Vinaya (3): The Cullavagga

by T. W. Rhys Davids | 1881 | 137,074 words

The Cullavagga (part of the Vinaya collection) includes accounts of the First and Second Buddhist Councils as well as the establishment of the community of Buddhist nuns. The Cullavagga also elaborates on the etiquette and duties of Bhikkhus....

Cullavagga, Khandaka 7, Chapter 3

1. Now at that time the Blessed One was seated preaching the Dhamma, and surrounded by a great multitude, including the king and his retinue. And Devadatta rose from his seat, and arranging his upper robe over one shoulder, stretched out his joined hands to the Blessed One, and said to the Blessed One:

'The Blessed One, Lord, is now grown aged, he is old and stricken in years, he has accomplished a long journey, and his term of life is nearly run[1]. Let the Blessed One now dwell at ease in the enjoyment of happiness reached even in this world. Let the Blessed One give up the Bhikkhu-saṃgha to me, I will be its leader.'

'Thou hast said enough, Devadatta. Desire not to be the leader of the Bhikkhu-saṃgha.'

[And a second time Devadatta made the same request, and received the same reply. And a third time Devadatta made the same request.]

'I would not give over the Bhikkhu-saṃgha, Devadatta, even to Sāriputta and Moggallāna. How much less, then, to so vile and evil-living a person as you[2].'

Then Devadatta thought: 'Before the king and his retinue the Blessed One denies me, calling me "evil-living," and exalts Sāriputta and Moggallāna.' And, angry and displeased, he bowed down before the Blessed One, and keeping him on his right hand as he passed him, he departed thence.

This was the first time that Devadatta bore malice against the Blessed One.

2. And the Blessed One said to the Bhikkhus, 'Let then the Saṃgha, O Bhikkhus, carry out against Devadatta the Act of Proclamation[3] in Rājagaha, to the effect that whereas the nature of Devadatta used to be of one kind it is now of an-other kind, and that whatsoever he shall do, either bodily or verbally, in that neither shall the Buddha be recognised, nor the Dhamma, nor the Saṃgha, but only Devadatta.

'And thus, O Bhikkhus, shall the Act be carried out. Some discreet and able Bhikkhu (&c., in the same form as in I, I, 4, down to the end of the Kammavācā).'

And the Blessed One said to the venerable Sāriputta, 'Do you then, Sāriputta, proclaim Devadatta throughout Rājagaha.'

'In former times, Lord, I have sung the praises of Devadatta in Rājagaha, saying, "Great is the power (Iddhi) of the son of Godhi! Great is the might of the son of Godhi!" How can I now proclaim him throughout Rājagaha?'

'Was it not truth that you spoke, Sāriputta, when you [so] sang his praises?'

'Yea, Lord!'

'Even so, Sāriputta, do you now, speaking the truth, proclaim Devadatta throughout Rājagaha.'

'Even so, Lord,' said Sāriputta, in assent to the Blessed One.

3. And the Blessed One said to the Bhikkhus:

Let then the Saṃgha appoint Sāriputta to the office of proclaiming Devadatta throughout Rājagaha to the effect (&c., as before, § 2). And thus, O Bhikkhus, should he be appointed. First, Sāriputta should be asked, &c. (as usual in official appointments[4], down to the end of the Kammavācā).'

Then Sāriputta, being so appointed, entered Rājagaha with a number of Bhikkhus, and proclaimed Devadatta accordingly. And thereupon those people who were unbelievers, and without devotion or insight, spake thus: 'They are jealous, these Sakyaputtiya Samaṇas! They are jealous of the gain and hospitality that fall to Devadatta!' But those who were believers, full of devotion, able, and gifted with insight , spake thus: This cannot be any ordinary affair[5], in that the Blessed One has had Devadatta proclaimed throughout Rājagaha!'

4. And Devadatta went to Ajātasattu the prince, and said to him: 'In former days, prince, people were long-lived, but now their term of life is short. It is quite possible, therefore, that you may complete your time while you are still a prince. So do you, prince, kill your father, and become the Rāja; and I will kill the Blessed One, and become the Buddha.'

And prince Ajātasattu thought, 'This worthy Devadatta has great powers and might; he will know (what is right).' And fastening a dagger[6] against his thigh, he entered with violence and at an unusual hour[7], though fearful, anxious, excited, and alarmed, the royal chamber. And when the ministers who were in attendance in the private chamber saw that, they seized him. And when, on searching him, they found the dagger fastened on his thigh, they asked him:

'What were you going to do, O prince?'

'I wanted to kill my father.'

'Who incited you to this?'

'The worthy Devadatta.'

Then some of the ministers advised 'The prince should be slain, and Devadatta, and all the Bhikkhus.' Others of them advised 'The Bhikkhus ought not to be slain, for they have done no wrong; but only the prince and Devadatta.' Others of them again said, 'Neither should the prince be slain, nor Devadatta, nor the Bhikkhus. But the king should be told of this, and we should do as the king shall command.'

5. So these ministers, taking the prince with them, went to the Rāja of Magadha, to Seniya Bimbisāra, and told him what had happened.

'What advice, my friends, did the ministers give?'

[When they had told him all (as before) he said]: 'What, my friends, can the Buddha, or the Saṃgha, or the Dhamma have to do with this? Has not the Blessed One had a proclamation already made throughout Rājagaha concerning Devadatta, to the effect that whereas his nature used to be of one kind, it is now of another; and that whatsoever he shall do, either bodily or verbally, that shall neither the Buddha, nor the Dhamma, nor the Saṃgha be required, but only Devadatta?'

Then those ministers who had advised that the prince and Devadatta and all the Bhikkhus should be slain, them he made incapable (of ever again holding office) And those ministers who had advised that the prince should be slain, and Devadatta, them he degraded to lower offices. But those ministers who had advised that neither should the prince be slain, nor Devadatta, nor the Bhikkhus, but that the king should be informed of it, and his command be followed, them he advanced to high positions.

And the Rāja of Magadha, Seniya Bimbisāra, said to prince Ajātasattu: 'Why did you want to kill me, O prince?'

'I wanted a kingdom, O king!'

'If you then want a kingdom, O prince, let this kingdom be thine!' And he handed over the kingdom to Ajātasattu the prince[8]'.

6. Then Devadatta went to prince[9] Ajātasattu, and said, 'Give such orders, O king, to your men that I may deprive the Samaṇa Gotama of life.' And Ajātasattu the prince gave orders to his men: 'Whatsoever the worthy Devadatta tells you, that do!'

Then to one man Devadatta gave command: 'Go, my friend, the Samara Gotama is staying at such and such a place. Kill him, and come back by this path.' Then on that path he placed other two men, telling them, 'Whatever man you see coming alone along this path, kill him, and return by that path.' Then on that path he placed other four men [and so on up to sixteen men].

7. And that man took his sword and shield, and hung his bow and quiver at his back, and went to the place where the Blessed One was, and when at some little distance from the Blessed One, being terrified, anxious, excited, and alarmed, he stood stark still and stiff[10].

On the Blessed One seeing him so, he said to the man: 'Come hither, friend, don't be afraid.'

Then that man laid aside his sword and his shield, took off his bow and his quiver, and went up to the Blessed One; and falling at his feet, he said to the Blessed One: 'Transgression, Lord, has overcome me even according to my folly, my stupidity, and my unrighteousness, in that I have come hither with evil and with murderous intent. May the Blessed One accept the confession I make of my sin in its sinfulness, to the end that in future I may restrain myself therefrom!'

'Verily, my friend, transgression has overcome thee [&c., down to] intent. But since you, my friend, look upon your sin as sin, and duly make amends for it, we do accept (your confession of) it. For this, O friend, is progress in the discipline of the Noble One, that he who has seen his sin to be sin makes amends for it as is meet, and becomes able in future to restrain himself therefrom[11].'

Then the Blessed One discoursed to that man in due order, that is to say (&c., as usual in conversions[12], down to) May the Blessed One accept me as a disciple, as one who, from this day forth as long as life endures, has taken his refuge in him.

And the Blessed One said to the man: 'Do not, my friend, leave me by that path. Go by this path.' and so dismissed him by another way.

8. But the two men thought, 'Where now can that man be who was to come alone? He is delaying long.' And as they were going to meet him, they caught sight of the Blessed One sitting at the foot of a certain tree. On seeing him they went up to the place where he was, and saluted him, and took their seats on one side. To them also the Blessed One discoursed, [and they were converted as the other man had been, and he sent them back by another way. And the same thing occurred as to the four, and the eight, and the sixteen men[13].]

9. And the one man returned to Devadatta, and said to him: 'I cannot, Lord, deprive the Blessed One of life. Great is the power (Iddhi[14]) and might of the Blessed One.'

'That will do, friend. You need not do so. I will slay the Blessed One myself.'

Now at that time the Blessed One was walking up and down (meditating) in the shade below[15] the mountain called the Vulture's Peak. And Devadatta climbed up the Vulture's Peak, and hurled down a mighty rock with the intention of depriving the Blessed One of life. But two mountain peaks came together and stopped that rock and only a splinter[16] falling from it made the foot of the Blessed One to bleed[17]. Then the Blessed One, looking upwards, said to Devadatta: 'Great, O foolish one, is the demerit you have brought forth for yourself[18], in that with evil and murderous intent you have caused the blood of the Tathāgata to flow.'

And the Blessed One said to the Bhikkhus: 'This is the first time that Devadatta has heaped up (against himself) a Karma which will work out its effect in the immediate future[19], in that with evil and murderous intent he has caused the blood of the Tathāgata to flow.'

10. And the Bhikkhus having heard that Devadatta was compassing the death of the Blessed One, walked round and round the Vihāra, making recitation in high and loud tones, for a protection and guard to the Blessed One. On hearing that noise the Blessed One asked the venerable Ānanda what it was. And when Ānanda [told him], the Blessed One said: 'Then, Ānanda, call the Bhikkhus in my name, saying, "The Teacher sends for the venerable ones."'

And he [did so], and they came, and saluted the Blessed One, and took their seats on one side. And when they were so seated, the Blessed One said to the Bhikkhus: 'This, O Bhikkhus, is an impossible thing, and one that cannot occur, that one should deprive a Tathāgata of life by violence. The Tathāgatas, O Bhikkhus, are extinguished (in death) in due and natural course.

'There are, O Bhikkhus, these five kinds, of teachers now living in the world (&c., as in VII, 2, 3, 4, down to the end). And this, O Bhikkhus, is an impossible thing, and one that cannot occur, that a Tathāgata should be slain by any act set on foot by any one besides himself. The Tathāgatas, O Bhikkhus, are extinguished (in death) in due course (of nature). Go, therefore, O Bhikkhus, each one to his Vihāra, for the Tathāgatas require no protection.'

11. Now at that time there was at Rājagaha an elephant named Nālāgiri, fierce, and a manslayer. And Devadatta went into Rājagaha, and to the elephant stables, and said to the elephant-keepers[20]: 'I, my friends, am a relative of the raga's, and am able to advance a man occupying a low position to a high position, and to order increase of rations or of pay. Therefore, my friends, when the Samaṇa Gotama shall have arrived at this carriage-road[21], then loose the elephant Nālāgiri, and let him go down the road.'

'Even so, Sir,' said those elephant-keepers in assent to Devadatta.

And when the Blessed One early in the morning had dressed himself, he entered Rājagaha duly bowled and robed, and with a number of Bhikkhus, for alms; and he entered upon that road. On seeing him the elephant-keepers loosed Nālāgiri, and let it go down the road. And the elephant saw the Blessed One coming from the distance; and as soon as it saw him, it rushed towards the Blessed One with uplifted trunk, and with its tail and ears erect.

When those Bhikkhus saw the elephant Nālāgiri coming in the distance, they said to the Blessed One: 'This elephant, Lord, Nālāgiri, is fierce, and a manslayer, and it has got into this road. Let the Blessed One, Lord, turn back: let the Happy One turn back.'

'Come on, O Bhikkhus. Be not alarmed. There is, O Bhikkhus, no possibility [&c., as in last section, down to the end].'

[And a second and a third time the Bhikkhus made the same appeal, and received the same reply.]

12. Then at that time the people climbed up on to the upper storeys of the houses, and on to the balconies, and on to the roofs. And those of them who were unbelievers and without faith or insight, said, 'Truly the countenance of the great Samaṇa is beautiful; but the elephant will do him a hurt[22].' But those who were believers, full of devotion, able, and gifted with insight, said, '’Twill be long e’er the elephant can fight a fight with the elephant (of men)!'

And the Blessed One caused the sense of his love to pervade the elephant Nālāgiri[23]; and the elephant, touched by the sense of his love, put down his trunk, and went up to the place where the Blessed One was, and stood still before him. And the Blessed One, stroking the elephant's forehead with his right hand, addressed him in these stanzas:

'Touch not, O elephant, the elephant of men; for sad, O elephant, is such attack[24],
'For no bliss is there, O elephant, when he is passed from hence, for him who strikes the elephant of men.
'Be not then mad, and neither be thou careless[25], for the careless enter not into a state of bliss,
'Rather do thou thyself so act, that to a state of bliss thou mayest go.'

And Nālāgiri the elephant took up with his trunk the dust from off the feet of the Blessed One, and sprinkled it over its head, and retired, bowing backwards the while it gazed upon the Blessed One.

And Nālāgiri the elephant returned to the elephant stables, and stood in its appointed place, and became once more the tame Nālāgiri. And at that time the people sung these verses:

'They can be tamed by sticks, and goads, and whips,
'But the great Sage has tamed this elephant without a weapon or a stick.'

13. The people were angry, murmured, and became indignant, saying, How wicked is this Devadatta, and how wretched[26], in that he can go about to slay the Samaṇa Gotama, who is so mighty and so powerful.' And the gain and honour of Devadatta fell off, while that of the Blessed One increased.

[27]Now at that time, when the gain and honour of Devadatta had fallen off, he went, surrounded by Bhikkhus, to people's houses, appealing for alms[28].

The people were angry, murmured, and became indignant, saying, 'How can the Sakyaputtiya Samaṇas live on food that they ask for at people's houses? Who is not fond of well-cooked food? Who does not like sweet things?'

The Bhikkhus heard (&c., down to) the Blessed One said to the Bhikkhus 'Therefore do I lay down this rule, O Bhikkhus, for the Bhikkhus that (not more than) three shall enjoy an alms (together) at people's houses—and this for the sake of three reasons; (to wit) for the restraint of the evil-minded, and for the ease of the good[29], lest those who have evil desires should, in reliance upon a particular party (among the Bhikkhus), break up the Saṃgha[30], and (lastly) out of compassion for the laity[31]. (A Bhikkhu) who shall enjoy an alms in parties of more than three, shall be dealt with according to law[32].'

14[33]. Now Devadatta went to the place where Kokālika, and Kaṭamoraka-tissaka, and the son of Khaṇḍa-devī and Samudda-datta were, and said to them, 'Come, Sirs, let us stir up a division in the Samaṇa Gotama 's Saṃgha, and in the body of his adherents[34].'

When he had thus spoken, Kokālika said to Devadatta, 'The Samaṇa Gotama, Sir, is mighty and powerful. How can we [do such a thing]?'

'Come, Sirs, let us go to the Samaṇa Gotama, and make the following five demands, saying,

"The Blessed One, Lord, has declared in many a figure the advantages of the man who wishes for little, who is easy to satisfy in the matter of support and nourishment, who has eradicated evil from his mind, has quelled his passions, and is full of faith, of reverence, and of the exercise of zeal[35]. The following five things, Lord, conduce to such a condition[36]. It would be good, Lord, if the Bhikkhus should be, their lives long, dwellers in the woods—if whosoever goes to the neighbourhood of a village should thereby commit an offence. It would be good if they should, their lives long, beg for alms—if whosoever should accept an invitation, should thereby commit an offence. It would be good if they should clothe themselves, their lives long, in cast-off rags—if whosoever should accept a gift of robes from a layman[37], should thereby commit an offence. It would be good if they should dwell, their lives long, under the trees[38]—if whosoever should (sleep) under a roof, should thereby commit an offence. It would be good if they should, their lives long, abstain from fish[39]—if whosoever should eat fish, should thereby commit an offence." The Samaṇa Gotama will not grant these things. Then will we gain over the people by means thereof.'

'Yes; it may be possible so to stir up divisions in the Saṃgha, and in the party of the Samaṇa Gotama. For the people believe in rough measures.'

15. And Devadatta went to the Blessed One, surrounded by his friends, and made these demands [in the words just set out].

'No, Devadatta. Whosoever wishes to do so, let him dwell in the woods; whosoever wishes to do so, let him dwell in the neighbourhood of a village. Whosoever wishes to do so, let him beg for alms; whosoever wishes to do so, let him accept invitations from the laity. Whosoever wishes to do so, let him dress in rags; whosoever wishes to do so, let him receive gifts of robes from laymen. Sleeping under trees has been allowed by me, Devadatta, for eight months in the year; and the eating of fish that is pure in the three points—to wit, that the eater has not seen, or heard, or suspected that it has been caught for that purpose.'

And Devadatta, pleased and delighted that the Blessed One had refused the five demands, arose from his seat, and keeping him on his right hand as he passed him, departed thence with his friends. And he entered into Rājagaha, and urged his view upon the people by means thereof, saying, 'Such and such things did we ask, Sirs, of the Samaṇa Gotama. He would not allow them, but we live in accordance with them.'

16. Then those of the people who were unbelievers, and without reverence or insight, said. 'These Sakyaputtiya Samaṇas have eradicated evil from their minds, and have quelled their passions, while on the other hand the Samaṇa Gotama is luxurious, and his mind dwells on abundance[40].' But those of the people who were believers, and full of reverence and insight, were indignant, became vexed, and murmured, saying, 'How can Devadatta go about to stir up division in the Saṃgha of the Blessed One, and in the party that is subject to him.'

The Bhikkhus, hearing them so murmuring, told the matter to the Blessed One.

'Is it true, O Devadatta, as they say, that thou goest about to stir up division in the Saṃgha, and in the body of my adherents?'

'It is true, Lord.'

'(Thou hast gone far) enough, Devadatta. Let not a division in the Saṃgha seem good to thee[41];—grievous is such division. Whosoever, O Devadatta, breaks up the Saṃgha, when it is at peace, he gives birth to a fault (the effect of) which endures for a kalpa[42], and for a kalpa is he boiled in niraya. But whosoever, O Devadatta, makes peace in the Saṃgha, when it has been divided, he gives birth to the highest merit, and for a kalpa is he happy in heaven[43]. Thou hast gone far enough, Devadatta. Let not a division in the Saṃgha, O Devadatta, seem good to thee. Grievous, O Devadatta, is such division.'

17. Now the venerable Ānanda, having dressed himself early in the morning, went duly bowled and robed into Rājagaha for alms. And Devadatta saw the venerable Ānanda proceeding through Rājagaha for alms. On seeing that he went up to the venerable Ānanda, and said to him: 'At once, from this day forth, friend Ānanda, I intend to perform Uposatha, and to carry out the formal proceedings of the Order, without either the Blessed One or the Bhikkhu-saṃgha.'

And when the venerable Ānanda had gone through Rājagaha for alms, and had returned from his rounds, and had finished his meal, he went to the Blessed One, and bowed down before him, and took his seat on one side. And when he was so seated, he told the Blessed One [what Devadatta had said, and added], 'This very day, Lord, Devadatta will break up the Saṃgha.'

Then the Blessed One, when he heard that, gave utterance at that time to this expression of strong emotion:

'Easy is a good act to the good, a good act is hard to the wicked;

'Easy is evil to the evil, but evil is hard for the Noble Ones to do.'


Here ends the Second Portion for Recitation.

Footnotes and references:


This string of epithets recurs in Pārājika I, 1, 2, of old and venerable Brāhmans.


In the text read chavassa kheḷāpakassa. On the first word, compare V, 2, 8. For the second the Dhammapada commentator (Fausböll, p. 143) reads, as does the Sinhalese MS. in our passage, kheḷāsika. Buddhaghosa, explaining it, says, 'In this passage (we should recollect) that those who obtain the requisites (of a Bhikkhu) by an evil mode of life are said by the Noble Ones to be like unto spittle. The Blessed One calls him kheḷāpaka (to ex-press that) he eats, (that is, 'gains a living) in sin like that.' (For the Pāli, see the edition of the text, p. 323, where the comma after kheḷasadisā should be before it.)


Pakāsaniya-kammaṃ. This is not one of the regular official acts of the Saṃgha, as described in Cullavagga I, and is only mentioned in this passage. It is not referred to by the Dhammapada commentator.


See, for instance, I, 22, 2.


Na orakaṃ bhavissati. See Mahāvagga I, 9, 1, and Cullavagga VI, 4, 10, and our note on the latter passage.


Potthanikaṃ. This word has already occurred at Mahāvagga VI, 23, 3.


Divādivassa. See the use of this word at Jātaka II, 1.


The early literature already mentions that Ajātasattu eventually killed his father. (See, for instance, Sāmañña-phala Sutta, p. 154.) Bigandet I, 261 (3rd edition) adds that the mode adopted was by starving him to death in prison.


The Buddhist writers being so especially careful in their ac-curate use of titles, it is particularly noteworthy that Ajātasattu is here called prince (kumāra) and not king (rāja). It is almost impossible to avoid the conclusion that this paragraph stood originally in some other connection; and that the events it describes must then have been supposed to have taken place before Ajātasattu actually became king. That the Dhammapada commentator says here (Fausböll, p. 143) tasmiṃ (that is. Ajātasattu) rajje patiṭṭhite, is no evidence the other way; for that account is either taken from this, or depends ultimately upon it.


Patthaddha; that is, prastabdha. See Sutta-vibhaṅga, Pārājika I, 10, 17, 21.


This confession and acceptance are in a standing form, which occurs, for instance, at Mahāvagga IX, 1, g; Cullavagga V, 20, 5.


See, for instance, Cullavagga VI, 4, 5.


The last two paragraphs of § 7 are repeated in full in the text in each case.


The Iddhi here must be the power of religious persuasion.


Pacchāyāyaṃ. See Mahāvagga V, 1, 5, and Mahā-parinibbāna Sutta II, 31 (p. 22 of the text).


Papatikā. In the text, by a misprint, this and the preceding word have been joined together.


Pāde ruhiram uppādesi, where ruhira is equal to lohita. It is so used at Jātaka II, 275, in the Milinda Pañha in the account of the present incident in the Dhammapada commentary (p. 144). In Mahāvagga I, 67, where it is said that one who has shed (a Buddha's) blood cannot be received into the Order, the expression is lohitaṃ uppādeti: and in numerous passages elsewhere it is added that such a lohituppādako becomes ipso facto discharged from one or other of the duties and privileges of a member of the Order, just as if he had thrown off the robes.


Pasūtaṃ. By a misprint the text has pasutaṃ. Compare the end of § 16 below.


Ānantarika-kammaṃ. That is, that will work out its effect, (not in the next birth, as is the case of all other Karma,) but immediately, in the present life. There are five such deeds (see Childers, sub voce pañc°, and Milinda Pañha, p. 25). The Bodisats, according to Jātaka I, 45 (verse 256), are free from such sins.


Hatthi-bhaṇḍe. See the note on Mahāvagga VI, 37, 2.


Racchaṃ; that is, rathyām. Compare Jātaka I, 346, and the Old Commentary on the Bhikkhunī-vibhaṅga, Pācittiya VII.


The setting of this paragraph is parallel to § 3 above in this chapter; the speech of the unbelievers is the same as that of the Jaṭilas at Mahāvagga I, 15, 4.


Mettena cittena phari; literally, 'he suffused him with loving heart.' Compare Rh. D.'s 'Buddhist Birth Stories,' i. p.112.


In nāgamāsado the m is inserted for euphony. See the instances given by Kuhn, 'Beiträge zur Pāli-grammatik,' p. 63. Many others might be added; siva-m-añjase, Jātaka. vol. i, verse 27; samaṇa-m-acala, Childers sub voce, &c. Compare the curious use of āsādeti at Cullavagga I, 27.


A play on the words is here lost in English (mā mado mā ca pamādo).


Alakkhiko ti ettha na lakkhetīti alakkhiko na jānātīti attho. Apākata-kammaṃ karomīti na jānātīti na lakkhitabbo ti alakkhaṇo passitabbo ti attho (B.). We venture to differ from both of these explanations, and to follow rather the derivation of the word, and the meaning of the corresponding Sanskrit term alakṣmīka.


From here down to the 'decision' is identical with the introductory story in the Sutta-vibhaṅga to the 32nd Pācittiya,--a rule the previous existence of which is implied in the decision given here.


Viññāpeti is continually used in the Sutta-vibhaṅga in this sense, and even occurs already in the Pātimokkha, Pācittiya 39.


This whole phrase recurs in Sutta-vibhaṅga, Pārājika I, 5, 11, and in the Aṅguttara Nikāya II, 17, 2. In the latter passage Dr. Morris reads dummaññūnaṃ; see his note at pp. 127, 128. But the Sanskrit Buddhist vocabulary Vyutpatti (teste Böhtlingk-Roth, s.v. maṅku) authorises the use of dummaṅku.


So the Aṅguttara, loc. cit., has, in the same connection, gihīnaṃ anukampāya pāpicchānaṃ pakkhupacchedāya.


See last note. The idea is here, of course, lest any particular layman should be burdened by providing for many Bhikkhus.


That is, under the 32nd Pācittiya, on which rule the Sutta-vibhaṅga explains the phrase gaṇa-bhojana.


Sections 14, 15, and the greater part of 16 recur, word for word, as the introductory story to the 10th Saṃghādisesa.


In cakka-bhedaṃ the first word no doubt connotes 'kingdom, lordship,' as in dhamma-cakka, cakkavatti, &c.


This is part of the standing 'religious discourse' so often ascribed to the Buddha in the Vinaya texts, and given at full in the Cullavagga I, 1-3.


It was on precisely the same reasoning that a certain Bhikkhu in Mahāvagga VIII, 28, 1, endeavoured to get the Buddha to convert to the rejection of all clothing.


At Mahāvagga VIII, 1, 35, it is laid down that a Bhikkhu may either dress in cast-off rags, or accept robes from a layman, according as he likes.


This dwelling under trees is expressly forbidden, as regards the season of the rains, in Mahāvagga III, 12, 5.


The rule of the Order is merely that no one may knowingly eat fish which he has seen or heard or suspected to have been caught for that purpose. See Mahāvagga VI, 31, 14.


Bāhulliko bāhullāya ceteti. Both these expressions occur above in Mahāvagga VI, 15, 9, 10, and elsewhere (see, for instance, the introductory stories to Jātaka, Nos. 6 and 32) as the standing expression for the opposite of the state of mind in which a good Bhikkhu ought to live.


Mā te rucci saṃghabhedo. For the connotation of this phrase, compare below, VII, 4, 4.


Kappaṭṭhikaṃ kibbisaṃ. At Jātaka I, 172, 213, 215, Prof. Fausböll reads kappa kappaṭṭhiya. In saying that the fault itself (kibbisaṃ) is to endure for a kalpa, the meaning of course is that its effects on the Karma will endure so long.


Either the text has here preserved (as in other cases elsewhere) the fragments of earlier verses, or the poetical forms of the verses below at VII, 5, 4, have crept into the prose here, where we should otherwise expect sagge and niraye.

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