by T. W. Rhys Davids | 1881 | 137,074 words
The Cullavagga (part of the Vinaya collection) includes accounts of the First and Second Buddhist Councils as well as the establishment of the community of Buddhist nuns. The Cullavagga also elaborates on the etiquette and duties of Bhikkhus....
1. Now Devadatta on that day, which was Uposatha day, arose from his seat, and gave out voting-tickets, saying, 'We went, Sirs, to the Samaṇa Gotama and asked for the Five Points, saying—(&c., as above in VII, 3, 14 and 15). These the Samaṇa Gotama will not allow; but we live in accordance therewith. Whosoever of the venerable ones approves of the Five Things, let him take a ticket.'
Now at that time there were five hundred Bhikkhus, Vesāliyans, and belonging to the Vajjian clan, who had but recently joined the Order, and were ignorant of what he had in hand. These took the voting-tickets, believing [the Five Points to be according to] the Dhamma, and the Vinaya, and the teaching of the Master. And Devadatta, having thus created a division in the Saṃgha, went out to the hill Gayā-sīsa, taking those five hundred Bhikkhus with him.
Then Sāriputta and Moggallāna went to the Blessed One, and bowed down before him, and took their seats on one side. And when they were so seated, Sāriputta said to the Blessed One: 'Devadatta, Lord, has gone forth to Gayā-sīsa, taking five hundred Bhikkhus with him.'
'Verily, Sāriputta and Moggallāna, there must be a feeling of kindness towards those young Bhikkhus among you both. Go therefore, both of you, before they have fallen into entire destruction.'
'Even so, Lord,' said Sāriputta and Moggallāna, in assent to the Blessed One. And rising from their seats, they bowed down before him, and keeping him on their right hand as they passed him, they set out for Gayā-sīsa.
Then at that time a certain Bhikkhu, standing not far from the Blessed One, began to weep. And the Blessed One said to him: 'Why, O Bhikkhu, dost thou weep?'
'Those, Lord, who are the Blessed One's chief disciples, Sāriputta and Moggallāna, even they have gone to Devadatta's side, approving the Dhamma of Devadatta.'
That, O Bhikkhu, would be impossible, that Sāriputta and Moggallāna should approve his teaching. They are gone only to gain those Bhikkhus over again:
2. Now at that time Devadatta, surrounded by a great number of adherents, was seated, preaching the Dhamma. And when he saw from afar Sāriputta and Moggallāna coming towards him, he said to the Bhikkhus: 'See, O Bhikkhus, how well preached must be my doctrine, in that even the two chief disciples of the Samaṇa Gotama—Sāriputta and Moggallāna—are coming to join me, being pleased with my Dhamma.'
When he had thus spoken Kokālika said to Devadatta: 'O venerable Devadatta, trust not Sāriputta and Moggallāna, for they are inclined towards evil, and under the influence of evil desires.'
'Nay, my friend, let us bid them welcome since they take pleasure in my teaching (Dhamma).'
And Devadatta invited Sāriputta to share his own seat, saying, 'Come, friend Sāriputta. Sit thou here!'
'Nay (there is no need of that),' said Sāriputta; and taking another seat, he sat down on one side. And Devadatta instructed and incited and aroused and gladdened the Bhikkhus far into the night with religious discourse; and then made request to Sāriputta, saying, 'The assembly, friend Sāriputta, is still alert and sleepless. Will you, friend Sāriputta, be so good as to think of some religious discourse to address to the Bhikkhus? My back is tired, and I would stretch myself a little.'
'Even so, friend,' said the venerable Sāriputta, in assent to Devadatta. And Devadatta spread his waist-cloth folded in four on the ground, and lay down on his right side. And in a moment even sleep overcame him who was tired, and had lost his presence of mind and his self-consciousness.
3. Then the venerable Sāriputta taught and exhorted the Bhikkhus in a religious discourse touching the marvels of preaching, and the venerable Moggallāna taught and exhorted the Bhikkhus in a religious discourse touching the marvels of Iddhi. And whilst they were being so taught and exhorted those Bhikkhus obtained the pure and spotless Eye of the Truth—(that is, the knowledge that) whatsoever has a beginning, in that is inherent also the necessity of dissolution. Then the venerable Sāriputta addressed the Bhikkhus, and said: 'Let us go, my friends, to the Blessed One's side. Whosoever approves of his doctrine (Dhamma), let him come.'
And Sāriputta and Moggallāna went back to the Veḷuvana, taking those five hundred Bhikkhus with them. But Kokālika awoke Devadatta, and said: 'Arise, friend Devadatta! Your Bhikkhus have been led away by Sāriputta and Moggallāna. Did I not tell you, Devadatta, not to trust Sāriputta and Moggallāna, in that they were inclined towards evil, and were under the influence of evil desires?'
Then hot blood came forth from Devadatta's mouth.
4. But Sāriputta and Moggallāna went to the place where the Blessed One was, and bowed down before him, and took their seats on one side. And when they were so seated, Sāriputta said to the Blessed One:
'It were well, Lord, that Bhikkhus who have turned aside to schism should be received afresh into the higher grade of the Order.'
'Nay, Sāriputta, let not the reordination of schismatical Bhikkhus seem good to thee. But rather cause such Bhikkhus to confess that they have committed a thullaccaya offence. And how, Sāriputta, did Devadatta treat you?'
'When Devadatta, Lord, had instructed and aroused and incited and gladdened the Bhikkhus far into the night with religious discourse, he then 'made request to me, saying, "The assembly, friend Sāriputta, is still alert and sleepless. Will you, friend Sāriputta, think of some religious discourse to address to the Bhikkhus? My back is tired, and I would stretch myself a little." This, Lord, was the way in which Devadatta behaved to me.'
5. Then the Blessed One addressed the Bhikkhus, and said: 'Once upon a time, O Bhikkhus, there was a great pond in a forest region. Some elephants dwelt beside it; and they, plunging into the pond, plucked with their trunks the edible stalks of the lotus plants, washed them till they were quite clean, masticated them without any dirt, and so eat them up. And that produced in them both beauty and strength, and by reason thereof they neither went down into death, nor into any sorrow like unto death. Now among those great elephants, O Bhikkhus, there were young elephant calves, who also, in imitation of those others, plunged into that pond, and plucked with their trunks the edible stalks of the lotus plants; but they did not wash them till they were clean, but masticated them, dirt and all, and so eat them up. And that produced in them neither beauty nor strength; and by reason thereof they went down into death, and into sorrows like unto death. Just so, O Bhikkhus, will Devadatta die who, poor creature, is emulating me.
'Like the elephant calf who eateth mud in imitation, of the great beast
That shakes the earth, and eats the lotus plant, and watches through the night among the waters—
So will he, poor creature, die that emulateth me.'
6. 'A Bhikkhu who is possessed of eight qualifications is worthy, O Bhikkhus, to do the work of an emissary. And what are the eight? The Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, must be able to hear and to make others listen, able to learn, able to bear in mind, able to discern and to make others discern, skilful to deal with friends and foes, and no maker of quarrels. These are the eight qualifications of which when a Bhikkhu is possessed, he is worthy, O Bhikkhus, to do the work of an emissary.
'Sāriputta, O Bhikkhus, being possessed of eight qualifications, is worthy to do the work of an emissary. What are the eight (&c., as in last paragraph)?
Fears not, forgoes no word, disguises not his message,
Is unambiguous in what he says, and being questioned angers not,
Of such is surely the Bhikkhu worthy to go on a mission.'
7. 'Devadatta, O Bhikkhus, being overcome, his mind being taken up by eight evil conditions, is irretrievably (doomed to) remain for a Kalpa in states of suffering and woe. And what are the eight? He is overcome, his mind is taken up by gain, by want of gain, by fame, by want of fame, by honour, by want of honour, by his having wicked desires, and by his having wicked friends. These, O Bhikkhus, are the eight evil conditions by which Devadatta being overcome, and his mind being taken up, he is irretrievably(doomed to) remain for a Kalpa in states of suffering and woe.
'It would be well, O Bhikkhus, that Bhikkhus should continue in complete ascendancy over any gain or loss, any fame or the reverse, any honour or dishonour, any evil longing or evil friendship, that may accrue to them. And for what reason? For as much, O Bhikkhus, that bad influences (āsavas) arise, full of vexation and distress, to one who is not continuing in complete ascendancy over each of these eight things, but to one, who is so continuing, such influences arise not. This is the reason, O Bhikkhus, why it would be well (&c., as before). Let us then, O Bhikkhus, continue in complete ascendancy over any gain or loss, any fame or the reverse, any honour or dishonour, any evil longing or evil friendship, that may accrue to us. And thus, O Bhikkhus, should you train yourselves.
There are three evil conditions, O Bhikkhus, by which Devadatta being overcome, and his mind being taken up, he is irretrievably doomed to remain for a Kalpa in states of suffering and woe. And what are the three? His having wicked desires, and his having wicked friends, and his having come to a stop on his way (to Nirvāṇa or Arahatship) because he had already attained to some lesser thing. These are the three (&c., as before).'
Know rather from this what is the outcome thereof.
Known was he as wise, reputed to be trained;
Aglow with glory did Devadatta stand' (thus have I heard).
He gave himself to vanity, to attacking the Tathāgata:
He fell into the Avīci hell, guarded fourfold and terrible.
The injurer of the good, of the man who does no wrong,
Him sin pervades, the man of cruel heart, and void of love.
Though one should think the ocean to befoul with but one poison pot,
Yet could he not befoul it, for awful is the sea, and great;
Just so though one should injure the Tathāgata by words,—
Let the wise Bhikkhu make a friend of, and resort to him
By following whose way he will come to the end of griefs!"
Footnotes and references:
It may be noticed that Devadatta here takes upon himself the office of a salāka-gāhāpako without having been appointed to it in the manner required by the rule laid down in Cullavagga IV, 9 and 10. On the process to be followed when voting with tickets, see IV, 4, 26.
So it is the Vajjians from Vesālī who are represented, below XII, 1, 1, to have put forward those Ten Points which gave rise to the Council and the schism at Vesālī a hundred years after the Buddha's death.
Bhikkhu-saññattiyā. The phrase occurs above at IV, 14, 26, and below XII, 2, 8, and corresponds to the expression janaṃ saññāpeti (above, VII, 3, 14), used of Devadatta's trying to gain the people over to his views.
Paṭibhātu taṃ bhikkhūnaṃ dhammī kathā. See our note above on Mahāvagga V, 13, 9.
Compare Mahāvagga VIII, 16 = Sutta-vibhaṅga, Saṃghādisesa I, 2, 1.
This expression is the standing one in conversions; see, for instance, Mahāvagga I, 7, 6; Cullavagga VI, 4, 5, VII, 3, 6.
The later legends preserved in Spence Hardy and Bigandet say that Devadatta died on the spot.
The last three lines have occurred word for word in Mahāvagga VI, 20, 2.
Saṃkhāditvā. Compare the use of this word at Jātaka I, 507.
Mahā-varāha. At Abhidhāna-ppadīpikā, verse 1115, varāha is said to mean 'elephant' as well as 'boar;' and so here Buddhaghosa says Mahā-varāhassa mahā-nāgassa. As this explanation possibly rests only on such passages as the present, we have chosen an ambiguous rendering.
Nadīsu jaggato ti. Ettha so kira hatthi-nāgo sāyaṇhasamayaṃ taṃ nadī-nāmakaṃ pokkharaṇiṃ ogāhetvā kilanto sabbarattiṃ vītināmesi gālikaṃ karoti. Tena vuttaṃ nadisu jaggato ti (B.).
On these lines compare some similar expressions at Mahāvagga X, 6, 3.
Asaddhamma. It is very difficult to find a proper rendering for this expression. Dhamma here means, no doubt, 'quality,' 'condition' (as it does in the title of the Sanskrit work Saddharma-puṇḍarīka, unhappily rendered by Burnouf, 'Lotus de la bonne loi'). But the details of the various particulars suggest rather the rendering 'surrounding occurrences' or 'matters,' for they are objective, external, and not (or only incidentally and secondarily) subjective, internal.
Āpāyiko nerayiko. 'Liable to re-birth in apāya and in niraya: Of these the former includes the latter, and also the states of being an animal, a disembodied ghost (peta), or an asura. Hell, though a convenient, is a misleading translation of the latter of the two words, for the reasons given by Rh. D. on Mahā-parinibbāna Sutta I, 23. All the expressions used here recur below at VII, 5, 4.
Kim (read kam) atthavasaṃ paṭicca. So also above, Mahāvagga VIII, 15, 7; Cullavagga VII, 1, 6, and in the Mahā-parinibbāna Sutta V, 28, and Dhammapada, verse 289. The whole of the previous sentence is here repeated in the text.
Vighāta-pariḷāhā. This is a standing epithet of the Āsavas, recurring, for instance, many times in the Sabbāsava Sutta, §§ 18-37 (Rh. D.'s 'Buddhist Suttas,' pp. 302 and following). The word 'influence,' here chosen as a rendering for āsava, is suggested by Dr. Morris as being similar, both in its derivation and in the history of its meaning, to the Pāli one. The principal objection against it is that it has never acquired the bad connotation of āsava, and requires, therefore, to be supplemented by some epithet.
Oramattakena visesādhigamena antarā vosānam āpādi. On this phrase, which recurs in full in the Mahā-parinibbāna Sutta, I, 7, see Buddhaghosa's note there, quoted by Rh. D., 'Buddhist Suttas,' p. 7. The 'lesser thing' here referred to is doubtless the pothujjanikā iddhi mentioned above in § 4:
Anuciṇṇo āsajjanaṃ. On the former of these two words the passages at Dīpavaṃsa I, 18, and Jātaka I, 20 (verse 126), and below, VII, 5, 2 = Mahāvagga X, 5, 4, may be referred to. The latter seems to bear the same relation to āsādana, 'attack,' as vikubbana does to vikaraṇa. Buddhaghosa's notes (text. p. 325) presuppose different. readings of both words.
'Guarded fourfold' is catudvāraṃ, that is, 'having gates and the ramparts (through which they pass) on all four sides.' On the general sentiment of these stanzas, and especially of this line, compare the Kokāliya Sutta in the Sutta Nipāta (III, 10).
Bhasmā is explained by Buddhaghosa as equal to bhayānako.