Vinaya Pitaka (1): The Analysis of Monks’ Rules (Bhikkhu-vibhanga)

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 345,334 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Bhikkhu-vibhanga: the first part of the Suttavibhanga, which itself is the first book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of rules for Buddhist monks. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (first part, bhikkhu-vibhanga) contains many...

Monks’ Expiation (Pācittiya) 41

Bu-Pc.41.1.1 BD.2.347 … at Vesālī in the Great Grove in the Hall of the Gabled Pillars. Now at that time there came to be abundant[1] solid food for the Order. Then the venerable Ānanda told this matter to the lord. He said:

“Well, Ānanda, give the cakes[2] to those who eat scraps of food.”[3]

“Very well, lord,” and the venerable Ānanda, having answered the lord, having made those who eat scraps of food sit down one after the other,[4] giving a cake to each, gave two cakes to a certain female wanderer, thinking that they were one. Neighbouring female wanderers spoke thus to this female wanderer:

“This recluse is your lover.”

“This recluse is not my lover; he gave two cakes, thinking that they were one.”

A second time … A third time did the venerable Ānanda, giving a cake to each one, give two cakes, thinking that they were one, to this female wanderer. Neighbouring female wanderers spoke thus to this female wanderer: …

“This recluse is not my lover; he gave two cakes, thinking that they were one.”

Saying, “The lover is not a lover,” they quarrelled.


Bu-Pc.41.1.2 Then a certain Naked Ascetic went to a distribution of food. A certain monk, mixing cooked rice with a quantity of ghee, gave a large alms-meal to that Naked BD.2.348 Ascetic. Then the Naked Ascetic, taking that alms-meal, went away. A certain Naked Ascetic said to that Naked Ascetic:

“Where, your reverence, was an alms-meal obtained by you?”

“It was obtained, your reverence, at a distribution of food (made) by a shaven householder[5] of that recluse Gotama.”

Lay followers heard this talk of those Naked Ascetics. Then these lay followers approached the lord, and having approached, having greeted the lord, they sat down at a respectful distance. As they were sitting down at a respectful distance, these lay followers spoke thus to the lord:

“Lord, these adherents of other sects desire blame for the enlightened one, they desire blame for dhamma, they desire blame for the Order. It were well, lord, that the masters did not give to the adherents of other sects with their (own) hand(s).”

Then the lord gladdened … delighted these lay followers with dhamma-talk. Then these lay followers, having been gladdened … delighted by the lord with dhamma-talk, rising from (their) seats, having greeted the lord, departed, keeping their right sides towards him. Then the lord, on this occasion, having given reasoned talk, addressed the monks, saying:

“On account of this, monks, I will lay down a rule of training for monks, founded on ten reasons: for the excellence of the Order, Vin.4.92 for the comfort of the Order … for establishing what is dhamma indeed, for following the rules of restraint.[6] And thus, monks, this rule of training should be set forth:

Whatever monk should give with his own hand solid food or soft food to a naked ascetic[7] or to a wanderer or to a female wanderer, there is an offence of expiation.”


Bu-Pc.41.2.1 BD.2.349 Whatever means: … is monk to be understood in this case.

Naked ascetic[8] means: whoever being naked has reached (the stage of) a wanderer.[9]

Wanderer means: setting aside monk and novice, whoever has reached (the stage of) a wanderer.[10]

Female wanderer means: setting aside nun and female probationer and female novice, whoever has reached (the stage of) a female wanderer.[11]

Solid food means: setting aside the five (kinds of) meals (and) water for cleansing the teeth, what remains is called solid food.

Soft food means: the five (kinds of) meals: cooked rice, food made with flour, barley-meal, fish, meat.[12]

Should give means: if he gives by means of the body or by means of something attached to the body or by means of something that may be cast, there is an offence of expiation.


Bu-Pc.41.2.2 If he thinks that he is an adherent of another sect when he is an adherent of another sect, (and) gives with his (own) hand solid food or soft food, there is an offence of expiation. If he is in doubt as to whether he is an adherent of another sect … If he thinks that he is not an adherent of another sect when he is an adherent of another sect … of expiation. If he gives water for cleansing the teeth, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he thinks that he is an adherent of another sect when he is not an adherent of another sect, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he is in doubt as to whether he is not an adherent of another sect, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he thinks that he is not an adherent of another sect when he is not an adherent of another sect, there is no offence.


Bu-Pc.41.2.3 BD.2.350 There is no offence if he gets someone to give,[13] (but) does not (himself) give; if he gives depositing (it) near[14]; if he gives ointment for external (use)[15]; if he is mad, if he is the first wrong-doer.[16]

The First

Footnotes and references:

1.

ussanna. At Vin.1.285 said of robes; at Bu-Pc.47 of medicines.

2.

pūvaṃ, or “sweetmeats,” see above, BD.2.321.

3.

vighāsādda, not Sakyan monks who should not eat what is left over, see above, BD.2.328. Word occurs at Ja.1.348, Ja.2.96, Ja.3.191.

4.

paṭipāṭiyā, successively, in order.

5.

muṇḍagakapatika, clearly a term of disparagement. It may be in apposition to “that recluse Gotama.”

7.

Here acelaka, previously ājīvaka. See BD.2, Introduction, p.xiii, n.2.

8.

Here acelaka, previously ājīvaka. See Introduction, BD.2.xiii, n.2.

9.

paribbājakasamāpanna. This definition = Vin.4.285.

13.

dāpeti—e.g., one who is not ordained—Vin-a.855.

14.

I.e., not giving “with his own hand,” but putting food on the ground or in his bowl, and inviting the recipient to take from there.

15.

bāhirālepaṃ; offences are incurred by giving a member of another sect things to eat or drink, even water for washing the teeth. Ālepa occurs at Vin.1.274.

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: