by T. W. Rhys Davids | 1881 | 137,074 words
The Cullavagga (part of the Vinaya collection) includes accounts of the First and Second Buddhist Councils as well as the establishment of the community of Buddhist nuns. The Cullavagga also elaborates on the etiquette and duties of Bhikkhus....
1. Now at that time the Bhikkhus did not give thanks in the place where a meal was served. People murmured, &c.; the Bhikkhus heard, &c.; the Blessed One on that occasion, &c. said to the Bhikkhus:
'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the giving of thanks.'
Then the Bhikkhus thought, 'By whom should the thanks be given?'
They told this matter to the Blessed One.
'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the elder Bhikkhu (present) to give thanks in the place where a meal is served.'
Now at that time (the turn to provide) the Saṃgha with a meal had fallen to a certain company; and the venerable Sāriputta was the senior (Bhikkhu in that) Saṃgha. The Bhikkhus, thinking, 'The Blessed One has permitted the senior Bhikkhu to return thanks in the place where a meal is served,' went away, leaving the venerable Sāriputta alone. And the venerable Sāriputta gave thanks to those people, and then came away alone.
The Blessed One saw the venerable Sāriputta coming from the distance; and on seeing him, he said to him: 'Did the meal, then, Sāriputta, pass off well?'
'The meal, Lord, passed off well. But the Bhikkhus went away and left me alone.'
Then the Blessed One, in that connection, having delivered a religious discourse, said to them:
'I allow, O Bhikkhus, four or five of the Bhikkhus, who are senior or next to the seniors, to wait.'
Now at that time a certain elder waited in the dining hall, though he wanted to retire, and through holding himself back, he fainted and fell.
They told this matter to the Blessed One.
'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, if necessity should arise, to leave the hall after informing the Bhikkhu sitting immediately next (to the one who wants to go).'
2. Now at that time the Chabbaggiya Bhikkhus went to the place where a meal was to be served with their under-garments or their robes improperly put on, and not decently attired; and turning aside, they pushed on in front of the senior Bhikkhus; and they encroached on (the space intended for) the senior Bhikkhus when taking their seats, and they compelled the junior Bhikkhus to give up their seats to them; and spreading out their upper robes (as mats) they took their seats in the space between the houses.
The moderate Bhikkhus murmured, &c. . . . told the Blessed One, &c. . . . he said to the Bhikkhus:
'Therefore, O Bhikkhus, do I establish a rule of conduct for the Bhikkhus at a meal, which they are to observe thereat.
3. 'When time has been called in the Ārāma, a Bhikkhu should put on his waistcloth so as to cover himself all round from above the navel to below the knees, tie his belt round his waist, fold his upper robes and put them on, fasten the block on, wash (his hands), take his alms-bowl, and then slowly and carefully proceed to the village. He is not to turn aside (from the direct route) and push on in front of senior Bhikkhus. He is to go amidst the houses properly clad, with (his limbs) under control, with downcast eye, with (his robes) not tucked up, not laughing, or speaking loudly, not swaying his body or his arms or his head about, not with his arms akimbo, or his robe pulled over his head, and without walking on his heels. And he is co take his seat amidst the houses properly clad (&c., all as before, down to) not with his arms akimbo, or his robes pulled over his head, and without lolling, and without encroaching on (the space intended for) the senior Bhikkhus, or ejecting the junior Bhikkhus from the seats, or spreading his upper robe out (as a mat).
4. 'When the water is being given out (before the meal), he is to hold his bowl with both hands, receive the water (in it), lower the bowl carefully down to the ground so as to avoid scratching the floor, and then wash it. If there be (a person there) whose duty it is to take away the water (which has been so used), (the Bhikkhu) should lower (his bowl on to the ground) and pour the water into the waste tub without splashing the person in question, nor the Bhikkhus near, nor (his own) robes. If there be no such person, he should lower his bowl on to the earth and pour the water away, without splashing the Bhikkhus near or (his own) robes.
'When the boiled rice is being given out, he should hold his bowl with both hands, and receive the rice in it. Room should be left for the curry. If there is ghee, or oil, or delicacies, the senior Bhikkhu should say: "Get an equal quantity for all." The alms (given) are to be accepted with mind alert, paying attention to the bowl, with equal curry, and equally heaped up. And the senior Bhikkhu is not to begin to eat until the boiled rice has been served out to all.
5. 'The alms given are to be eaten with mind alert, paying attention to the bowl, with equal curry, and equally heaped up; without pressing down from the top; without covering up the curry or the condiment with the rice, desiring to make it nicer; and without asking for either rice or curry for the Bhikkhu's own particular use, unless he be sick. Others' bowls are not to be looked at with envious thoughts. The food is not to be rolled up (by the fingers) into balls that are too large, but into round mouthfuls. The door of the mouth is not to be opened till the ball is brought close to it. When eating, the whole hand is not to be put into the mouth. He is not to talk with his mouth full, nor to toss the food into his mouth as he eats, nor to nibble at the balls of food, nor to stuff his cheeks out as he eats, nor to shake (particles of food off) his hands, nor to scatter lumps of rice about, nor to put out his tongue, nor to smack his lips, nor to make a hissing sound as he eats, nor to lick his fingers, or his bowl, or his lips. And the jar containing drinking-water is not to be taken hold of with hands soiled with food.
6. 'The senior Bhikkhu is not to accept water (to rinse out his bowl with) until all Bhikkhus have finished eating. When water is being given out (after the meal . . . . &c., as in the first paragraph of § 4, down to the end). The water that has been used for washing the bowl is not to be thrown with the rinsings in it into the inner court.
'In returning, the junior Bhikkhus are to go back first, and the senior Bhikkhus after them. Each Bhikkhu is to pass amidst the houses properly clad . . . . (&c., as above, § 3, down to) without walking on his heels.
'This, O Bhikkhus, is the rule of conduct that I establish for Bhikkhus at a meal, which they are to observe thereat.'
Here ends the First Portion for Recitation.
Footnotes and references:
For the passages here implied, see I, 1, 2, 3.
Aññatarassa pūgassa. This sentence has already occurred at V, 5, 2.
On this use of iddho, compare ovādo iddho in the Bhikkhunī-vibhaṅga, Pācittiya LVI.
Anantarikaṃ bhikkhuṃ. See the note on this phrase at VI, 10, 1. Ānantarikaṃ in the text (with long ā) is a misprint.
Vokkamma, which is not, as Childers supposes, equal to okkamma with euphonic v, but to vyavakramya or vyutkramya.
Anupakhajja: which is here used, not in the sense it has at IV, 14, 1, but in the sense in which it is used in the 16th and 43rd Pācittiyas, in both which passages it is explained by the Old Commentary by anupavisitvā. This clause and the next occur also at Mahāvagga I, 25, 13.
Saṃghāṭiṃ ottharitvā. This use of the Saṃghāṭi is referred to at Jātaka I, 212, and above, I, 13, 2.
Antaraghare. See Sekhiyas 3-26, repeated in the next section. It is perhaps doubtful whether this word may not mean here. (as in Sekhiya 27--below, § 6) the inner courtyard of a house which is surrounded by buildings; but we follow the interpretation we have adopted, loc. cit.
The following section repeats the Sekhiyas, Nos. 3-26, where see further notes. Much of it recurs below in VIII, 5, 2.
Saguṇaṃ katvā. Compare Mahāvagga I, 25, 9.
Gaṇṭhikaṃ. See the note on V, 29, 3. It was to prevent the robe being blown up by the wind. The word occurs again in VIII, 5, 2.
The following sentence is repeated, word for word, below, § 6.
Paṭiggahe. See the note on V, 10, 3. Avakkāra-pātī, at Mahāvagga IV, 1, 2 = Cullavagga VIII, 5, 3, seems to have very nearly the same meaning. The whole of this paragraph is repeated below, § 6.
Uttaribhaṅgaṃ. See the note on VI, 4, I.
On the expressions in this sentence, compare the notes on Sekhiyas 27-32.
This paragraph repeats Sekhiyas 31-55, where see our notes.
This is the 57th Sekhiya.