Vinaya (2): The Mahavagga

by T. W. Rhys Davids | 1881 | 156,382 words

The Mahavagga (part of the Vinaya collection) includes accounts of Gautama Buddha’s and the ten principal disciples’ awakenings, as well as rules for ordination, rules for reciting the Patimokkha during uposatha days, and various monastic procedures....

Mahavagga, Khandaka 4, Chapter 16

1. At that time the Chabbaggiya Bhikkhus held Pavāraṇā being guilty of an offence.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

“Let no one, O Bhikkhus, hold Pavāraṇā who is guilty of an offence. He who does, commits a dukkaṭa offence. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you ask a Bhikkhu who holds Pavāraṇā being guilty of an offence. for his leave[1] and reprove him for that offence.”

2. At that time the Chabbaggiya Bhikkhus, when asked for leave, were not willing to give leave (to Bhikkhus who were going to reprove them for an offence).

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

“I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you inhibit the Pavāraṇā of a Bhikkhu who does not give leave. And you ought to inhibit it, O Bhikkhus, in this way: Let (a Bhikkhu) say on the day of Pavāraṇā, on the fourteenth or on the fifteenth day (of the half month), in presence of that person, before the assembled Saṃgha: "Let the Saṃgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. Such and such a person is guilty of an offence; I inhibit his Pavāraṇā; Pavāraṇā must not be held in his presence." Thus his Pavāraṇā is inhibited.”

3, At that time the Chabbagiya Bhikkhus, who thought: 'Otherwise good Bhikkhus might inhibit our Pavāraṇā,' themselves inhibited beforehand, without object and reason, the Pavāraṇā of pure Bhikkhus who had committed no offence, and they also inhibited the Pavāraṇā of Bhikkhus who had already performed their Pavāraṇā.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, inhibit, without object and reason, the Pavāraṇā of pure Bhikkhus who have committed no offence. He who does, commits a dukkaṭa offence. And further, O Bhikkhus, let no one inhibit the Pavāraṇā of Bhikkhus who have already performed their Pavāraṇā. He who does, commits a dukkaṭa offence.

4. 'And thus, O Bhikkhus, (you may discern whether) the Pavāraṇā is (duly) inhibited or not inhibited.

'In what cases is the Pavāraṇā, O Bhikkhus, not inhibited? When Pavāraṇā, O Bhikkhus, is pronounced, dedared, and finished with the threefold formula, and if (a Bhikkhu then) inhibits the Pavāraṇā (of another Bhikkhu), the Pavāraṇā is not inhibited. When Pavāraṇā, O Bhikkhus, is pronounced, declared, and finished with the twofold formula, with the onefold formula, by common declaration of all Bhikkhus who have kept Vassa together, and if (a Bhikkhu then) inhibits, (&c., as before). In these cases, O Bhikkhus, the Pavāraṇā is not inhibited.

5. 'And in what cases, O Bhikkhus, is the Pavāraṇā inhibited? When Pavāraṇā, O Bhikkhus, is pronounced, declared, but not finished[2] with the threefold formula, and if (a Bhikkhu then) inhibits the Pavāraṇā (of another Bhikkhu), the Pavāraṇā is inhibited, (&c.[3]). In these cases, O Bhikkhus, the Pavāraṇā is inhibited.

6. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, one Bhikkhu, on the day of Pavāraṇā, inhibits the Pavāraṇā of another Bhikkhu: then if the other Bhikkhus know with regard to that (inhibiting) Bhikkhu: "This venerable brother is not of a pure conduct in his deeds, nor in his words, nor as regards his means of livelihood, he is ignorant, unlearned, unable to give explanation when he is questioned," (let them say to him): "Nay, friend, let not quarrel arise, nor strife, nor discord, nor dispute," and having thus put him to silence, let the Saṃgha hold Pavāraṇā.

7-9. 'In case; O Bhikkhus, &c.[4]

10. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, one Bhikkhu on the day of Pavāraṇā inhibits the Pavāraṇā of another Bhikkhu: then if the other Bhikkhus know with regard to that (inhibiting) Bhikkhu: "This venerable brother is of a pure conduct in his deeds and in his words and with regard to his means of livelihood, he is clever, learned, and able to give explanation when he is questioned," let them say to him: "If you inhibit, friend, the Pavāraṇā of this Bhikkhu, on what account do you inhibit it, on account of a moral transgression, or on account of a transgression against the rules of conduct or on account of heresy?"

11. ' If he replies: "I inhibit it on account of a moral transgression, I inhibit it on account of a transgression against the rules of conduct. I inhibit it on account of heresy," let them say to him: "Well, do you know, Sir, what a moral transgression is, what a transgression against the rules of conduct is, what heresy is?" If he replies. "I know, friends, what a moral transgression is, &c.," let them say to him: "And what is, friend, a moral transgression, &c.?"

12. 'If he replies: "The four pārājika offences and the thirteen saṃghādisesa offences are the moral transgressions; thullaccaya offences, pācittiya offences, pāṭidesanīya offences, dukkaṭa offences, and wicked language are the transgressions against the rules of conduct; false doctrine and . . . . doctrine[5] are heresy," let them say to him: "If you inhibit, friend, the Pavāraṇā of this Bhikkhu, do you inhibit it on account of what you have seen, or of what you have heard, or of what you suspect?"

13. 'If he replies: "I inhibit it on account of what I have seen, or on account of what I have heard, or on account of what I suspect," let them say to him: "If you inhibit, friend, the Pavāraṇā of this Bhikkhu on account of what you have seen, what have you seen? What is it that you have seen? When have you seen it? Where have you seen it? Have you seen him committing a pārājika offence? Have you seen him committing a saṃghādisesa offence? Have you seen him committing a thullacca ya offence, a pācittiya offence, a pāṭidesanīya offence, a dukkaṭa offence, or making himself guilty of wicked language? And where were you? And where was this Bhikkhu? And what did you do? And what did this Bhikkhu do?"

14. 'If he then replies: "I do not inhibit, friends, the Pavāraṇā of this Bhikkhu on account of what I have seen, but I inhibit it on account of what I have heard," let them say to him: "If you inhibit, friend, the Pavāraṇā of this Bhikkhu on account of what you have heard, what have you heard? What is it that you have heard? When have you heard it? Where have you heard it? Have you heard that he has committed a pārājika offence, (&c., down to) or that he has made himself guilty of wicked language? Have you heard it from a Bhikkhu? Have you heard it from a Bhikkhunī? Have you heard it from a sikkhamānā, from a sāmaṇera, from a sāmaṇerī, from an upāsaka, from an upāsikā, from kings, from royal officers, from Titthiyas, from Titthiya disciples?"

15. 'If he then replies: "I do not inhibit, friends, the Pavāraṇā of this Bhikkhu on account of what I have heard, but I inhibit it on account of what I suspect," let them say to him: "If you inhibit, friend, the Pavāraṇā of this Bhikkhu on account of what you suspect, what do you suspect? What is it that you suspect? When do you suspect it? Where do you suspect it? Do you suspect that he has committed a pārājika offence, (&c., down to) wicked language? Does your suspicion come from what you have heard from a Bhikkhu, (&c., down to) from Titthiya disciples?"

16. 'If he then replies: "I do not inhibit. friends, the Pavāraṇā of this Bhikkhu on account of what I suspect; I do not know the reason why I inhibit the Pavāraṇā of this Bhikkhu," and if that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, who reproves (the other one), being questioned by intelligent fellow Bhikkhus, is not able to convince tbeir minds, you are right in saying that in such case the Bhikkhu who has been reproved is blameless. But if that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, who reproves (the other one), being questioned by intelligent fellow Bhikkhus, is able to convince their minds, you are right in saying that in such case the Bhikkhu who has been reproved is blamable.

17. 'If that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, who reproves (another one), admits that be has charged him unfoundedly with a pārājika offence, let the Saṃgha enter upon the saṃghādisesa proceedings[6] (against the accuser) and then hold Pavāraṇā.

'If that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, who reproves (another one), admits that he has charged him unfoundedly with a saṃghādisesa offence, let the Saṃgha treat (the accuser) according to the law[7] and then hold Pavāraṇā.

'If that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, who reproves (another one), admits that he has charged him unfoundedly with a thullaccaya offence, or with a pācittiya offence, or with a pāṭidesanīya offence, or with a dukkaṭa offence, or with having used wicked language, let the Saṃgha treat (the accuser) according to the law[8] and then hold Pavāraṇā.

18. 'If that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, who has been reproved, admits that be has committed a pārājika offence, let the Saṃgha expel him and then bold Pavāraṇā.

'If that Bhikkhu, &c., admits that be has committed a saṃghādisesa offence, let the Saṃgha enter upon the saṃghādisesa proceedings (against him) and then hold Pavāraṇā.

'If that Bhikkhu, &c., admits that he has committed a thullaccaya offence, or a pācittiya offence, . . . . (&c., down to) . . . . wicked language, let the Saṃgha treat him according to the law and then hold Pavāraṇā.

19. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu on the day of Pavāraṇā is guilty of a thullaccaya offence. Some Bhikkhus believe that it is a thullaccaya offence, other Bhikkhus believe that it is a saṃghādisesa offence. In that case, O Bhikkhus, let those Bhikkhus who take it for a thullaccaya offence, take that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, aside, treat him according to the law, go back to the Saṃgha, and say: "The offence, friends, which this Bhikkhu has committed, he has atoned for according to the law. If the Saṃgha is ready, let the Saṃgha hold Pavāraṇā.

20. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu on the day of Pavāraṇā is guilty of a thullaccaya offence. Some Bhikkhus believe that it is a thullaccaya offence, other Bhikkhus believe that it is a pācittiya offence. Some Bhikkhus believe that it is a thullaccaya offence, other Bhikkhus believe that it is a pāṭidesanīya offence; a thullaccaya offence; a dukkaṭa offence; a thullaccaya offence, an offence by wicked language. In that case (&c., as in § 19, down to the end).

21, 22. 'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu on the day of Pavāraṇā is guilty of a pācittiya offence, of a pāṭidesanīya offence, or a dukkaṭa offence, of an offence by wicked language. Some Bhikkhus believe that it is an offence by wicked language, other Bhikkhus believe that it is a saṃghādisesa offence, &c. Some Bhikkhus believe that it is an offence by wicked language, other Bhikkhus believe that it is a dukkaṭa offence. In that case, O Bhikkhus, let those Bhikkhus who take it for an offence by wicked language, take that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, aside (&c., see § 19).

23. 'If, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu speaks thus before the assembly on the day of Pavāraṇā: "Let the Saṃgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. Here this deed is known (to me), but not the (guilty) person. If the Saṃgha is ready, let the Saṃgha hold Pavāraṇā excluding this deed," (the Bhikkhus) ought to reply: "The Blessed One, friend, has prescribed that they who hold Pavāraṇā, ought to be pure. If a deed is known, but not the (guilty) person, report it (to us) now."

24. 'If, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu speaks thus before the assembly on the day of Pavāraṇā: "Let the Saṃgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. Here a person is known (to me as guilty), but not his deed. If the Saṃgha is ready, let the Saṃgha hold Pavāraṇā excluding this person," (the Bhikkhus) ought to reply: "The Blessed One, friend, has prescribed that they who hold Pavāraṇā, ought to be complete. If a person is known to you (as guilty), but not his deed, report it (to us) now."

25. 'If, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu speaks thus before the assembly on the day of Pavāraṇā: "Let the Saṃgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. Here a deed is known (to me) as well as the (guilty) person. If the Saṃgha is ready, let the Saṃgha hold Pavāraṇā excluding this deed and this person," (the Bhikkhus) ought to reply: "The Blessed One, friend, has prescribed that they who hold Pavāraṇā, ought to be pure as well as complete. If the deed and the (guilty) person are known to you, report it (to us) now."

26. 'If, O Bhikkhus, a deed becomes known before the Pavāraṇā, and the (guilty) person afterwards (i.e. after the Pavāraṇā), it is right to bring it forward (then)[9].

'If, O Bhikkhus, the (guilty) person becomes known before the Pavāraṇā, and his deed afterwards, it is right to bring it forward (then).

“If, O Bhikkhus, the deed as well as the (guilty) person becomes known before the Pavāraṇā, and if (a Bhikkhu) raises up that matter again after the Pavāraṇā, he makes himsef guilty of a pācittiya offence for raising up (a matter that has been settled)[10].”

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

Comp. II, 16, 1.

[2]:

Correct in the Pāli text pariyositāya into apariyositāya.

[3]:

The paragraph is repeated with the phrases, 'With the twofold formula,' 'with the onefold formula,' and 'by common declaration of all the Bhikkhus who have kept Vassa together,' respectively, instead of 'with the threefold formula.'

[4]:

As in § 6. But instead of 'Not of a pure conduct in his deeds, nor in his words, nor as regards his means of livelihood,' read respectively, 'Of a pure conduct in his deeds, but not in his words, nor as regards his means of livelihood' (§ 7); 'Of a pure conduct in his deeds and in his words, but not with regard to his means of livelihood' (§ 8); 'Of a pure conduct in his deeds and in his words and with regard to his means of livelihood' (§ 9).

[5]:

The meaning of antaggāhikā diṭṭhi (Sanskrit āntargrahikā dṛṣṭi? āntagrahikā dṛṣṭi?) is unknown to us; Buddhaghosa gives no explanation. Perhaps it may mean doctrine partly false and partly correct (eclectic).

[6]:

See the 5th Saṃghādisesa rule.

[7]:

See the 76th Pācittiya rule.

[8]:

According to Buddhaghosa, the Bhikkhu who brings such an unfounded charge against a fellow Bhikkhu, is guilty of a dukkaṭa offence.

[9]:

'Because it had not been possible to decide the matter at the Pavāraṇā ' (Buddhaghosa).

[10]:

See the 63rd Pācittiya rule.

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