Vinaya (3): The Cullavagga

by T. W. Rhys Davids | 1881 | 137,074 words

The Cullavagga (part of the Vinaya collection) includes accounts of the First and Second Buddhist Councils as well as the establishment of the community of Buddhist nuns. The Cullavagga also elaborates on the etiquette and duties of Bhikkhus....

Cullavagga, Khandaka 1, Chapter 2

1. 'There are three things, O Bhikkhus, by which, when a Tajjaniya-kamma is characterised, it is against the Dhamma, and against the Vinaya, and difficult to be settled; (that is to say), when it has not been carried out in a full assembly of properly qualified persons, 'according to law and justice, and in the presence of the litigant parties[2]—when it has been carried out without the accused person having been heard—when it has been carried out without the accused person having confessed himself guilty. A Tajjaniya-kamma, O Bhikkhus, characterised by these three things is against the Dhamma, and against the Vinaya, and difficult to be settled.

'There are other three things, O Bhikkhus, by which, when a Tajjaniya-kamma has been characterised, it is against the Dhamma, and against the Vinaya, and difficult to be settled; (that is to say), when it has been carried out though no fault has been committed—when it has been carried out for a Pārājika or a Saṃghādisesa offence[3]—when it has been carried out though the fault has been confessed. A Tajjaniya-kamma, O Bhikkhus, characterised (&c., as before, down to) settled.

There are other three things, O Bhikkhus, by which, when a Tajjaniya-kamma has been characterised, it is against the Dhamma, and against the Vinaya, and difficult to be settled; (that is to say), when it has been carried out without the accused person having been warned—when it has been carried out without the accused person having been called upon to remember (whether he has or has not committed the offence)—when it has been carried out without the accused person having been convicted. A Tajjaniya-kamma, O Bhikkhus, characterised (&c., as before, down to) settled.

'There are other three things, O Bhikkhus, by which, when a Tajjaniya-kamma has been characterised, it is against the Dhamma, and against the Vinaya, and difficult to be settled; (that is to say), when it has not been carried out in a properly constituted meeting properly conducted[4]—when it has been carried out without justice[5]—when it has been carried out without the presence and approval of all the Bhikkhus belonging to the particular circuit[6]. A Tajjaniya-kamma, O Bhikkhus, characterised by these three things is (&c., as before, down to) settled.

There are other three things, O Bhikkhus, by which, when a Tajjaniya-kamma has been characterised, it is against the Dhamma, and against the Vinaya, and difficult to be settled; (that is to say), when it has been carried out without the accused person having been heard—when it has been carried out without justice—when it has been carried out without the presence and approval of all the Bhikkhus belonging to the circuit. A Tajjaniya-kamma, O Bhikkhus, characterised by these three things is (&c., as before, down to) settled.

'There are other three things (&c., as before, down to) that is to say, when it has been carried out without the accused person having been convicted—when it has been carried out without justice—when it has been carried out without the presence and approval of all the Bhikkhus belonging to the circuit.'

[And in a similar way each of the three things in paragraphs 2 and 3 of this section are united with the two things just repeated in each of paragraphs 4, 5, and 6, to make six further cases in which a Tajjaniya-kamma is declared to be against the Dhamma, and against the Vinaya, and difficult to be revoked.]

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Here end the twelve cases of a proceeding (Kamma) which is against the law.

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

Repeated below, chapters Io, 14, and 19.

[2]:

All these details are involved in the meaning of the technical term asammukhatā, which is fully explained in Cullavagga IV, 14, 16, and following.

[3]:

Buddhaghosa says, Adesanāgāminiyā ti Pārājikāpattiyā vā Saṃghādisesāpattiyā vā.

[4]:

As in the first paragraph of this section more fully described, The word here used is the same.

[5]:

Adhammena; perhaps 'contrary to the Rules.'

[6]:

Vaggena for vi + aggena, the opposite of samaggena. See our note on the 21st Pācittiya, and Mahāvagga IX, 3, 5.

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