Vinaya Pitaka (1): The Analysis of Monks’ Rules (Bhikkhu-vibhanga)

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 345,334 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Bhikkhu-vibhanga: the first part of the Suttavibhanga, which itself is the first book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of rules for Buddhist monks. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (first part, bhikkhu-vibhanga) contains many...

Monks’ Forfeiture (Nissaggiya) 4

Bu-NP.4.1.1 BD.2.30 … at Sāvatthī in the Jeta Grove in Anāthapiṇḍika’s monastery. Now at that time[1] the former wife of the venerable Udāyin had gone forth among the nuns. She frequently came to the venerable Udāyin, and the venerable Udāyin frequently went to this nun. Now at that time the venerable Udāyin used to participate in a meal with this nun. Then the venerable Udāyin, dressing in the morning,[2] taking his bowl and robe, approached this nun, and having approached and disclosed his private parts in front of this nun, he sat down on a seat. And further, the nun having disclosed her private parts in front of the venerable Udāyin, sat down on a seat. Then the venerable Udāyin, impassioned, looked at and thought about[3] this nun’s private parts and emitted semen. Then the venerable Udāyin said to this nun:

“Go, sister, fetch water, I will wash the inner robe.” Vin.3.206

“Give[4] it (to me), master, I will wash it myself,” and she took hold of one part with her mouth and placed one part on her private parts. Because of this she conceived a child. The nuns spoke thus:

“This nun is one who does not lead the Brahma-life, (because) she is pregnant.”

(She, sayin,) “Ladies,[5] I am not one who does not lead the Brahma-life,” told this matter to the nuns.

BD.2.31 The nuns looked down upon, criticised, spread it about, saying:

“How can master Udāyin get a soiled robe[6] washed by a nun?” Then these nuns told this matter to the monks. Those who were modest monks looked down upon, criticised, spread it about, saying:

“How can the venerable Udāyin get a soiled robe washed by a nun?” Then these monks told this matter to the lord. He said:

“Is it true, as is said, that you, Udāyin, got a soiled robe washed by a nun?”

“It is true, lord,” he said.

“Was she a relation of yours, Udāyin, or not a relation?”

“She was not a relation, lord,” he said.

“Foolish man,[7] one who is not a relation does not know what is suitable or what is unsuitable, or what is pleasant or what is unpleasant for a woman who is not a relation. Thus you, foolish man, will get a soiled robe washed by a nun who is not a relation. It is not, foolish man, for pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased … And thus, monks, this rule of training should be set forth:

Whatever monk should get a soiled robe washed or dyed[8] or beaten[9] by a nun who is not a relation, there is an offence of expiation involving forfeiture.”[10]


Bu-NP.4.2.1 Whatever means: he who …

(A nun) who is not a relation means: one who is not related on the mother’s side or on the father’s side back through seven generations.[11]

BD.2.32 Nun means: one ordained by both Orders.[12]

A soiled robe means: dressed in[13] it once, put on[14] once.

Wash means: he gives an order[15]—there is an offence of wrong-doing. If washed, it is to be forfeited.

Dye means: he gives an order—there is an offence of wrong-doing. If dyed, it is to be forfeited.

Beat means: he gives an order—there is an offence of wrong-doing. If once having given a blow with the palm (of the hand) or a blow with a club, it is to be forfeited. It should be forfeited to the Order, or to a group, or to an individual. And thus, monks, should it be forfeited: ‘Honoured sirs, this soiled robe which I had washed by a nun who is not a relation, is to be forfeited. I forfeit it to the Order.’ … ‘… the Order should give back … let the venerable ones give back … I will give back this robe to the venerable one.’” Vin.3.207


Bu-NP.4.2.2 If he thinks that she is not a relation when she is not a relation and makes her wash (his) soiled robe, BD.2.33 there is an offence of expiation involving forfeiture. If he thinks that she is not a relation when she is not a relation and makes her wash, makes her dye (his) soiled robe, there is an offence of wrong-doing together with an offence involving forfeiture.[16] If he thinks that she is not a relation when she is not a relation and makes her wash, makes her beat (his) soiled robe, there is an offence of wrong-doing together with an offence involving forfeiture. If he thinks that she is not a relation when she is not a relation and makes her wash, makes her dye, makes her beat (his) soiled robe, there are two offences of wrong-doing together with an offence involving forfeiture.

If he thinks that she is not a relation when she is not a relation and makes her dye (his) soiled robe, there is an offence of expiation involving forfeiture. If he thinks that she is not a relation when she is not a relation and makes her dye, makes her beat (his) soiled robe, there is an offence of wrong-doing together with an offence involving forfeiture. If he thinks that she is not a relation when she is not a relation and makes her dye, makes her wash (his) soiled robe, there is an offence of wrong-doing together with an offence involving forfeiture. If he thinks that she is not a relation when she is not a relation and makes her dye, makes her beat, makes her wash (his) soiled robe, there are two offences of wrong-doing together with an offence involving forfeiture.

If he thinks that she is not a relation when she is not a relation and makes her beat (his) soiled robe, there is an offence of expiation involving forfeiture. If he thinks that she is not a relation when she is not a relation and makes her beat, makes her wash (his) soiled robe, there is an offence of wrong-doing together with an offence involving forfeiture. If he thinks that she is not a relation when she is not a relation and makes her beat, makes her dye (his) soiled robe, there BD.2.34 is an offence of wrong-doing together with an offence involving forfeiture. If he thinks that she is not a relation when she is not a relation and makes her beat, makes her wash, makes her dye (his) soiled robe, there are two offences of wrong-doing together with an offence involving forfeiture.

If he is in doubt as to whether she is not a relation … If he thinks that a woman is a relation when she is not a relation … If he makes her wash another’s soiled robe, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he makes her wash a sheet (used as) a piece of cloth for sitting on,[17] there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he makes a woman who has been ordained by one (Order only) wash it,[18] there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he thinks that she is not a relation when she is a relation, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he is in doubt as to whether she is a relation, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he thinks that she is a relation when she is a relation, there is no offence.


Bu-NP.4.2.3 There is no offence when a female relation is washing it if a woman assistant who is not a relation is (helping); if she washes it unasked[19]; if he makes her wash an unused BD.2.35 one; if he makes her wash another requisite,[20] except the robe; if it is (washed) by a female probationer, by a female novice; if he is mad, if he is the first wrong-doer.[21]

Footnotes and references:

1.

Opening phrases are the same as those of Bu-Pc.30.

2.

pubbaṇha and aparaṇha are the morning and the afternoon. Cf. Kp-a.105.

3.

upanijjhāyati has sense of “to look at (eagerly)” and “to reflect on.”

4.

āharati has sense of “to give” here.

5.

ayye.

6.

purāṇa-cīvara, literally “old robe.”

7.

Oldenberg’s edition has moghapuriso; but see Sinhalese edition, and also below, BD.2.39, BD.2.44, where the vocative, moghapurisa, occurs in similar contexts.

8.

Six kinds of dyes allowed at Vin.1.286.

9.

At Vin.1.286 monks are allowed to beat, ākoṭeti, with the hands robe-material that has become harsh.

10.

Cf. Bu-NP.17 for both “rule” and Old Commentary.

12.

= below, BD.2.40, BD.2.96, and passim. Vin-a.660, “she is ordained by a motion of the Order of nuns where the resolution is put three times and followed by the decision (as the fourth item, ñatticatuttha), then she is ordained in the same way by the Order of monks. Therefore she is ordained by eight Vinaya acts.”

13.

nivattha, past participle of nivāseti. It refers to the antaravāsaka, the inner or under robe that hangs down from the waist, and to the uttarāsaṅga, upper robe; also to the cloths for the rains (Bu-NP.24), to garments worn by members of other sects (Vin.1.305f.), to garments called akkanāla and potthaka (Vin.1.306f.), to nuns’ vests (Vin-a.663), to a laywoman’s outer cloak, sāṭaka, Vin.4.18.

14.

pāruta, past participle of pārupati. It refers to the saṅghāṭi, outer cloak; also to a (costly) paṭa, or cloth (below, BD.2.109), and to vihāracīvara, and other things that a monk may put on, pārupituṃ, to cover the body if the robes are stolen or lost (Bu-NP.6). Thus, for a monk, both nivāseti and pārupati are required to indicate the putting on or dressing in the complete set of three robes. Cf. Vin.4.281f., where the two words occur in connection with the five kinds of robes a nun should wear. See below, BD.2.88, where “old rug,” purāṇasanthata, is defined as is “soiled robe,” purāṇa-cīvara, above.

15.

Vin-a.660, “the nun who was ordered prepares an oven, collects sticks, makes a fire, fetches water, until, having washed it, she holds it up: there is an offence of wrong-doing in each action for the monk.”

16.

nissaggyiyena āpatti dukkaṭassa; probably pācittiya omitted merely for the sake of brevity.

17.

A compound word in Pali, nisīdana-paccattharaṇa. Nisīdana is a piece of cloth for sitting on; paccattharaṇa is the bed-clothes, really a piece of cloth for covering a bed or chair, thus a sheet. Cf. below, BD.2.46, n.3. At Vin.1.295 a nisīdana was found to be too small to protect the whole lodging; to meet this difficulty the lord is reputed to have allowed a paccattharaṇa, made as large as one wishes. It looks therefore as if nisīdana-paccattharaṇa is either a sheet that is a piece of cloth to sit upon, although larger than a mere “piece of cloth to sit upon,” the mere nisīdana; or that it is a sheet used as, or instead of, a piece of cloth for sitting on. Cf. nisīdana-santhata, in Bu-NP.15, and both in Introduction.

18.

Vin-a.662, “causing it to be washed by one who was ordained (only) in the presence of the nuns is an offence of wrong-doing, and it is the same lor one who has been ordained (only) in the presence of the monks; five hundred Sakyan women were ordained in the presence of the monks.”

19.

Vin-a.662, “if she has come for the Exposition and the Exhortation, seeing the soiled robe and taking it from the place where it was put, she says: ‘Give it, master, I will wash it,’ and when it is brought she washes it and moreover dyes it and beats it—this is called ‘she washes it unasked’ (avuttā). If she hears a monk ordering a youth or a novice to wash the robe, she says: ‘Bring it, master, I will wash it,’ and she washes it, or taking it for a time, having washed it and dyed it, she then gives it back—this is called ‘she washes it unasked.’”

20.

Vin-a.662, “a sandal, bowl, shoulder-strap, girdle, couch, chair, straw mat.”

21.

Cf. below, BD.2.97f.

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