Vinaya (3): The Cullavagga

by T. W. Rhys Davids | 1881 | 137,074 words

The Cullavagga (part of the Vinaya collection) includes accounts of the First and Second Buddhist Councils as well as the establishment of the community of Buddhist nuns. The Cullavagga also elaborates on the etiquette and duties of Bhikkhus....

Cullavagga, Khandaka 5, Chapter 14

1. Now at that time at Vesālī a regular service of sweet food had been established, the laity taking the duty in turns. The Bhikkhus, eating the sweet food, became very sick with superfluity of humors in their body[1].

Now Jīvaka Komārabhacca went to Vesālī on prescribe, O Bhikkhus, the use of the cloister and of the bath-room.'

2. Now at that time the Bhikkhus walked up and down on a cloister on uneven ground; and their feet were hurt.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to make it level.'

The cloister had too low a basement, and was inundated with water[4].

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to make it with a high basement.'

The facing of the basement fell in[5].

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of facing of three kinds—brick facing, stone facing, and wooden facing.'

They found difficulty in getting up into it.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of stairs of three kinds—brick stairs, stone stairs, and wooden stairs.'

As they were going up them, they fell off.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a balustrade.'

Now at that time the Bhikkhus, when walking up and down in the cloister, fell down.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to provide a railing[6] for the cloister.' Now at that time the Bhikkhus, when walking up and down in the open air, were distressed by heat and by cold.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a hall for the cloister[7],'

Straw and plaster fell (from the walls and roof) into the cloister-hall.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to first cover over (the walls and roof with skins), and then plaster them. (And I allow the use of) whitewash, and blacking, and red colouring, and wreath-work, and creeper-work, and bone hooks, and cupboards, and bamboos to hang robes on, and strings to hang robes on.'

3. [The whole of the above, from the basement down to the balustrade, is repeated of the hot-bath house.]

The bath house had no door.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a door, with door-posts and lintel[8], with hollows like a mortar (for the door to revolve in[9]), with projections to revolve in those hollows[10], with rings on the door for, the bolt to work along in[11], with a block of wood fixed unto the edge of the door-post and containing a cavity for the bolt to go into (called the monkey's head[12]), with a pin[13] (to secure the bolt by), with a connecting bolt[14], with a key-hole[15], with a hole for the string with which the door can be closed, and with a string for that purpose[16].' The lower part of the wattle and daub wall[17] of the bath-room decayed (through damp).

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to face round the lower half of the wall (with bricks[18]).'

The bath-room had no chimney[19].

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a chimney.'

Now at that time the Bhikkhus made a fire-place in the middle of a small bath-room, and there was no room to get to (the bath).

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to make the fire-place at one side of a small bath-room, and in the middle of a large one[20].'

The fire in the bath-room scorched their faces.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of clay to spread over your faces[21].'

They moistened the clay in their hands.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a trough to moisten the clay in[22].' The clay had a bad smell.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to scent it.'

The fire in the bath-room scorched their bodies.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to have water poured over you.'

They poured the water out of dishes and alms-bowls.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, a stand for the water, and saucers[23] to pour it from.'

A bath-room with a thatched roof did not produce perspiration.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to cover the roof of the bath-room (with skins[24]), and to plaster it within and without.'

The bath-room became swampy.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to lay the floor with flooring of three kinds—brick flooring, stone flooring, and wooden flooring.'

It still became swampy.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to wash the floor.'

The water settled on the floor.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of a drain to carry off the water[25].'

Now at that time the Bhikkhus sat in the bath-room on the ground, and they had pins and needles in their limbs[26].

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, the use of stools for the bath-room.'

Now at that time the bath-room had no enclosure.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to enclose it with three kinds of enclosures—brick walls, and stone walls, and wooden fences.'

4. There was no antechamber[27] (in which the water could be kept).

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to have an antechamber.'

The basement of the antechamber was too low, and it was inundated with water [and so on, as in II. 6, and in the last section down to the end of the description of the door, followed by the closing words of II. 6 and of § 2 from 'straw and plaster fell, &c.,' down to 'cupboards[28]'].

5. The cell[29] became swampy.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to spread gravel[30] over it.' They did not succeed in getting any[31].

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to flag it with stone.'

The water settled on the floor.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to have a drain to it.'

Footnotes and references:


Abhisannakāyā ti semhādi-dos’-ussanna-kāyā (B.). This word has already occurred at Mahāvagga VI, 14, 7, where Buddhaghosa's explanation is much the same. See also Mahāvagga VIII, 1, 30. some business or other. And on seeing the Bhikkhus very sick with superfluity of humors, he went up to where the Blessed One was; and when he had come there, he saluted the Blessed One and took his seat on one side. And when so seated he said to the Blessed One: 'The Bhikkhus, Lord are now very sick with superfluity of humors. It would be well if the Blessed One were to prescribe, Lord for the Bhikkhus the use of the cloister 1 and of the bath-room 2. Thus will the Bhikkhus become convalescent.'


Caṅkama. A straight piece of ground cleared and levelled for the purpose of walking up and down upon for exercise and meditation. See our note on this word at Mahāvagga V, 1, 14.


Jantāghara. See our note above on Mahāvagga I, 25, 12. It was not ordinarily used for cold baths, which were taken in the rivers or tanks, but for a kind of hot-water bath, or perhaps steam bath, the exact mode of taking or administering which is not as yet certain. Several Bhikkhus took the bath at the same time, but it is not likely that they got into the water (though the expression uttarati is used, loc. cit., of their leaving the bath), as they scarcely would have made vessels large enough to contain a man. It rather seems that they sat on stools close to a large fire, and had water poured over them. The use of this kind of bath is forbidden to the Bhikkhunīs at Cullavagga X, 27, 4.


All the following paragraphs are the same as above, V, 11, 6, where see our notes.


As we have pointed out above, in our note on Mahāvagga V, 1, 14, it is not probable that the Kaṅkama at first had a roof and stairs and balustrade. These were later improvements.


Vedikā. See Mahā-sudassana Sutta I, 60, and Rh. D.'s note there ('Buddhist Suttas,' p. 262), and below, VI, 2, 2.


Caṅkamana-sāla, already referred to at Mahāvagga III, 5.


Piṭṭha-saṃghāṭaṃ. See Childers under saṅghāṭa, and the Samanta Pāsādikā on the 19th Pācittiya. Kavāṭa-piṭṭha occurs in Mahāvagga I, 25, 15, and in the Samanta Pāsādikā on Pācittiya 19 (compare upari-piṭṭhiti at Cullavagga VIII, 1, 1), and this and the two following phrases below, VI, 2, 1. Buddhaghosa has nothing on them, either here or there; and they were probably therefore in quite common use even in his day. The whole of this paragraph recurs below, VI, 3, 7.


Udukkhalikaṃ. Presumably the door had no hinges, but the upper and lower ends of one side projected into hollows pre-pared for them in the lintel and the threshold. This suggestion is confirmed by the connection in which these words are used at VI, 2, I.


Uttara-pāsakaṃ. See the last note. Pāsaka recurs also in the next but one. Compare aggala-pāsaga in Ayāraṅga Sutta II, 1, 5, 2.


Aggala-vaṭṭi nāma dvāra-bāhāye samappamāṇo yeva aggalatthambho vuccati yattha tīni cattāri chiddāni katvā sūciyo denti (B.).


Kapi-sīsakaṃ nāma dvāra-bāhaṃ vijjhitva tattha pavesito aggala-pāsako vuccati (B.). The word recurs in the Mahā-parinibbāna Sutta V, 32, where it is said of Ānanda that he kapisīsakaṃ ālambitvā aṭṭhāsi, just as in the Mahā-sudassana Sutta II, 24 it is said of the queen under similar circumstances that she dvāra-bāhaṃ ālambitvā aṭṭhāsi. Buddhaghosa's commentary on the word in the former of these two passages is given by Rh. D. in his note at p. 95 of the 'Buddhist Suttas.'


Sūcikā ti tattha (that is, kapi-sīsake) majjhe chiddaṃ katvā pavesitā (B.). Apparently a pin to pass through the monkey's head so as to secure the bolt in its place after it has been shot into the cavity. See the next note and below, VI, 2, I.


Ghaṭikā ti upari-yojitā (B.). At Jātaka I, 360 (compare Cullavagga IX, 1, 2), we are told of a man who dvārāni pidahanto sabba-dvāresu sūcighaṭikādayo datvā talaṃ (sic, query tālaṃ) abhiruhitvā tattha pi dvāram pidahitvā nisīdi. As the principal bolt was probably called aggala (unless that were the name for the whole machinery), this was some smaller bolt. And in Cullavagga VIII, 1, I an instance is given of a man undoing the bolt (ghaṭikam ugghāṭetvā) of an uninhabited vihāra, such as is referred to in VI, 2, I.


Tālacchiddaṃ. See the end of VI, 2, 1, and Childers under the word tāḷo. Buddhaghosa says nothing. The word tāla occurs in the last note.


Āviñchana-cchiddam āviñchana-rajjuṃ. These are said in VI, 2, 1 to be necessary because the door could not be put to, and doubtless have the meaning above assigned to them. Āviñci (or āviñji?) at Sutta-vibhaṅga, Saṃghādisesa II, 4, 9, means he drew towards himself; and Āviñcanā (āviñjanā?), ibid. II, 2, 2, is used as an equivalent of ākaḍḍhanā, which is much the same thing.


Kuḍḍa-pādo. Compare Rh. D.'s note on Mahā-parinibbāna Sutta V, 41. The phrase recurs below of Vihāras at VI, 3, 4.


Maṇḍalikaṃ kātun ti nīca-vatthukaṃ cinituṃ (B.). Cināti is the technical word for laying bricks one above another; the comment therefore means 'to line or face the lower part with bricks.' (Compare pokkharaniyo iṭṭhikāhi cinituṃ at Mahāsudassana Sutta I, 58; Rh. D.'s 'Buddhist Suttas,' p. 262, 'to face the ponds with bricks or tiles;' and on facing a well below, V, 16, 2.)


Dhūma-nettan ti dhūma-nikkhamana-chiddam (B.). The word is used of a surgical instrument at Mahāvagga VI, 13, 2.


A similar paragraph occurs below, VI, 3, 3, of Vihāras.


Mukha-mattikaṃ. See our note 4 on Mahāvagga I, 25, 12.


Mattikā-doṇikaṃ. See the last words of V, 16, 2.


Sarāvakaṃ. See Mahāvagga VI, 12, I, and Jātaka, vol. i, p. 8.


Ogumphetvā. See above, V, II, 6, and our note there.


Udaka-niddhamanaṃ. See Jātaka I, 175, 409, 425, 489, in which passages an entrance to, or an exit from, a palace or a city is effected respectively niddhamana-mukhena, niddhamana-dvārena, niddhamanena, and niddhamana-maggena. Our phrase here recurs below, V, 35, 4.


Gattāni kaṇḍuvanti. Gattāni is nominative, not accusative. Compare Mahāvagga VI, 14, 5, where kaṇḍuvati is used in the neuter sense. ('The sore was irritable!)


Koṭṭhako. This word means a room without a window; and it is used either of 1. 'a room over a gateway,' or 2. 'a room used as a store-room.' (Compare Mahāvagga III, 5, 6, 9; Cullavagga IV, 4, 6, 7, VI, 3, 7, 9, VI, 4, 10, IX, I, 2; and Jātaka I, 179, 227, 230, II, 168.) The whole of this paragraph recurs below, V, 35, 4, of the koṭṭhaka to a privy; and the two passages taker together show that an entrance room or passage, a porch or ante-chamber, is meant, in which the water was kept ready for use For that reason this particular kind of koṭṭhaka is elsewhere called, in both connections, udaka-koṭṭhaka (Mahāvagga VI, 14, 3, of the bath-room--where see Buddhaghosa's note quoted in our 'Vinaya Texts,' vol. ii, p. 57--and Dhammapada, p. 103, of the privy). Buddhaghosa explains it here by dvāra-koṭṭhako; and it occurs again below, VIII, 8, 2, in the same sense.


The last two items in § 2 are supplied for this case also in the next chapter but one.


Pariveṇa is doubtless here, and below at VIII, 8, 2 in the same connection, a cell used as a cooling-room, after the steam bath. Buddhaghosa says nothing here, but gives a note below, V, 35, 4.


Marumba. This word occurs-in a description of different kinds of earths in the Old Commentary on the 10th Pācittiya (Sutta-vibhaṅga, Pācittiya X, 2, I); and in a similar connection at Dīpavaṃsa XIX, 2. Also below, V, 35, 4, VI, 3, 8.


Na pariyāpuṇanti. See the use of this phrase at Cullavagga V, 5, 2.

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