Vinaya Pitaka (1): The Analysis of Monks’ Rules (Bhikkhu-vibhanga)

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 345,334 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Bhikkhu-vibhanga: the first part of the Suttavibhanga, which itself is the first book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of rules for Buddhist monks. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (first part, bhikkhu-vibhanga) contains many...

Monks’ Expulsion (Pārājika) 4: Definitions

MS.556 Bu-Pj.4.3.1 A means: whoever, of such kind …

Monk means: … this sort of monk is meant in this case.

MS.557 Falsely means: although a certain wholesome quality is non-existent, not factual, not to be found in himself, and he does not see it or know it, he says, “I have this wholesome quality.”

MS.558 A super-human achievement means: jhāna, emancipation, samādhi, attainment, knowledge and insight, development of the path,[1] realisation of the fruits, abandoning the defilements, a mind without hindrances, delighting in solitude.

MS.559 For himself means: either he presents these good qualities as in himself, or he presents himself as among these good qualities.

MS.560 Knowledge means: the three true knowledges.

Insight means: knowledge and insight are equivalent.[2]

Vin.3.92 MS.561 If (he) claims means: if he proclaims to a woman or a man, to a householder or one gone forth.

MS.562 This I know, this I see means: “I know these qualities, BD.1.160 I see these qualities; these qualities are in me, and I conform to these qualities.”

MS.563 After some time means: the moment, the second, the instant when the claim is completed.

MS.564 Examined means: he is examined in regard to what he has acknowledged: “What was attained by you, how was it attained by you, when was it attained by you, where was it attained by you? Which defilements have you destroyed? Which qualities did you gain?”

MS.565 Not means: nothing being said.

MS.566 Having committed the offence means: having bad desires, being habitually desirous, claiming a non-existent, non-factual super-human achievement, he has committed an offence entailing expulsion.

MS.567 Desiring purification means: he desires to be a householder, a lay follower, a monastery attendant or a sāmaṇera.[3]

MS.568 Friends, not knowing I said that I know, not seeing that I see means: “I do not know these qualities, I do not see these qualities; these qualities are not found in me, and I do not conform to these qualities.”

MS.569 What I said was empty and false, means: what I said was empty, what I said was false, what I said was untruthful;[4] I said it without knowing.

MS.570 Except if it is through overestimation means: setting aside overestimaton of oneself.

MS.571 He too means: this is said with reference to the preceding offences entailing expulsion.

MS.572 Is expelled means: just as a palm tree with the crown cut off is incapable[5] of further growth, BD.1.161 just so a monk with bad desires, who is habitually desirous, having claimed a non-existent, non-factual super-human achievement, is not a recluse, not a son of the Sakyan[6]—he is therefore called one who is expelled.

MS.573 Not in communion means: communion means: a common official action, the same recital, the same training—this is called communion. He does not take part in this—he is therefore called not in communion.

Footnotes and references:


Maggabhāvanā, or making the (four) ways (to arahanship) become. But see Old Commentary’s definition, below, BD.1.161.


Repeated at Vin-a.489.


Vin-a.492 says, “Inasmuch as being a house-man, a lay-follower, a park-keeper, or a probationer he is able (bhabba) to set going the way to heaven through giving, the refuges, morality and the restraints, or the way to freedom through musing and freedom, therefore the state of a householder and so on is called pure; therefore desiring this purity, he is said to be one desiring purity.”






Cf. Vin.1.97, where it is also said that the monk is not even to say that he delights in solitude.