Vinaya (2): The Mahavagga

by T. W. Rhys Davids | 1881 | 156,382 words

The Mahavagga (part of the Vinaya collection) includes accounts of Gautama Buddha’s and the ten principal disciples’ awakenings, as well as rules for ordination, rules for reciting the Patimokkha during uposatha days, and various monastic procedures....

Mahavagga, Khandaka 4, Chapter 5

1. At that time five Bhikkhus dwelt in a certain district (or, in a certain residence of Bhikkhus) on the day of Pavāraṇā.

Now these Bhikkhus thought: 'The Blessed One has prescribed the holding of Pavāraṇā by the Saṃgha, and we are (only) five persons[1]. Well, how are we to hold Pavāraṇā?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

“I prescribe,O Bhikkhus, that five Bhikkhus should . hold Pavāraṇā in a (regular) chapter[2].”

2. At that time four Bhikkhus dwelt in a certain district on the day of Pavāraṇā. Now these Bhikkhus thought: 'The Blessed One has prescribed that five Bhikkhus shall hold Pavāraṇā in a (regular) chapter, and we, are (only) four persons. Well, how are we to hold Pavāraṇā?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that four Bhikkhus should hold Pavāraṇā with each other.

3. 'And let them hold Pavāraṇā, O Bhikkhus, in this way: Let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim the following ñatti hefore those Bhikkhus:

"Hear me, Sirs. To-day is Pavāraṇā day. If you are ready, Sirs, let us hold Pavāraṇā with each other."

'Then let the senior Bhikkhu adjust his upper rohe, &c., and say to those Bhikkhus: "I pronounce my Pavāraṇā, friends, hefore you, by what has heen seen, or by what has heen heard, or by what is suspected; may you speak to me, Sirs, out of compassion towards me; if I see (an offence), I will atone for it. And for the second time, &c.; and for the third time, &c."

“Then let each younger Bhikkhu, &c.”

4. At that time three Bhikkhus dwelt in a certain district on the day of Pavāraṇā. Now these Bhikkhus thought: 'The Blessed One has prescrihed that five Bhikkhus shail hold Pavāraṇā in a (regular) chapter, that four Bhikkhus shall hold Pavāraṇā with each other, and we are (only) three persons. Well, how are we to hold Pavāraṇā?'

“I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that three Bhikkhus should hold Pavāraṇā with each other. And let them hold Pavāraṇā (&c., see §.3).”

5. At that time two Bhiklthus dwelt in a certain district on the day of Pavāraṇā. Now these Bhikkhus thought: 'The Blessed One has prescrihed that five Bhikkhus, &c., that four Bhikkhus, &c., that three Bhikkhus, &c., and we are (only) two persons. Well, how are we to hold Pavāraṇā?'

'I prescrihe, O Bhikkhus, that two Bhikkhus should hold Pavāraṇā with each other.

6. 'And let them hold Pavāraṇā, O Bhikkhus, in this way: Let the senior Bhikkhu adjust his upper rohe, &c., and say to the junior Bhikkhu: "I pronounce my Pavāraṇā, friend, &c."

“Then let the junior Bhikkhu, &c.”

7. At that time there dwelt a single Bhikkhu in a certain district on the day of Pavāraṇā. Now this Bhikkhu thought: 'The Blessed One has prescribed that five Bhikkhus, &c., &c., and I am only one person. Well, how am I to hold Pavāraṇā?'

8. 'In case there dwell, O Bhikkhus, in a certain district on the day of Pavāraṇā, a single Bhikkhu: Let that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, sweep the place which the Bhikkhus use to frequent,—the refectory, or hall, or place at the foot of a tree; let him (then) provide water and food, prepare seats, put a lamp there, and sit down. If other Bhikkhus come, let him hold Pavāraṇā with them; if they do not come, let him fix his mind upon the thought: "To-day is my Pavāraṇā." If he does not fix his mind upon this thought, he commits a dukkaṭa offence.

9. 'Now, O Bhikkhus, where five Bhikkhus dwell (together), they must not convey the Pavāraṇā[3] of one (to their assemhly) and hold Pavāraṇā by four (as) in a (regular) chapter. If they do, they commit a dukkaṭa offence.

'Now, O Bhikkhus, where four Bhikkhus dwell (together), they must not convey the Pavāraṇā of one (to their assembly) and hold Pavāraṇā with each other by three. If they do, they commit a dukkaṭa offence.

'Now, O Bhikkhus, where three Bhikkhus (&c., as in the last clause).

“Now, O Bhikkhus, where two Bhikkhus dwen, one of them must not convey the Pavāraṇā of the other one, and fix (only) his thoughts (upon the Pavāraṇā). If he does, he commits a dukkaṭa offence.”

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

As a general rule five Bhikkhus were sufficient to form the quorum; but for the performance of several among the official acts of the Order the presence of more than five members was required; see IX, 4, 1 seq.

[2]:

See IX, 4, 1.

[3]:

See chap. 3, § 3. Compare II, chap. 22, and chap. 26, § 10.

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