Vinaya Pitaka (1): The Analysis of Monks’ Rules (Bhikkhu-vibhanga)

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 345,334 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Bhikkhu-vibhanga: the first part of the Suttavibhanga, which itself is the first book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of rules for Buddhist monks. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (first part, bhikkhu-vibhanga) contains many...

Monks’ Expulsion (Pārājika) 1: Case rulings

Mnemonic list

MS.140 The female monkey, and the Vajjians,
householder and a naked one, adherents of other sects,
The girl, and Uppalavaṇṇā, then two about characteristics,/
MS.141 Mother, daughter, and sister, and wife, supple, long, Vin.3.34
Two sores, and a picture, and a wooden doll,/
MS.142 Five with Sundara, five about charnel grounds, bones,
A female dragon and a female spirit, and a female ghost,
a paṇḍaka, impaired, he touched, /
MS.143 The sleeping arahant in Bhaddiya, four about others in Sāvatthī,
Three in Vesālī, garlands,[1] the one from Bharukaccha in his dream,/
BD.1.52 MS.144 Supabbā, Saddhā, a nun, a probationary nun, and a novice nun,
A prostitute, a paṇḍaka, a householder, one another,
one who had gone forth when old, a deer.

Case details

Bu-Pj.1.10.1 MS.145 At one time a certain monk had sexual intercourse with a female monkey. He became anxious, thinking: “The Master has laid down a training rule. Perhaps I have committed an offence entailing expulsion.”[2] They informed the Master … “You, monk, have fallen into an offence entailing expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.1.10.2 MS.146 At one time a number of Vajjian monks from Vesālī had sexual intercourse, without first renouncing the training and disclosing their weakness. They became anxious, thinking: “The Master has laid down a training rule. Perhaps we have committed an offence entailing expulsion.” They informed the Master … “You, monks, have fallen into an offence entailing expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.1.10.3 MS.147 At one time a certain monk, thinking he would avoid an offence, had sexual intercourse while looking like a layman. He became anxious … “… entailing expulsion.”


MS.148 At one time a certain monk, thinking he would avoid an offence, had sexual intercourse while naked. He became anxious … “… entailing expulsion.”


MS.149 At one time a certain monk, thinking he would avoid an offence, had sexual intercourse while dressed in a kusa-grass garment[3] BD.1.53 … while dressed in a bark garment[4] … while dressed in a garment of wood shavings … while dressed in a hair blanket[5] … while dressed in a horse-hair blanket … while dressed in a garment of owlsʼ wing … while dressed in a garment of antelope hide[6] … He became anxious … entailing expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.1.10.4 MS.150 Now at one time a certain monk who was an alms-goer saw a little girl lying on a bench. Being lustful, he inserted his thumb into her vagina. She died. He became anxious …” … Monk, there is no offence entailing expulsion, but there is an offence entailing suspension.”[7] Vin.3.35


Bu-Pj.1.10.5 MS.151 Now at one time a certain brahmin youth was in love with the nun Uppalavaṇṇā.[8] Then, when the nun Uppalavaṇṇā had entered the village for alms, he BD.1.54 entered her hut and hid himself. The nun Uppalavaṇṇā, after her meal, when she had returned from almsround, washed her feet, entered her hut and sat down on the bed. Then that brahmin youth took hold of the nun Uppalavaṇṇā and raped her. The nun Uppalavaṇṇā informed the nuns. The nuns informed the monks,[9] who in turn informed the Master. “There is no offence, monks, for one who does not consent.”


Bu-Pj.1.10.6 MS.152 Now at one time the characteristics of a woman[10] appeared on a certain monk. They informed the Master. He said: “Monks, I allow that very discipleship, that very ordination,[11] those years as a monk, to be transferred to the nuns. Those offences that the monks have in common with the nuns are to be dealt with in the presence of the nuns. For those offences that the monks do not have in common with the nuns, there is no offence.”


MS.153 At one time the characteristics of a man appeared on a certain nun. They informed the Master. He said: “Monks, I allow that very discipleship, that very ordination, those years as a nun, to be transferred to the monks. Those offences that the nuns have in common with the monks are to be dealt with in the presence of the monks. For those offences that the nuns do not have in common with the monks, there is no offence.”


Bu-Pj.1.10.7 BD.1.55 MS.154 At one time a certain monk, thinking he would avoid an offence, had sexual intercourse with his mother … his daughter … his sister. He became anxious … He informed the Master. “You, monk, have fallen into an offence entailing expulsion.”


MS.155 At one time a certain monk had sexual intercourse with his former wife. He became anxious … “… entailing expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.1.10.8 MS.156 At one time a certain monk had a supple back.[12] Tormented by discontent, he took his penis into his own mouth. He became anxious … “… entailing expulsion.”


MS.157 At one time a certain monk had a long penis. Tormented by discontent,[13] he inserted his penis into his own anus. He became anxious … “… entailing expulsion.” Vin.3.36


Bu-Pj.1.10.9 MS.158 At one time a certain monk saw a dead body, and on the body was a sore next to the genitals. Thinking he would avoid an offence, he inserted his penis in the genital and it came out through the sore. He became anxious … “… entailing expulsion.”


MS.159 At one time a certain monk saw a dead body, and on the body was a sore next to the genitals. Thinking he would avoid an offence, he inserted his penis in the sore and it came out through the genitals. He became anxious … “… entailing expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.1.10.10 MS.160 At one time a certain lustful monk contacted the genitals of a picture[14] with his penis. He became anxious … “… Monk, there is no offence entailing expulsion; there is an offence of bad conduct.”


MS.161 At one time a certain lustful monk contacted the genitals of a wooden doll[15] with his penis. He became anxious … “… bad conduct.”


Bu-Pj.1.10.11 BD.1.56 MS.162 At one time a monk called Sundara, who had gone forth from Rājagaha, was walking along a carriage-road. A certain woman said: “Wait a moment, honoured sir, I will pay homage to you.” As she was paying homage she held up his lower robe and took his penis into her mouth. He became anxious … “… Monk, did you consent?”

“I did not consent, Master.”[16]

“There is no offence, monk, for one who does not consent.”


Bu-Pj.1.10.12 MS.163 Now at one time a certain woman, seeing a monk, said: “Come, honoured sir, have sexual intercourse.”

“Enough, sister, it is not allowable.”

“Come, honoured sir, I will make the effort, not you. In this way there will be no offence for you.” The monk acted accordingly. He became anxious … “… entailing expulsion.”


MS.164 At one time a certain woman, seeing a monk, said: “Come, honoured sir, have sexual intercourse.”

“Enough, sister, it is not allowable.”

“Come, honoured sir, you make the effort, not I. In this way there will be no offence for you.” The monk acted accordingly. He became anxious … “… entailing expulsion.”


MS.165 At one time a certain woman, seeing a monk, said: “Come, honoured sir …” “… it is not allowable.”

“Come, honoured sir, rub inside but discharge outside … rub outside but discharge inside. Thus there will be no offence for you.” The monk acted accordingly. He became anxious … “… entailing expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.1.10.13 MS.166 Now at one time a certain monk went to a charnel ground and saw an undecomposed body. He had sexual BD.1.57 intercourse with it. Vin.3.37 He became anxious … “… entailing expulsion.”


MS.167 At one time a certain monk went to a charnel ground and saw a mostly undecomposed body … “… entailing expulsion.”


MS.168 At one time a certain monk went to a charnel ground and saw a mostly decomposed body … “… Monk, there is no offence entailing expulsion; there is a serious offence.”


MS.169 At one time a certain monk went to a charnel ground and saw a decapitated head. He inserted his penis into the wide open mouth, touching it with the penis. He became anxious … “… You, monk, have fallen into an offence entailing expulsion.”


MS.170 At one time a certain monk went to a charnel ground and saw a decapitated head. He inserted his penis into the wide open mouth, without touching it with the penis. He became anxious … “Monk, there is no offence entailing expulsion; there is an offence of bad conduct.”


MS.171 At one time a certain monk was in love with a certain woman. She died and her bones were thrown away and scattered in the charnel-ground. Then the monk went to the charnel ground, collected the bones and brought his penis into the (area of the) genitals. He became anxious … “… Monk, there is no offence entailing expulsion; there is an offence of bad conduct.”


Bu-Pj.1.10.14 MS.172 At one time a certain monk had sexual intercourse with a female dragon[17] … with a female spirit[18] … with a female ghost[19] … with BD.1.58 a paṇḍaka. He became anxious … “… entailing expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.1.10.15 MS.173 At one time a certain monkʼs faculties were impaired.[20] Thinking he would avoid an offence because he felt neither pleasure nor pain, he had sexual intercourse. They informed the Master. “Monks, whether that foolish man felt anything or did not feel anything,[21] there is an offence entailing expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.1.10.16 MS.174 At one time a certain monk, intending to have sexual intercourse with a woman, felt remorse at the mere touch … “Monk, there is no offence entailing expulsion, but there is an offence entailing suspension.”


Bu-Pj.1.10.17 MS.175 At one time a certain monk was lying down in the Jātiyā Grove at Bhaddiya,[22] having gone there to spend the day. And he had an erection because of wind. A certain woman saw him and sat down on his penis; and having taken her pleasure, she departed. The monks, seeing the moisture,[23] informed the Master. Vin.3.38 “Monks, an erection occurs for five reasons: because of lust, because of excrement, because of urine, because of wind, because of being bitten by caterpillars. It is impossible, monks, it cannot be, that that monk had an erection because of lust. That monk is an arahant. There is no offence for that monk.”


Bu-Pj.1.10.18 MS.176 At one time a certain monk was lying down in the Dark Wood at Sāvatthī, having gone there to spend the day. A certain woman cowherd saw him and sat down on his penis. The monk consented to the entry, to having entered, to remaining and to the taking out. He became anxious … “You, monk, have fallen into an offence entailing expulsion.”


MS.177 At one time a certain monk was lying down in the Dark Wood at Sāvatthī … A certain woman goatherd saw him … A certain woman gathering fire-wood saw him … A certain BD.1.59 woman gathering cow-dung saw him and down on his penis … “… entailing expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.1.10.19 MS.178 Now at one time a certain monk was lying down in the Great Wood at Vesālī, having gone there to spend the day. A certain woman saw him and sat down on his penis; and having taken her pleasure, she stood laughing nearby. The monk woke up and said: “Have you done this?”

“Yes, I did it.” He became anxious …

“Monk, did you consent?”

“I didnʼt even know, Master.”

“Monk, there is no offence for one who doesnʼt know.”


Bu-Pj.1.10.20 MS.179 At one time a certain monk, having gone to the Great Wood at Vesālī to spend the day, was lying down and resting his head against a tree. A certain woman saw him and sat down on his penis. The monk got up hastily. He became anxious …

“Monk, did you consent?”

“I did not consent, Master.”

“There is no offence for one who does not consent.”


MS.180 At one time a certain monk, having gone to the Great Wood at Vesālī to spend the day, was lying down and resting his head against a tree. A certain woman saw him and sat down on his penis. The monk kicked her off.[24] He became anxious …

“Monk, did you consent?”

“I did not consent, Master.”

“There is no offence for one who does not consent.”


Bu-Pj.1.10.21 BD.1.60 MS.181 At one time a certain monk had gone to spend the day in the hall with the peaked roof in the Great Wood at Vesālī. He opened the door and lay down. And he had an erection because of wind. Now at that time a number of women, bringing scents Vin.3.39 and garlands, came to the monastery to look at the monastic dwellings. Then those women saw that monk and they sat down on his penis. Having taken their pleasure, they said, “what a bull of a man,”[25] and they placed their scents and garlands and departed. The monks, seeing the moisture, informed the Master. “Monks, an erection occurs for five reasons: … as in Bu-Pj.1.10.17 … There is no offence for that monk. I advise you, monks, when you are in seclusion during the day, to close the door.


Bu-Pj.1.10.22 MS.182 At one time a certain monk of Bharukaccha[26] dreamt that he had sexual intercourse with his former wife. He thought he was no longer a monk and that he would have to disrobe.[27] While on his way to Bharukaccha, he saw the Venerable Upāli[28] and informed him BD.1.61 of what had happened. Venerable Upāli said: “There is no offence, friend, since it was in a dream.”


Bu-Pj.1.10.23 MS.183 At one time in Rājagaha there was a female lay-follower called Supabbā[29] who had mistaken[30] faith. She held the view that any woman who gives sexual intercourse gives the highest gift. Seeing a monk, she said: “Come, bhante, have sexual intercourse.”

“Enough, sister, it is not allowable.”

“Come, bhante, rub between the thighs, thus there will be no offence for you … Come, bhante, rub against the navel … the stomach … the waist … the throat … the ear … the coil of hair … the spaces between the fingers … Come, bhante, having made an effort with my hand, I will make you discharge, thus there will be no offence for you.” The monk acted accordingly. He became anxious. “Monk, there is no offence entailing expulsion, but there is an offence entailing suspension.”


Bu-Pj.1.10.24 MS.184 At one time in Sāvatthī there was a female lay-disciple called Saddhā who had mistaken faith. She held the view that any woman who gives sexual intercourse gives the highest gift. Seeing a monk, she said: “Come, bhante, have sexual intercourse.”

“Enough, sister, it is not allowable.”

“Come, bhante, rub between the thighs … Come, bhante, having made an effort with my hand, I will make you discharge, thus there will be no offence for you.” The monk acted accordingly. He became anxious … “Monk, there is no offence entailing expulsion, but there is an offence entailing suspension.”


Bu-Pj.1.10.25 MS.185 At one time in Vesālī some Licchavi youths took hold of a monk and made him commit misconduct with a BD.1.62 nun. Vin.3.40 Both agreed: both should be expelled.[31] Neither agreed: no offence for either.


At one time in Vesālī some Licchavi youths took hold of a monk and made him commit misconduct with a probationary nun … with a novice nun. Both agreed: both should be expelled. Neither agreed: no offence for either.


MS.186 At one time in Vesālī some Licchavi youths took hold of a monk and made him commit misconduct with a prostitute[32] … with a paṇḍaka … with a woman householder. The monk agreed: he should be expelled. The monk did not agree: there is no offence for him.


MS.187 At one time in Vesālī some Licchavi youths took hold of some monks and made them commit misconduct with one another. Both agreed: both should be expelled. Neither agreed: no offence for either.


Bu-Pj.1.10.26 MS.188 At one time a certain monk who had gone forth in his old age went to see his former wife. She said, “Come, bhante, leave the Sangha,”[33] and she took hold of him. The monk, stepping backwards, fell down on his back.[34] She, having pulled up his robe,[35] sat down on his penis. He became anxious … They informed the Master. He said:

“Monk, did you consent?”

“I did not consent, Master.”

“There is no offence for one who does not consent.”


Bu-Pj.1.10.27 MS.189 At one time a certain monk dwelt in the jungle. A young deer went to his place of urination, drank the urine and took his penis in its mouth. The monk consented. BD.1.63 He became anxious … He informed the Master. He said: “You, monk, have fallen into an offence entailing expulsion.”


MS.190 The first offence entailing expulsion is finished.[36]

Footnotes and references:

1.

This is printed as Mallā. But the section Bu-Pj.1.10.21 below to which this heading refers has nothing to do with the Mallians, but it does have to do with garlands, mālā. I have therefore rendered it thus above. Oldenberg suggests the emendation at Vin.3.269, mālā; but mallā may be correct (= malyā).

2.

Here and following: pārājikaṃ āpattiṃ āpanno, instead of the more usual āpatti pārājikassa.

3.

At AN.i.240 = AN.i.295 = AN.ii.206 = Vin.1.305 = DN.i.167 these various sorts of garments are given. At Vin.1.305 monks, including the one who was nagga are also given in this order.

4.

Cf. DN.i.166–167 for these words. At Ja.i.356 we get purisaṃ phalakaṃ katvā, translated “making this man my stalking-horse,” which editor suggests, Vinaya Texts ii.246, “may he a figure of speech founded on the use of this word and mean ‘making him his covering.’”

5.

As Ajita Kesakambalin, see DN.i.55.

6.

Vin-a.272, “with the hair and hooves.”

7.

See below, BD.1.195, n.1.

8.

Thig. verse 224ff., Thig-a.190; Dhp-a.ii.48ff. and AN-a.i.355–356 all relate how she had power in the sphere of light (cf. Dabba, in Bu-Ss.8 below), and say that she was born at Sāvatthī in the family of a great merehant. Dhp-a.ii.49 tells much the same story as that given above, her assaulter there being a young kinsman, and it says that she went into the Dark Wood, because at that time forest-dwelling for nuns had not been forbidden. In Bu-NP.5 she is also said to have entered the Dark Wood. There is no doubt, I think, that the Uppalavaṇṇā of Vin.3.35 above and of Dhp-a are one and the same. That the Uppalavaṇṇā of the Therīgāthā is the same is less likely. For though some of the thoughts there attributed to her might be construed to be the outcome of her adventures, the main episode of her life as represented in the Therīgāthā is that of being her mother’s co-wife. Nothing is said of this surely very unusual situation in either Dhp-a or AN-a. Vin-a gives no story. It may be that Dhp-a and AN-a have welded the story of the two Uppalavaṇṇās into one story. Such a welding of two stories into one has a parallel in the story of Kisāgotamī, Psalms of the Sisters, p.109, with which cf. the story of Paṭācārā, Psalms of the Sisters, p.70. At AN.i.24 Uppalavaṇṇā is called chief of the disciples who are nuns having psychic potencies; and at AN.i.88 she and Khamā are taken as the standard and measure by which to estimate the disciples who are nuns. See Horner, Women under Primitive Buddhism, p.168f.

9.

In no passage are the nuns recorded to tell the matter to the lord direct, but always through the medium of the monks. An exception to this is in the case of his aunt Mahāpajāpatī.

10.

Itthiliṅga.

11.

Taṃ yeva upajjhaṃ taṃ eva upasampadaṃ, explained at Vin-a.273 as pubbe gahitaupajjhaṃ eva pubbe kataupsampadaṃ eva ca anujānāmi, which seems to mean: I allow the teacher who was taken before, the upasampadā that was conferred before …

12.

Vin-a.177, he had formerly been a dancer.

13.

See below, BD.1.114, n.1.

14.

Lepacitta. Vin-a.278 says cittakammarūpa.

15.

Dārudhītalikā. Vin-a.278 says kaṭṭharūpa.

16.

Vin-a.278 says he was a non-returner, therefore he did not agree.

17.

Vin-a.279 says “whether it is a young female nāgā (nāgamāṇavikā, cf. Ja.iii.275 and Dhp-a.iii.232, translated at Buddhist Legends, iii.57, as ‘dragon-maiden’) or a kinnarī” (birds [?] living in the heart of mountains); cf. Thig-a.255.

18.

Vin-a.279, “the female yakkhas are all devatās.”

19.

Vin-a.279, “the nijjhāmataṇhika petīs and so on are not to be approached, but there are petīs who live in mansions; the demerit of these matures during the dark half of the month, but in the light half they experience bliss like devatās.” The nijjhāmataṇhika petas are consumed by thirst. At Mil.294 it is said that they do not derive benefit from offerings made by their living relatives. Cf. Mil.303, Mil.357.

20.

upahatindriya.

21.

vedayi vā … na vā vedayi.

22.

The capital of the Aṅga kingdom. Here lived Meṇḍaka, famed for his psychic potency, Vin.1.240ff. The town is mentioned also at Vin.1.189, Vin.1.190: AN.iii.36.

23.

kilinna.

24.

akkamitvā pavaṭṭesi. Vin-a.280 says that the monk, rising suddenly and giving a kick (akkamitvā), knocked her over in such a way that she rolled on the ground. The same expression recurs below, BD.1.138, in connection with a mortar. The Commentary on this passage, Vin-a.475 gives akkamitvā in explanation of ottharitvā, which seems to mean “sitting on.” Critical Pali Dictionary says that akkamati is “to make a kick at one,” and in that connection cites the above passage. Pali-English Dictionary, evidently following the Commentary, gives “to rise” for this passage.

25.

purisusabha.

26.

Bhārukacchako bhikkhu. Bharukaccha was a town, see Ja.iii.188; and Psalms of the Bretheren, p.194, Psalms of the Sisters, p.103; here Vaḍḍha and his mother were said to have been born. Professor E. Müller, Journal of the Pali Text Society 1888, p.63, says that Bharukacchaka is a monk; but he is mentioned nowhere but here. At Mil.331 the inhabitants of the town are called Bhārukacchakā. Psalms of the Sisters, p.103, n.1, calls it “a seaport on the north-west seaboard, the Bharoch of today.”

27.

Vibbhamissāmi. Pali-English Dictionary, referring to the above passage, says “co-habiting.” But see below, BD.1.114, for an exact repetition of this phrase, where it is probably to be taken in its sense of “to leave the Order.” The question is, does the text of the above passage justify the Dictionary’s rendering? It is as easy to believe that the monk was merely returning to his former home as that he was declaring his intention of returning to his former wife. On the other hand, on BD.1.62 below, vibbhama possibly means “cohabit.” At BD.1.323 below, vibbh° probably means “left the Order.” Doubtless this meaning carried the other with it. See also BD.1.114 and n.3.

28.

At AN.i.25 he is called “chief among those who know the disciplinary rules by heart,” quoted by Vin-a.283. Verses at Thag.249, see Psalms of the Bretheren 168. Cf. Vinaya Texts ii.276, n.1; Mrs. Rhys Davids, Manual of Buddhism, p.217.

29.

Mentioned, I think, nowhere but here.

30.

Brahmali: Reading mudhā with the Mahāsaṅgīti, as against Buddha in the P.T.S. edition.

31.

nāsetabbo. Cf. above, BD.1.50.

32.

vesī, or low-caste woman.

33.

vibbhama, see above BD.1.60, n.3.

34.

Vin-a.284, says that he stepped back to free himself from her grasp, but fell down as he was weak through old age. But he was a non-returner, one who had cut off passion and sense-desires, therefore he did not consent.

35.

Ubbhujitvā. Cf. Vin.2.222.

36.

samattaṃ, instead of the more usual niṭṭhitaṃ.

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