Vinaya Pitaka (1): The Analysis of Monks’ Rules (Bhikkhu-vibhanga)

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 345,334 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Bhikkhu-vibhanga: the first part of the Suttavibhanga, which itself is the first book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of rules for Buddhist monks. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (first part, bhikkhu-vibhanga) contains many...

Monks’ Expiation (Pācittiya) 8

Bu-Pc.8.1.1 BD.2.208 … at Vesālī in the pavilion of the Gabled Hall in the Great Grove. Now at that time[1] many monks who were friends and companions went for the rains to the banks of the river Vaggumudā. At that time Vajji was short of alms-food, which was difficult to obtain; it was suffering from a famine, and food-tickets were being issued. Nor was it easy to keep oneself going by gleaning or by favour. Then these monks said to one another:

“At present Vajjī is short of alms-food … Nor is it easy to keep oneself going by gleaning or by favour. What now if we, by some strategem, all together, being on friendly terms and harmonious, should spend a comfortable rainy season and not go short of alms-food?”

Some spoke thus: “Look, your reverences, we could superintend the business of householders, thus they will think to give to us; thus we, all together, being on friendly terms and harmonious, will spend a comfortable rainy season and not go short of alms-food.”

Some spoke thus: “Enough, your reverences, of super-intending the business of householders. Look, your reverences, we will execute householders’ commissions, thus they will think to give to us; thus we, all together, being on friendly terms and harmonious, will spend a comfortable rainy season and not go short of alms-food.”

Some spoke thus: “Enough, your reverences, of super-intending the business of householders and of executing householders’ commissions. Look, your reverences, we will speak praise to householders concerning this or that BD.2.209 condition of further-men, saying: ‘Such a monk is possessed of the first Vin.4.24 musing, such a monk is possessed of the second musing, such a monk is possessed of the third musing, such a monk is possessed of the fourth musing, such a monk is a stream-attainer, such a monk is a once-returner, such a monk is a non-returner, such a monk is man perfected, such a monk is a three-fold wisdom man, such a monk is a sixfold super-knowledge man.’ Thus these (householders) will think to give to us; thus we, all together, being on friendly terms and harmonious, will spend a comfortable rainy season and not go short of alms-food. It is better, your reverences, to speak praise to householders concerning this or that condition of further-men.”

Then these monks spoke praise to householders concerning this or that condition of further-men, saying, “Such a monk is possessed of the first musing … such a monk is a sixfold super-knowledge man.” Then these (men) thought: “Surely we have gained, surely there is a profit for us that such monks have come to us for the rains. Surely such monks as these monks, virtuous and of good character, never came to us for the rains before.” Accordingly these did not on their own account eat meals—they gave not to parents, they gave not to wife and children, they gave not to slave or servant, they gave not to friend or colleague, they gave not to blood-relations, as they gave to the monks. Accordingly these did not on their own account take savoury solid foods or drinks—they gave not to parents, they gave not to wife and children, they gave not to slave or servant, they gave not to friend or colleague, they gave not to blood-relations, as they gave to the monks. Thus these monks became handsome, of rounded features, their complexions bright, their skins clear.


Bu-Pc.8.1.2 Now it was the custom for monks who had finished keeping the rains to go and see the lord. Then these monks who had finished keeping the rains, the three months having elapsed, packing away their bedding BD.2.210 taking their bowls and robes, went up to Vesālī. In the course of time they came up to Vesālī, the Great Grove, the pavilion of the Gabled Hall, and to the lord, and having approached the lord, they greeted him and sat down at a respectful distance. At that time the monks who had spent the rains in those regions had become lean, wretched, of a bad colour, having become very yellow, their veins standing out all over their bodies; but the monks from the banks of the Vaggumudā had become handsome, of rounded features, their complexions bright, their skins clear. Now it was the custom for enlightened ones, for lords, to exchange friendly greetings with in-coming monks. So the lord said to the monks from the banks of the Vaggumudā: Vin.4.25

“I hope, monks, that things went well with you, I hope that you had enough to support life, I hope that, all together, being on friendly terms and harmonious, you spent a comfortable rainy season and did not go short of alms-food?”

“Things did go well with us, lord, we had enough to support life, lord, and all together we, lord, being on friendly terms and harmonious, spent a comfortable rainy season and did not go short of alms-food.”

Tathāgatas knowing (sometimes) ask; knowing (sometimes) do not ask; they ask, knowing the right time (to ask), and they do not ask, knowing the right time (when not to ask). Tathāgatas ask about what belongs to the goal, not about what does not belong to the goal; the breaking of the bridge of the Tathāgatas is among what does not belong to the goal. Enlightened ones, lords, question monks concerning two matters, either: “Shall we teach dhamma?” or, “Shall we make known a rule of training for disciples?”

Then the lord spoke thus to the monks from the banks of the Vaggumudā:

“In what way did you, monks, all together, being on friendly terms and harmonious, spend a comfortable rainy season and not go short of alms-food?” Then these monks told this matter to the lord.

BD.2.211 “Indeed, monks, I wonder if that is a fact?”

“It is a fact,[2] lord,” they said.

The enlightened one, the lord, rebuked them, saying:

“How can you, monks, for the sake of your stomachs, speak praise to householders concerning this or that condition of further-men? It is not, monks, for pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased … And thus, monks, this rule of training should be set forth:

Whatever monk should speak of a condition of further-men to one who is not ordained—if it is a fact,[3] there is an offence of expiation.”


Bu-Pc.8.2.1 Whatever means: … is monk to be understood in this case.

Not ordained means: setting aside monk and nun, the rest are called not ordained.

Condition of further-men[4] means: musing, freedom, concentration, attainment, knowledge and insight, making the Way to become, realisation of the fruits, destruction of the corruptions, delight in solitude for the mind devoid of the hindrances.

Musing means: the first musing, the second musing, the third musing, the fourth musing.

Freedom means: void freedom, signless freedom, freedom in which there is no hankering.

Concentration means: void concentration, signless concentration, concentration in which there is no hankering.

Attainment means: void attainment, signless attainment, attainment in which there is no hankering. Vin.4.26

Knowledge and insight[5] means: the three knowledges.

Making the Way to become means: the four presences of mindfulness, the four right efforts, the four bases of psychic potencies, the five faculties, the five powers, BD.2.212 the seven parts of enlightenment, the noble eightfold Way.

Realisation of the fruits means: realisation of the fruit of stream-attainment, realisation of the fruit of once-returning, realisation of the fruit of no-return, realisation of the fruit of perfection.

Destruction of the corruptions means: the destruction of passion, the destruction of hatred, the destruction of confusion.

For the mind devoid of the hindrances means: the mind devoid of the hindrance of passion, the mind devoid of the hindrance of hatred, the mind devoid of the hindrance of confusion.

Delight in solitude means: during the first musing there is delight in solitude, during the second musing … during the third musing … during the fourth musing there is delight in solitude.


Bu-Pc.8.2.2 Should speak of means: there is an offence of expiation for saying to one who is not ordained, “I will attain the first musing.”

Should speak of means: there is an offence of expiation for saying to one who is not ordained, “I am attaining the first musing.”

Should speak of means: there is an offence of expiation for saying to one who is not ordained, “I attained the first musing.” … “I am possessed of the first musing … I am master of the first musing … The first musing is realised by me.”

Should speak of means: there is an offence of expiation for saying to one who is not ordained: “I will attain the second … third … fourth musing. I am attaining the second … third … fourth musing. I attained the second … third … fourth musing. I am possessed of the … fourth musing. I am master of the … fourth musing. The … fourth musing is realised by me.”

Should speak of means: there is an offence of expiation for saying to one who is not ordained: “I will attain … I am attaining … I attained the void freedom, BD.2.213 the signless freedom, the freedom in which there is no hankering, the void concentration, the signless concentration, the concentration in which there is no hankering, I am possessed of … I am master of the concentration in which there is no hankering, the concentration in which there is no hankering is realised by me.”

Should speak of means: there is an offence of expiation for saying to one who is not ordained: “I will attain … I am attaining … I attained the void attainment, the signless attainment, the attainment in which there is no hankering, I am possessed of … I am master of the attainment in which there is no hankering, the attainment in which there is no hankering is realised by me.”

Should speak of means: there is an offence of expiation for saying to one who is not ordained: “I will attain the three knowledges … I am possessed of the three knowledges …”

Should speak of means: there is an offence of expiation for saying to one who is not ordained: Vin.4.27 “I will attain … I am possessed of the four presences of mindfulness, the four right efforts, the four bases of psychic potencies …”

Should speak of means: there is an offence of expiation for saying to one who is not ordained: “I will attain the five faculties, the five powers … I am possessed of … I am master of the five powers, the five powers are realised by me.”

Should speak of means: there is an offence of expiation for saying to one who is not ordained, “I will attain the seven parts of enlightenment … I am possessed of the seven parts of enlightenment …”

Should speak of means: there is an offence of expiation for saying to one who is not ordained, “I will attain the noble eightfold Way … I am possessed of the noble eightfold Way …”

Should speak of means: there is an offence of expiation for saying to one who is not ordained, “I will attain the fruit of stream-attainment, the fruit of once- BD.2.214 returning, the fruit of no-return, perfection … I am possessed of perfection …”

Should speak of means: there is an offence of expiation for saying to one who is not ordained, “Passion is given up by me, hatred is given up by me, confusion is given up by me … renounced … sacrificed … destroyed … forsaken … thrown aside … rejected.”

Should speak of means: there is an offence of expiation for saying to one who is not ordained, “My mind is devoid of the hindrance of passion … of hatred … my mind is devoid of the hindrance of confusion.”

Should speak of means: there is an offence of expiation for saying to one who is not ordained: “In solitude I will attain the first musing … the second musing … the third … the fourth musing … in solitude I am possessed of the fourth musing …”


Bu-Pc.8.2.3 Should speak of means: there is an offence of expiation for saying to one who is not ordained, “I will attain the first musing and the second musing … the second musing is realised by me.”

Should speak of means: there is an offence of expiation for saying to one who is not ordained, “I will attain the first musing and the third musing … the first musing and the fourth musing are attained by me.”

Should speak of means: there is an offence of expiation for saying to one who is not ordained, “I will attain the first musing and the void freedom and the signless freedom and the freedom in which there is no hankering and the void concentration and the signless concentration and the concentration in which there is no hankering … is realised by me.”

Should speak of means: there is an offence of expiation for saying to one who is not ordained, “I will attain the first musing and the void attainment and the signless attainment and the attainment in which there is no hankering … is realised by me.”

Should speak of means: there is an offence of expiation for saying to one who is not ordained, “I will attain BD.2.215 the first musing and the three knowledges … is realised by me.”

Should speak of means: there is an offence of expiation for saying to one who is not ordained, Vin.4.28 “I will attain the first musing and the four presences of mindfulness and the four right efforts and the four bases of psychic potencies … realised by me.”

Should speak of means: there is an offence of expiation for saying to one who is not ordained, “I will attain the first musing and the five faculties and the five powers … realised by me.”

Should speak of means: there is an offence of expiation for saying to one who is not ordained, “I will attain the first musing and the seven parts of enlightenment, and the noble eightfold Way, and the fruit of stream-attainment, and the fruit of once-returning, and the fruit of no-return, and perfection … realised by me.”

Should speak of means: there is an offence of expiation for saying to one who is not ordained, “I will attain the first musing … I attained … and passion is given up by me, and hatred is given up by me, and confusion is given up by me, and … rejected.”

Should speak of means: there is an offence of expiation for saying to one who is not ordained, “I will attain the first musing … I am attaining … realised by me … and my mind is devoid of the hindrance of passion … of the hindrance of hatred … of the hindrance of confusion.”

Should speak of means: there is an offence of expiation for saying to one who is not ordained, “I will enter upon the second musing and the third musing, and the second musing and the fourth musing … and my mind is devoid of the hindrance of confusion.”

Should speak of means: there is an offence of expiation for saying to one who is not ordained, “I will attain the second musing and the first musing … attained by me.”

Should speak of means: there is an offence of expiation for saying to one who is not ordained, “My mind is devoid of the hindrance of confusion and I will attain BD.2.216 the first musing and the second musing and the third musing and the fourth musing … realised by me …”

Should speak of means: there is an offence of expiation for saying to one who is not ordained, “My mind is devoid of the hindrance of confusion and my mind is devoid of the hindrance of hatred …”

Should speak of means: there is an offence of expiation for saying to one who is not ordained, “I will attain … I am attaining … I attained the first musing and the second musing and the third musing and the fourth musing and the void freedom and the signless freedom and the freedom in which there is no hankering and the void concentration and the signless concentration and the concentration in which there is no hankering and the void attainment and the signless attainment and the attainment in which there is no hankering and the three knowledges and the four presences of mindfulness and the four right efforts and the four bases of psychic potencies and the five faculties and the five powers and the seven parts of enlightenment and the noble eightfold Way Vin.4.29 and the fruit of stream-attainment and the fruit of once-returning and the fruit of no-return and perfection and passion is given up by me … and hatred is given up by me … and confusion is given up by me, renounced, sacrificed, destroyed, forsaken, thrown aside, rejected, and my mind is devoid of the hindrance of passion and my mind is devoid of the hindrance of hatred and my mind is devoid of the hindrance of confusion.”


Bu-Pc.8.2.4 Should speak of means: there is an offence of expiation for saying to one who is not ordained, “I will attain the first musing,” and for acknowledging it, if he is desirous of saying, “I will attain the second musing”; but if he does not acknowledge it, there is an offence of wrong-doing.

Should speak of means: there is an offence of expiation for saying to one who is not ordained, “I will attain the first musing,” and for acknowledging it, if he is desirous of saying, “I will attain the third musing … BD.2.217 the fourth musing … the void freedom … and my mind is devoid of the hindrance of confusion”; but if he does not acknowledge it, there is an offence of wrong-doing.

Should speak of means: there is an offence of expiation for saying to one who is not ordained, “I will attain the second musing,” and for acknowledging it, if he is desirous of saying, “… and my mind is devoid of the hindrance of confusion” … for saying, for acknowledging … “I will attain the first musing …”; but if he does not acknowledge it, there is an offence of wrong-doing.

Should speak of means: there is an offence of expiation for saying to one who is not ordained, “My mind is devoid of the hindrance of hatred,” and for acknowledging it, if he is desirous of saying, “I will attain the first musing” … for saying, for acknowledging … “… My mind is devoid of the hindrance of confusion”; but if he does not acknowledge it, there is an offence of wrong-doing.

Should speak of means: there is an offence of expiation for saying to one who is not ordained, “I will attain the first musing and the second musing and the third musing and the fourth musing … and my mind is devoid of the hindrance of hatred,” and for acknowledging it, if he is desirous of saying, “My mind is devoid of the hindrance of confusion”; but if he does not acknowledge it, there is an offence of wrong-doing.

Should speak of means: there is an offence of expiation for saying to one who is not ordained, “I will attain the second musing and the third musing … and my mind is devoid of the hindrance of confusion,” and for acknowledging it, if he is desirous of saying, “I will attain the first musing”; but if he does not acknowledge it, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Bu-Pc.8.2.5 There is an offence of wrong-doing for saying to one who is not ordained, “The monk who lives in this dwelling-place will attain … is attaining … attained the first musing, this monk is possessed of, master of BD.2.218 the first musing, the first musing is realised by this monk.”

There is an offence of wrong-doing for saying to one who is not ordained, “The monk who lives in this dwelling-place will attain … is attaining … attained the second musing, the third musing, the fourth musing, the void freedom … perfection … Passion is given up by this monk … hatred is given up Vin.4.30 … confusion is given up by this monk, renounced … rejected. This monk’s mind is devoid of the hindrance of passion … of hatred … is devoid of the hindrance of confusion.”

There is an offence of wrong-doing for saying to one who is not ordained, “The monk who lives in this dwelling-place will attain … is attaining … attained the first musing in solitude … the second musing … the third musing … the fourth musing in solitude … This monk is possessed of the fourth musing in solitude, is master of … The fourth musing is realised by this monk in solitude.”

There is an offence of wrong-doing for saying to one who is not ordained, “The monk who uses your dwelling-place, who uses your robes, who uses your alms-food, who uses your lodgings, who uses your medicines for the sick … by whom your dwelling-place was used, by whom your robes were used, by whom your alms-food was used, by whom your lodgings were used, by whom your medicine for the sick were used … to whom, thanks to you, he gave a dwelling-place, he gave robes, he gave alms-food, he gave lodgings, he gave medicines for the sick, that monk attained the fourth musing in solitude … the fourth musing was realised by that monk in solitude.”


Bu-Pc.8.2.6 There is no offence if he speaks of what is a fact[6] to one who is ordained; if he is mad, if he is the first wrong-doer.

The Eighth

Footnotes and references:

1.

Cf. Bu-Pj.4, where it is an offence involving defeat unfoundedly to claim a condition of further-men (uttarimanussa-dhamma). See BD.1.151ff. for notes.

2.

At Vin.3.89 (BD.1.154), the answer is, “It is not a fact,” or it is a falsehood (abhūta).

3.

If it is not a fact, then there is a Pārājika offence (Bu-Pj.4).

4.

From here to end of this Pācittiya, cf. Vin.3.92–100 (BD.1.161–171).

5.

At Vin.3.93, simply ñāṇa, knowledge.

6.

bhūta.

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