Vinaya (3): The Cullavagga

by T. W. Rhys Davids | 1881 | 137,074 words

The Cullavagga (part of the Vinaya collection) includes accounts of the First and Second Buddhist Councils as well as the establishment of the community of Buddhist nuns. The Cullavagga also elaborates on the etiquette and duties of Bhikkhus....

Cullavagga, Khandaka 12, Chapter 1

1. Now at that time, a century[1] after the death of the Blessed One, the Bhikkhus of Vesālī, Vajjians, promulgated at Vesālī the ten theses:—(1) that storing salt in a horn vessel was permissible; (2) that the midday meal might be eaten when the sun's shadow showed two finger breadths after noon; (3) that he who intends to go into the village could begin to eat again after he had once left off; (4) that a number of Bhikkhus residing within the same boundary might hold Uposatha separately; (5) that a Saṃgha not at unity within itself might carry out an official act, undertaking to inform Bhikkhus of it; (6) that it was permissible for a Bhikkhu to do anything adopted as a practice by his Upajjhāya; (7) that curds might be eaten by one who had already finished his midday meal; (8) that it was permissible to drink unfermented toddy; (9) that a rug or mat need not be of the limited size prescribed if it had no fringe; (10) that it was permissible to receive gold and silver[2]. Now at that time the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍaka, who was wandering through the Vajjian country, arrived at Vesālī; and there the venerable Yasa stayed at the Mahāvana, in the Kūṭāgāra Hall.

Now at that time the Vajjian Bhikkhus of Vesālī, on Uposatha day, filled a copper pot with water and placed it in the midst of the Bhikkhu-saṃgha, and said to such of their Vesālian lay disciples as came there: 'Give, Sirs, to the Saṃgha a kahāpaṇa[3], or half a one, or a pāda, or a māsaka. It will be wanted for the Saṃgha, for the provision of various utensils.'

When they had thus spoken, the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍaka, said to the lay disciples: 'Do, Sirs, nothing of the kind. The use of gold and silver is not allowed to the Sakyaputtiya Samaṇas. The Sakyaputtiya Samaṇas neither allow it to be given to them, nor take charge of it. The Sakyaputtiya Samaṇas are men whose gems and jewelry have been laid aside, and who are without silver and without gold.'

Though the lay disciples from Vesālī had been thus addressed by the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍaka, they gave money to the Saṃgha. And the Vajjian Bhikkhus of Vesālī, at the close of the night, reserving one portion[4], divided that money according to the number of the Bhikkhus. And they said to the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍaka:

'This, friend Yasa, is thy due portion of the money.'

'I have no due portion in that money. I do not allow any money to be given to me.'

2. Then the Vajjian Bhikkhus of Vesālī said one to another: 'This brother, Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍaka, upbraids and reviles, and renders dissatisfied believing and faithful followers. Come, let us carry out against him the Act of Reconciliation[5].' And they did so.

Then the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍaka, said to them: 'It has been laid down, Sirs, by the Blessed One, that a companion shall be appointed to go as messenger with a Bhikkhu against whom the Act of Reconciliation has been carried out[6]. Appoint, Sirs, a Bhikkhu, as companion messenger to me.' And the Vajjian Bhikkhus of Vesālī deputed a Bhikkhu to that work, and gave him as a companion messenger to the venerable Yasa.

And the venerable Yasa, taking the companion Bhikkhu with him, entered into Vesālī, and said to the believing laymen there:

'I am said, Sirs, to be upbraiding and reviling, and rendering dissatisfied believing and faithful followers, thereby that I have said what is against the Dhamma to be against the Dhamma, and what is Dhamma to be Dhamma, and what is against the Vinaya to be against the Vinaya, and what is Vinaya to be Vinaya.

3. 'Now the Blessed One was once, Sirs, staying at Sāvatthi in the Jetavana, Anātha Piṇḍika's pleasure-ground. And there, Sirs, the Blessed One exhorted the Bhikkhus, and said:

'"There are, O Bhikkhus, four obstructions of the sun and moon, by which when the sun and moon are affected, they give no heat and they give no light, and they are no longer glorious. And what are the four? They are clouds and fog and dusty smoke and Rāhu[7], by which when the sun and the moon are affected they give neither heat nor light nor sheen. Just so, O Bhikkhus, there are four stains by which when Samaṇas and Brāhmans are affected they give neither heat nor light nor sheen. And what are the four? There are some Samaṇas and Brāhmans who drink strong drink, and things intoxicating, abstaining not therefrom[8]. This is the first of such stains. And further, O Bhikkhus, there are some Samaṇas and Brāhmans who practise sexual intercourse, and abstain not therefrom. This is the second of such stains. And further, O Bhikkhus, there are some Samaṇas and Brāhmans who accept silver and gold, abstaining not from the use thereof. This is the third of such stains. And lastly, O Bhikkhus, there are some Samaṇas and Brāhmans who gain their livelihood by low arts[9], abstaining not from such means of life. This is the fourth of such stains."

'Thus spoke, Sirs, the Blessed One: and when the Happy One had thus spoken, the Master further said:

'"Stained by lust and malice, some Samaṇas and Brāhmans,
Men blinded by ignorance, praise things that seem to have delight.
Strong drink they drink and fierce, indulge in sensual acts,
Devoid of wisdom, silver and gold they take.
And by low arts some Samaṇas and Brāhmans live.
Stains are such actions called by the Buddha of the Solar race,
Stains—by which defiled some Samaṇas and Brāhmans,
Impure brutes and unclean, give neither heat nor light.
Covered rather by darkness, purblind, enslaved by craving lusts,
They enlarge the realm of death[10], and dread rebirth they gain."

'It is for upholding this opinion that I, Sirs, have been said to be upbraiding and reviling and rendering dissatisfied believing and faithful followers, in that I have said what is against the Dhamma to be against the Dhamma, and what is Dhamma to be Dhamma; what is against the Vinaya to be against the Vinaya, and what is Vinaya to be Vinaya.

4. 'And once the Blessed One was staying, Sirs, at Rājagaha, in the Veḷuvana, at the Kalandaka Nivāpa. Now at that time among the royal attendants sitting together in the women's apartment in the palace, the following saying was heard: "Silver and gold is allowed to the Sakyaputtiya Samaṇas. The Sakyaputtiya Samaṇas accept it, and take it in charge." Now at that time Maṇicūḷaka, a village headman, was present. And he said to the people there: "Say not so, Sirs. Neither is silver and gold allowed to the Sakyaputtiya Samaṇas, nor do they accept it, nor take it in charge. The Sakyaputtiya Samaṇas are men who have laid aside gems and jewelry, and are without silver, and without gold." And the headman, Maṇicūḷaka, succeeded in satisfying them.

'Then the headman, Maṇicūḷaka, went to the place where the Blessed One was and saluted him, and took his seat on one side. And he told the Blessed One the whole matter[11], and said:

'"Now am I, Lord, in maintaining as I did, one who speaks according to the word of the Blessed One, one who does not falsely represent the Blessed One, one who does not put forth minor matters in the place of the true Dhamma? And is there anything that leads to blame in such discussion, this way and that, as touching the observance of the rules of the order[12]?"

'"Most certainly, Maṇicūḷaka, in maintaining thus you speak in accordance with my word, and do not represent me falsely, nor put forth minor matters as the true Dhamma. Nor is there any thing leading to blame in such discussions. For gold and silver is not allowed, Maṇicūḷaka, to the Sakyaputtiya Samaṇas, nor ought they to accept it, nor take it in charge. Men who have laid aside gems and jewelry are the Sakyaputtiya Samaṇas, men without silver and without gold. For to whomsoever, Maṇicūḷaka, gold and silver are allowed, to him also the five kinds of sensual pleasure[13] are allowed. And to whomsoever these five kinds of pleasure are allowed, him you may know of a certainty to be following neither the rule of the Samaṇas, nor the rule of the sons of Sākya. Although, Maṇicūḷaka, I have said that he who is in need of grass may seek for grass, and he who is in need of wood may seek for wood, and he who is in need of a conveyance may seek for a conveyance, and he who is in need of a servant may seek for a servant; yet have I never said in any way whatever that gold or silver may be sought after or accepted."

'It is for maintaining this opinion that I, Sirs, have been said to be upbraiding and reviling and rendering dissatisfied believing and faithful followers, in that I have said what is against the Dhamma to be against the Dhamma, and what is Dhamma to be Dhamma; that what is against the Vinaya is against the Vinaya, and what is Vinaya is Vinaya.'

5. 'And once, Sirs, the Blessed One at the same place, at Rājagaha, on the occasion of the matter of Upananda, the Sākyan, distinctly laid down a precept by which gold and silver were forbidden[14].

'It is for maintaining this opinion that I, Sirs, have been said to be upbraiding and reviling and rendering dissatisfied believing and faithful followers, in that I have said what is against the Dhamma to be against the Dhamma, and what is Dhamma to be Dhamma; that what is against the Vinaya is against the Vinaya, and what is Vinaya is Vinaya.'

6. When he had thus spoken, the lay brethren said to Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍaka There is but one, Sirs[15], who is a Sakyaputtiya Samaṇa, our master, Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍaka. All the rest are no Samaṇas, neither Sakyaputtiyas. Let the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍaka, dwell among us. We will exert ourselves to provide him with robes, and food, and medicine, and the necessaries for the sick.'

Then the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍaka, having gained over the lay brethren, returned with the companion Bhikkhu to the Ārāma,

7. And the Vajjian Bhikkhus of Vesālī asked the companion Bhikkhu: 'Did Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍaka, obtain, Sir, the forgiveness of the lay brethren?'

'Evil, Sirs, hath been wrought against us. Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍaka, and he alone has been decided to be a Sakyaputtiya Samaṇa, and all of us neither Samaṇas nor Sakyaputtiyas.'

Then the Vajjian Bhikkhus of Vesālī said: 'The venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍaka, without being deputed by us, has proclaimed to laymen (a false doctrine)[16]. Come, let us carry out the Act of Suspension[17] against him.' And they assembled together with the intention of doing so.

But the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍaka, rose up into the sky and descended at Kosambī. And he sent messengers to the Bhikkhus of the Western country, and of Avanti, and of the Southern country[18], saying, 'Let your reverences come! We must take in charge this legal question before what is not Dhamma is spread abroad, and what is Dhamma is put aside; before what is not Vinaya is spread abroad, and what is Vinaya is put aside; before those who argue against the Dhamma become powerful, and those who argue in favour of the Dhamma become weak; before those who argue against the Vinaya become powerful, and those who argue in favour of the Vinaya become weak.'

8. Now at that time the venerable Sambhūta Sāṇavāsī[19] was dwelling on the Ahogaṅga Hill[20]. And thither the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍaka, went; and on his arrival he saluted the venerable Sambhūta Sāṇavāsī, and took his seat on one side: and being so seated he said to him:

'Lord, these Vajjian Bhikkhus of Vesālī have put forward ten theses.' And he told him what they were[21], and added: 'Come now, Lord, let us take in charge this last question before what is not Dhamma is spread abroad, and what is Dhamma is put aside; before what is not Vinaya is spread abroad, and what is Vinaya is put aside; before those who argue against the Dhamma become powerful, and those who argue in favour of the Dhamma become weak; before those who argue against the Vinaya become powerful, and those who argue in favour of the Vinaya become weak.'

'Even so, Lord,' said the venerable Sambhūta Sāṇavāsī, in assent to the venerable Yasa Kākaṇḍaka-putta.

Then about sixty Bhikkhus from the Western country, all of whom were hermits, all of whom lived only on alms, all of whom dressed only in cast-off clothes, and kept only three robes, and all of whom were Arahats, assembled together at the Ahogaṅga Hill. And about eighty-eight from Avanti and the Southern country, some of whom were hermits, and some of whom, lived only on alms, and some of whom dressed only in cast-off clothes, and some of whom kept only three robes, but all of whom were Arahats, met together with them on the Ahogaṅga Hill.

9. And the Thera Bhikkhus, consulting together, came to this conclusion: 'This legal question, now, is hard and subtle. How can we obtain such support that we may have the greater power at the decision thereof[22]?' Now at that time the venerable Revata was dwelling at Soreyya, and he was wise in the traditions, one who had learned the Agamas (the four Nikāyas), and knew by heart the Dhamma, the Vinaya, and the Mātikās; intelligent, discreet, and wise, modest, conscientious, devoted to the precepts[23]. And the Thera Bhikkhus thought that if they could gain him over to their side, they would attain their end.

And the venerable Revata, by the divine ear, clear and surpassing that of men, heard the Thera Bhikkhus as they were thus consulting together; and he thought: 'This legal question is both hard and subtle, it would not become me to hold back therefrom. But even now those Bhikkhus (the Vajjians) will be coming. It would be unpleasant travelling for me were I to fall in with them. Let me go on before them.'

So the venerable Revata went from Soreyya to Saṃkassa. And when the Thera Bhikkhus went to Soreyya, and asked: 'Where is the venerable Revata?' they said: 'He is gone to Saṃkassa.'

Now the venerable Revata had gone on from Saṃkassa to Kaṇṇakujja. And when the Thera Bhikkhus came to Saṃkassa, and asked: 'Where is the venerable Revata?' they said: 'He is gone on to Kaṇṇakujja.' And in the same way they followed him thither, and to Udumbara, and to Aggalapura, and to Sahajāti, and there they met with the venerable Revata.

10. And the venerable Sambhūta Sāṇavāsī said to the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍaka:

'Friend, the brother Revata is wise in the traditions, has learnt the Agamas, knows by heart the Dhamma, the Vinaya, and the Mātikās, he is intelligent, discreet, and wise, modest, conscientious, and devoted to the precepts. If we ask the venerable Revata a puzzling question, he is capable of spending the whole night on that one question. And even now the venerable Revata will call upon a Bhikkhu who is an intoner[24], and a pupil of his. Do you, therefore, when the Bhikkhu has concluded, go to the venerable Revata and ask him concerning these ten theses (points).'

'Even so, Sir,' said the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍaka, in assent to the venerable Sambhūta Sāṇavāsī.

And the venerable Revata called upon the Bhikkhu, the pupil of his, the intoner. And when the Bhikkhu had concluded, the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍaka, went to the venerable Revata, and saluted him, and took his seat beside him. And, so seated, he said to the venerable Revata[25]:

'Is the horn-salt-license, Lord, allowable?'

'What, Sir, is this horn-salt-license?'

'Is it allowable, Lord, to carry about salt in a horn with the intention of putting it into food which has not been salted?'

'No, Sir, it is not allowable.'

'Is the two-inch-license, Lord, allowable?'

'What, Sir, is this two-inch-license?'

'Is it allowable, Lord, to eat the midday meal beyond the right time, provided only that the shadow has not yet turned two inches?'

'No, Sir, it is not allowable.'

'Is the village-trip-license, Lord, allowable?'

'What, Sir, is this village-trip-license?'

'Is it allowable, Lord, for one who has once finished his meal, and refused any more, to eat food which has not been left over, on the ground that he is about to proceed into the village?'

'No, Sir, it is not allowable.'

'Is the circuit-license, Lord, allowable?'

'What, Sir, is this circuit-license?'

'Is it allowable, Lord, for a number of Bhikkhus who dwell within the same circuit, within the same boundary, to hold separate Uposathas?'

'No, Sir, it is not allowable.'

'Is the indemnity-license, Lord, allowable?'

'What, Sir, is this indemnity-license?'

'Is it allowable, Lord, for a Saṃgha, which is not legally constituted[26], to perform an official act on the ground that they will afterwards obtain the sanction of such Bhikkhus who may subsequently arrive?'

'No, Sir, it is not allowable.'

'Is the precedent-license, Lord, allowable?'

'What, Sir, is this precedent-license?'

'Is it allowable, Lord, to do a thing on the ground that, "My preceptor (upajjhāya) has practised this; or my teacher (ācariya) has practised that?"'

'In some cases, Sir, this is allowable, and in some not[27].'

'Is the churn-license, Lord, allowable?'

'What, Sir, is this churn-license?'

'Is it allowable, Lord, for one who has once finished his meal, and has refused any more, to drink milk not left over from the meal, on the ground that it has left the condition of milk, and has not yet reached the condition of curds[28]?'

'No, Sir, it is not allowable.'

'Is it allowable, Lord, to drink toddy?'

'What, Sir, is this toddy?'

'Is it allowable, Lord, to drink spirits which have left the condition of not being spirits, and yet have not acquired intoxicating properties[29]?'

'No, Sir, it is not allowable?'

'Is a rug or mat (when it is beyond the prescribed size) lawful, Lord, because it is unfringed?'

'No, Sir, it is not allowable.'

'Is gold and silver, Lord, allowable?'

'No, Sir, it is not allowable.'

These are the ten theses, Lord, which these Vajjian Bhikkhus of Vesālī have put forth. Come, Lord, let us take this legal question in hand before that which is not Dhamma is spread abroad, and that which is Dhamma is put aside; before that which is not Vinaya is spread abroad, and that which is Vinaya is put aside; before those who argue against the Dhamma become powerful, and those who argue in favour of the Dhamma become weak; before those who argue against the Vinaya become powerful, and those who argue in favour of the Vinaya become weak.'

'Even so, Sir,' said the venerable Revata, in assent to the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍaka.

________________________

Here ends the First Portion for Recitation.

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

As pointed out at xxii of our Introduction, we believe this number ought not to be taken too literally, but to be considered a round number.

[2]:

The above terms are explained below, §§ 1, 10, and 2, 8.

[3]:

About a penny; on this and the following terms, see Rh. D.'s 'Ancient Coins and Measures, &c.,' p. S.

[4]:

Paṭiviso. See Mahāvagga VIII, 27, 4.

[5]:

Paṭisāraṇiya-kamma. See Cullavagga I, 18.

[6]:

On Anudūta, see Cullavagga I, 20-22.

[7]:

That is, eclipse.

[8]:

It is curious that this matter is not, like all the following, referred to in the Sīlas. See Rh. D.'s 'Buddhist Suttas,' p. 190.

[9]:

Those, namely, which are set out in the Mahā Sīla (Rh. D.'s Buddhist Suttas,' pp. 196-203).

[10]:

That is, by being repeatedly reborn they continually die. Vaḍḍhenti kaṭasin ti punappunaṃ kalevara-nikkhipamāna-bhūmiṃ vaḍḍhenti, says Buddhaghosa. The word occurs at Jātaka I, 146.

[11]:

The whole is repeated in the text.

[12]:

The whole of this speech recurs, nearly word for word, in the Mahāvagga VI, 31, 4.

[13]:

Compare Cullavagga VII, 1, 2.

[14]:

This is set out in full in the Sutta Vibhaṅga in the Introduction to the 18th Nissaggiya Pācittiya,

[15]:

They are speaking to Yasa and the anudūta.

[16]:

This cannot refer to the 9th Pācittiya, which only speaks of making known grievous offences. Aṅguttara II, 5, 2 refers to laymen as well as to sāmaṇeras.

[17]:

Ukkhepaniya-kamma. See Cullavagga I, 25.

[18]:

On these terms, compare note on Mahāvagga VII, 1, 1.

[19]:

Sāṇavāsī is, literally, he who wears a hempen dress. In the traditions of the Sanskrit Buddhist literature we find mentioned a Sāṇavāsika, said to be a predecessor, in the teacher and pupil line, of Upagupta (Wassilief, p. 44). The Nepalese call him Soṇavāsī (Rajendralāl Mitra, 'Sanskrit Buddhist Literature of Nepāl,' p. 10). He is the hero of the Sāṇavāsi Avadāna part of the Bodhisatva Avadāna Kalpalatā (Mitra, p. 67, Bendall 'Catalogue of Cambridge MSS.,' p. 42), where the name is explained: 'I wished for an ochre-coloured robe (soṇa); hence I was called Sāṇavāsi.'

[20]:

See, for the position of this mountain, our note last quoted.

[21]:

In the text the full words of I, 1 are here repeated.

[22]:

Compare below, XII, 2, I.

[23]:

These adjectives have occurred above at Mahāvagga X, I, 2, and Cullavagga I, 11, 1.

[24]:

Sarabhāṇakaṃ. See our note above at Cullavagga V, 3, 2.

[25]:

The whole of the following questions and answers recur below at XII, 2, 8, where the reasons of the answers also appear.

[26]:

Vaggena. See our note on the 21st Pācittiya, and Cullavagga V, 2, 1.

[27]:

That is, of course, according as the thing enjoined is, or is not, lawful. Ekacco kappatī ti idaṃ dhammikam ākiṇṇaṃ sandhāya vuttaṃ, says Buddhaghosa.

[28]:

That is, which is neither liquid nor solid: something apparently like buttermilk.

[29]:

It is a question constantly arising under the excise laws in India and Ceylon, whether the liquor in the case has become arrack, or is only arrack in the making, and unfermented. This last is called unfermented toddy.

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