the Way does not lead to, does not approach these sides, it is freed from these sides, therefore it is called the middle course.” The “mean” between two extremes also found at SN.ii.17, SN.ii.20, SN.ii.61, SN.iii.135.

29.

gammo. Another debatable term. I follow SN-a.iii.297 (cf. AN-a.iii.360) whose explanation is gāma-vāsīnaṃ santako, belonging to village dwellers; meaning I think more “common” than “pagan”, by both of which it has been rendered. “Boorish” would be better.

30.

pothujjaniko, ordinary, of the many-folk, the “blind” and fools.

31.

anatthasaṃhita, defined at MN-a.iii.110 as na vuḍḍhinissita, not bent on growth.

32.

According to MN-a.i.104 vision of the knowledge of the truths.

33.

Of passion, etc., MN-a.1.104, AN-a.iii.360; of the corruptions, SN-a.iii.297.

34.

abhiññā, of the four truths, MN-a and SN-a.

35.

MN-a.i.104 says that awakening is the Way, sambodho ti maggo.

36.

A.K. Coomaraswamy, Hinduism and Buddhism, p.69 uses “composure” for samādhi, and elsewhere “synthesis.” MN-a.i.105 gives the interpretations which the Ancients, poraṇa, used to put upon the eight “fitnesses” of the Way: “the way of insight is right view, the way of thorough furthering, abhiniropana, is right thought, the way of equanimity is right concentration.” The gaps may be filled up from what follows at MN-a.i.105.

37.

This paragraph is debated at Kv.488–489.

38.

vi-bhava, meanings ascribed: (1) wealth, property, prosperity; (2) non-becoming, ceasing (although there is the word a-bhava); (3) more becoming, more births. Further Dialogues of the Buddha i.214 “annihilation.” See also Dialogues of the Buddha ii.340, note. I think it means, with taṇhā, craving or thirst, the longing for sensations to come and go, rise and fall. Lamotte, Le Traité de la Grande Vertu de Sagesse, vol.1, p.3, n.4, translates these three cravings (taṇhā) as cravings for plaisir, existence, impermanence.

39.

anālaya. On ālaya, pleasure (clinging, abode, habit) see above, BD.4.6. Further Dialogues of the Buddha i.214 “ejection”, Dialogues of the Buddha iii.298 “aversion from.” SN-a.iii.112 defines it in connection with kāma.

40.

The “four truths of ill” are cited at Kv.290.

41.

ñāṇa.

42.

paññā.

43.

vijjā. We have nothing in English corresponding to the number Pali words for “knowledge.”

44.

I.e. the craving or thirst (taṇhā) which leads to the uprising of ill mus be given up.

45.

Each of the four truths is treated as (1) a truth which (2) must be in some way responded to, and which (3) has been in that way responded to.

46.

One of the formulae of arahanship.

47.

veyyākaraṇa, called at DN-a.130 a sutta (discourse) without verses.

49.

I.e. the Regents of the four quarters. A longer list of devas is to be found at MN.i.289.

50.

Cf. AN.i.227.

51.

devānaṃ devānubhāvaṃ, cf. DN.ii.12, MN.iii.120.

52.

aññāta meaning “who has understood”. He is often called Añña Koṇḍañña. At AN.i.23 he is called “ foremost of the disciples of long standing.” Verses at Thag.673–688. For the view that Añña was his personal name, see Mrs. Rhys Davids, Gotama the Man, p.102, GS.i.16, n.2, Verses of Uplift Sacred Books of the Buddhists VIII, p.93, n.1. See too Ud-a.371, Psalms of the Bretheren, p.284.

53.

Saṃyutta account breaks off here.

54.

Saṃyutta account breaks off here.

55.

Quoted Bv-a.13, the last two in reverse order.

56.

Saṃyutta account breaks off here.

57.

Cf. DN.i.no,148; AN.iv.186; MN.i.234, MN.i.501.

58.

pabbajjā.

59.

upasampadā.

60.

The first time that this, thought to be the oldest formula for leave to become a disciple of Gotama’s, is used in the Vinaya. The Order was not as yet in existence, and the ordination regulations were neither appointed nor was ordination separated by a period of probation from the time of a disciple’s “going forth”, pabbajjā, from home, or the household life, into homelessness.

61.

Verses at Thag.61, see also Thag-a.150, Vin-a.965, MN-a.ii.192, AN-a.i.147, Ja.i.82; Mrs. Rhys Davids, Manual of Buddhism, p.63.

62.

No verses ascribed to him. See Vin-a.965, MN-a.ii.192, AN-a.i.147, Ja.i.82. Omitted from Dictionary of Pali Proper Names

63.

Koṇḍañña, Vappa and Bhaddiya.

64.

I.e. Gotama and the group of five.

65.

References as under n.2 above. See also Dhp-a.ii.74. Included in Dictionary of Pali Proper Names.

66.

The disciple through whom Sāriputta and so Moggallāna became followers of Gotama, see Vin.1.39f. (below, BD.4.52); also MN.i.227 (Cūḷasaccaka Sutta), SN.iii.124ff., MN-a.ii.270, MN-a.ii.271, and BD.4.52, n.3 below.

67.

This famous Second Utterance given also at SN.iii.66, where called “The Five”, doubtless referring to the five disciples who heard it, and to the five topics, body … consciousness (or mind) which it covered; cf. MN.iii.19. Translated at KS.iii.59, Further Dialogues of the Buddha, ii, 165f., Mrs. Rhys Davids, Manual of Buddhism, p.150, E.J. Thomas, Life of Buddha, p.88.

68.

saññā.

69.

sukha, happiness, mental and physical ease; used in opposition to dukkha.

70.

sutavant, one who has heard, hence learnt (the oral teaching).

71.

nibbindati, turns away from, is disgusted by. He “disregards” because he refuses to know.