Vinaya (2): The Mahavagga

by T. W. Rhys Davids | 1881 | 156,382 words

The Mahavagga (part of the Vinaya collection) includes accounts of Gautama Buddha’s and the ten principal disciples’ awakenings, as well as rules for ordination, rules for reciting the Patimokkha during uposatha days, and various monastic procedures....

Mahavagga, Khandaka 8, Chapter 1

1. At that time the blessed Buddha dwelt at Rājagaha, in the Veḷuvana, in the Kalandaka-nivāpa. At that time Vesālī was an opulent, prosperous town, populous, crowded with people, abundant with food[1]; there were seven thousand seven hundred and seven storeyed buildings, and seven thousand seven hundred and seven pinnacled buildings, and seven thousand seven hundred and seven pleasure grounds (Ārāmas), and seven thousand seven hundred and seven lotus-ponds. There was also the courtezan Ambapālikā[2], who was beautiful, graceful, pleasant, gifted with the highest beauty of complexion, well versed in dancing, singing, and lute-playing, much visited by desirous people. She asked fifty (kahāpaṇas) for one night. Through that person Vesālī became more and more flourishing.

2. Now a merchant from Rājagaha went to Vesālī on a certain business. That Rājagaha merchant saw what an opulent, prosperous town Vesālī was, how populous, crowded with people, and abundant with food, and the seven thousand seven hundred and seven storeyed buildings . . . . and the courtezan Ambapālī, who was beautiful . . . . and through whom Vesālī became more and more flourishing. And the Rājagaha merchant, after having done his business in Vesālī, returned to Rājagaha and went to the place where the Māgadha king Seṇiya Bimbisāra was. Having approached him, he said to the Māgadha king Seṇiya Bimbisāra: 'Vesālī, Your Majesty, is an opulent, prosperous town (&c., as in § 1, down to:) Through that person Vesālī becomes more and more flourishing. May it please Your Majesty, let us also install a courtezan.'

(The king replied), 'Well, my good Sir, look for such a girl whom you can install as courtezan.'

3. Now at that time there was at Rājagaha a girl Sālavatī by name, who was beautiful, graceful, pleasant, and gifted with the highest beauty of complexion. That girl Sālavatī the Rājagaha merchant installed as courtezan. And before long the courtezan Sālavatī was well versed in dancing, singing, and lute-playing, and much visited by desirous people, and she asked one hundred (kahāpaṇas) for one night. And before long the courtezan Sālavatī became pregnant. Now the courtezan Sālavatī thought: 'Men do not like a pregnant woman. If anybody should find out regarding me that "The courtezan Sālavatī is pregnant," my whole position will be lost. What if I were to have the people told that I am sick.'

And the courtezan Sālavatī gave orders to the door-keeper (saying), 'Let no man enter here, my good door-keeper, and if a man calls for me, tell him that I am sick.' The door-keeper accepted this of the courtezan Sālavatī (by saying), Yes, Madam.'

4. And the courtezan Sālavatī, when the child in her womb had reached maturity, gave birth to a boy. And the courtezan Sālavatī gave orders to her maid-servant (saying), 'Go, my girl, put this boy into an old winnowing basket, take him away, and throw him away on a dust-heap.' The servant accepted this order of the courtezan Sālavatī (by saying), 'Yes, Madam,' put that boy into an old winnowing basket, took him away, and threw him away on a dust-heap.

At that time a royal prince, Abhaya by name[3], went betimes to attend upon the king, and saw that boy, around whom crows were gathering. When he saw that, he asked the people: 'What is that, my good Sirs, around which the crows are gathering?'

It is a boy, Your Highness[4].'

'Is he alive, Sirs?'

'He is alive, Your Highness.'

'Well, my good Sirs, bring that boy to our palace and give him to the nurses to nourish him.'

And those people accepted that order of the royal prince Abhaya (by saying), 'Yes, Your Highness,' brought that boy to the palace of the royal prince Abhaya, and gave him to the nurses (saying),

'Nourish (this boy).' Because (the people had said about this boy to Abhaya), 'He is alive' (jīvati), they gave him the name of Jīvaka; because he had been caused to be nourished by the royal prince (kumārena posāpito), they gave him the name of Komārabhacca[5].

5. And ere long Jīvaka Komārabhacca came to the years of discretion. And Jīvaka Komārabhacca went to the place where the royal prince Abhaya was; having approached him he said to the royal prince Abhaya: 'Who is my mother, Your Highness, and who is my father?'

'I do not know your mother, my good Jīvaka, but I am your father, for I have had you nourished.'

Now Jīvaka Komārabhacca thought: 'In these royal families it is not easy to find one's livelihood without knowing an art. What if I were to learn an art.'

6. At that time there lived at Takkasilā (Τάξιλα) a world-renowned physician. And Jīvaka Komārabhacca without asking leave of the royal prince Abhaya set out for Takkasilā. Wandering from place to place he came to Takkasilā and to the place where that physician was. Having approached him he said to that physician, 'I wish to learn your art, doctor.

'Well, friend Jīvaka, learn it.'

And Jīvaka Komārabhacca learnt much, and learnt easily, and understood well, and did not forget what he had learnt. And when seven years had elapsed, Jīvaka Komārabhacca thought: 'I learn much, and learn easily, and I understand well, and I do not forget what I have learnt. I have studied now seven years, and I do not see the end of this art. When shall I see the end of this art?'

7. And Jīvaka Komārabhacca went to the place where that physician was; having approached him he said to that physician: 'I learn much, doctor, and I learn easily; I understand well, and do not forget what I have learnt. I have studied now seven years, and I do not see the end of this art. When shall I see the end of this art?'

'Very well, my dear Jīvaka, take this spade, and seek round about Takkasilā a yojana on every side, and whatever (plant) you see which is not medicinal, bring it to me.'

Jīvaka Komārabhacca accepted this order of that physician (saying), 'Yes, doctor,' took a spade, and went around about Takkasilā a yojana on every side, but he did not see anything that was not medicinal. Then Jīvaka Komārabhacca went to the place where that physician was; having approached him he said to that physician: 'I have been seeking, doctor, all around Takkasilā a yojana on every side, but I have not seen anything that is not medicinal.'

(The physician replied), 'You have done your learning, my good Jīvaka; this will do for acquiring your livelihood.' Speaking thus he gave to Jīvaka Komārabhacca a little (money) for his journey (home).

8. And Jīvaka Komārabhacca took that little money, given to him for his journey, and set out for Rājagaha. And on the way at Sāketa that little money of Jīvaka Komārabhacca was spent. Now Jīvaka Komārabhacca thought: 'These ways are wild, and there is but little water and little food; it is difficult to travel here without money for the journey. What if I were to try to get some money for my journey.'

At that time the seṭṭhi's[6] wife at Sāketa had been suffering for seven years from disease in the head; many very great and world-renowned physicians came, but they could not restore her to health; they received much gold, and went away.

And Jīvaka Komārabhacca, when he had entered Sāketa, asked the people: 'Who is sick here, my good Sirs? Whom shall I cure?'

'That seṭṭhi's wife, doctor, has been suffering for seven years from a disease in the head; go, doctor, and cure that seṭṭhi's wife.'

9. Then Jīvaka Komārabhacca went to the house of that householder, the seṭṭhi; and when he had reached it, he gave orders to the door-keeper (saying), 'Go, my good door-keeper, and tell the seṭṭhi's wife: "A physician has come in, Madam, who wants to see you."'

That door-keeper accepted this order of Jīvaka Komārabhacca (saying), 'Yes, doctor,' went to the place where the seṭṭhi's wife was, and having approached her, he said to the seṭṭhi's wife: 'A physician has come in, Madam, who wants to see you.'

'What sort of man is that physician, my good door-keeper?'

'He is a young man, Madam.'

'Nay, my good door-keeper, what can a young physician help me? Many very great and world-renowned physicians have come and have not been able to restore me to health; they have received much gold, and have gone away.'

10. Thus that door-keeper went to Jīvaka Komārabhacca; having approached him he said to Jīvaka Komārabhacca: 'The seṭṭhi's wife has said, doctor: "Nay, my good door-keeper (&c., as in § 9)."'

(Jīvaka replied), 'Go, my good door-keeper, and tell the seṭṭhi's wife: "The physician, Madam, says: 'Do not give me anything beforehand, Madam when you shall have been restored to health, then you may give me what you like."'

The door-keeper accepted this order of Jīvaka Komārabhacca (saying), 'Yes, doctor,' went to the place where the seṭṭhi's wife was, and having approached her he said to the seṭṭhi's wife: 'The physician, Madam, says (&c., as above).'

'Well, my good door-keeper, let the physician enter.'

The door-keeper accepted this order of the seṭṭhi's wife (saying), 'Yes, Madam,' went to the place where Jīvaka Komārabhacca was, and having approached him he said to Jīvaka Komārabhacca: 'The seṭṭhi's wife calls you, doctor.'

11. Then Jīvaka Komārabhacca went to the place where the seṭṭhi's wife was; having approached her, and having carefully observed the change in the appearance of the seṭṭhi's wife, he said to the seṭṭhi's wife: 'We want one pasata[7] of ghee, Madam.' Then the seṭṭhi's wife ordered one pasata of ghee to be given to Jīvaka Komārabhacca. And Jīvaka Komārabhacca boiled up that pasata of ghee with various drugs, ordered the seṭṭhi's wife to lie down on her back in the bed, and gave it her through her nose. And the butter given through the nose came out through the mouth. And the seṭṭhi's wife spat it out into the spittoon, and told the maid-servant: 'Come, my girl, take this ghee up with a piece of cotton.'

12. Then Jīvaka Komārabhacca thought: 'It is astonishing how niggardly this house-wife is, in that she has this ghee, which ought to be thrown away, taken up with a piece of cotton. I have given her many highly precious drugs. What sort of fee will she give me?'

And the seṭṭhi's wife, when she observed the change of demeanour in Jīvaka Komārabhacca, said to Jīvaka Komārabhacca: 'Why are you perplexed, doctor?'

'I thought: "It is astonishing, &c."'

'Householders like us, doctor, know why to economize thus; this ghee will do for the servants or workmen to anoint their feet with, or, it can be poured into the lamp. Be not perplexed, doctor, you will not lose your fee.'

13. And Jīvaka Komārabhacca drove away the disease in the head which the seṭṭhi's wife had had for seven years, by once giving her medicine through the nose. Then the seṭṭhi's wife, who had been' restored to health, gave four thousand (kāhāpaṇas) to Jīvaka Komārabhacca; her son (thinking), 'My mother stands there restored,' gave him four thousand; her daughter-in-law (thinking), 'My mother-in-law stands there restored,' gave him four thousand; the seṭṭhi, the householder, (thinking), 'My wife stands there restored,' gave him four thousand and a man-servant and a maid-servant and a coach with horses.

Then Jīvaka Komārabhacca took those sixteen thousand (kāhāpaṇas) and the man-servant, the maid-servant, and the coach with the horses, and set out for Rājagaha. In due course he came to Rājagaha, and to the place where the royal prince Abhaya was; having approached him he said to the royal prince Abhaya: 'This, Your Highness, (have I received for) the first work I have done, sixteen thousand and a man-servant and a maid-servant and a coach with horses; may Your Highness accept this as payment for my bringing up.'

'Nay, my dear Jīvaka, keep it, but do not get a dwelling for yourself elsewhere than in our residence.'

Jīvaka Komārabhacca accepted this order of the royal prince Abhaya (saying), 'Yes, Your Highness,' and got himself a dwelling in the residence of the royal prince Abhaya.

14. At that time the Magadha king Seṇiya Bimbisāra suffered from a fistula; his garments were stained with blood. When the queens saw that, they ridiculed (the king, and said): 'His Majesty is having his courses. His Majesty will bring forth!' The king was annoyed at that. And the Magadha king Seṇiya Bimbisāra said to the royal prince Abhaya: 'I am suffering, my dear Abhaya, from such a disease that my garments are stained with blood; and the queens, when they see it, ridicule (me by saying), "His Majesty is, &c." Pray, my dear Abhaya, find a physician for me, able to cure me.'

'This excellent young physician of ours, Sire, Jīvaka, he will cure Your Majesty.'

'Then pray, my dear Abhaya, give orders to the physician Jīvaka, and he shall cure me.'

15. Then the royal prince Abhaya gave orders to Jīvaka Komārabhacca (saying), 'Go, my dear Jīvaka, and cure the king.'

Jīvaka Komārabhacca accepted this order of the royal prince Abhaya (by saying), 'Yes, Your Highness,' took some medicament in his nail, and went to the place where the Magadha king Seṇiya Bimbisāra was. Having approached him, he said to the Magadha king Seṇiya Bimbisāra: 'Let us see your disease, Your Majesty.' And Jīvaka Komārabhacca healed the fistula of the Magadha king Seṇiya Bimbisāra by one anointing.

Then the Magadha king Seṇiya Bimbisāra, having been restored to health, ordered his five hundred wives to put on all their ornaments; then he ordered them to take their ornaments off and to make a heap of them, and he said to Jīvaka Komārabhacca: 'All these ornaments, my dear Jīvaka, of my five hundred wives shall be thine.'

'Nay, Sire, may Your Majesty remember my office.'

'Very well, my dear Jīvaka, you can wait upon me and my seraglio and the fraternity of Bhikkhus with the Buddha at its head.'

Jīvaka Komārabhacca accepted this order of the Magadha king Seṇiya Bimbisāra (by saying), 'Yes, Your Majesty.'

16. At that time the seṭṭhi at Rājagaha had been suffering for seven years from a disease in the head. Many very great and world-renowned physicians came, and were not able to restore him to health; they received much gold and went away. And a prognostication had been made by the physicians to him, to wit: Some of the physicians said: 'The seṭṭhi, the householder, will die on the fifth day;' other physicians said: 'The seṭṭhi, the householder, will die on the seventh day.'

Now (a certain) Rājagaha merchant thought: 'This seṭṭhi, this householder, does good service both to the king and to the merchants' guild. Now the physicians have made prognostication to him(&c., as above). There is Jīvaka, the royal physician, an excellent young doctor. What if we were to ask the king for his physician Jīvaka to cure the seṭṭhi, the householder?'

17. And the Rājagaha merchant went to the place where the Magadha king Seṇiya Bimbisāra was; having approached him, he said to the Magadha king Seṇiya Bimbisāra: That seṭṭhi, Sire, that householder, does good service both to Your Majesty and to the merchants' guild. Now the physicians have made prognostication to him, &c. May it please Your Majesty to order the physician Jīvaka to cure the seṭṭhi, the householder.'

Then the Magadha king Seṇiya Bimbisāra gave orders to Jīvaka Komārabhacca (saying), 'Go, my dear Jīvaka, and cure the seṭṭhi, the householder.'

Jīvaka Komārabhacca accepted this order of the Magadha king Seṇiya Bimbisāra (by saying), 'Yes, Your Majesty,' went to the place where the seṭṭhi, the householder, was, and having approached him, and having carefully observed the change in his appearance, he said to the seṭṭhi, the householder: 'If I restore you to health, my good householder, what fee will you give me?'

'All that I possess shall be yours, doctor, and I will be your slave.'

18. 'Well, my good householder, will you be able to lie down on one side for seven months?'

'I shall be able, doctor, to lie down on one side for seven months.'

'And will you be able, my good householder, to lie down on the other side for seven months?'

'I shall be able, doctor, to lie down on the other side for seven months.'

'And will you be able, my good householder, to lie down on your back for seven months?'

'I shall be able, doctor, to lie down on my back for seven months.'

Then Jīvaka Komārabhacca ordered the seṭṭhi, the householder, to lie down on his bed, tied him fast to his bed, cut through the skin of the head, drew apart the flesh on each side of the incision, pulled two worms out (of the wound), and showed them to the people (saying), 'See, Sirs, these two worms, a small one and a big one. The doctors who said, "On the fifth day the seṭṭhi, the householder, will die," have seen this big worm, and how it would penetrate on the fifth day to the brain of the seṭṭhi, the householder, and that when it had penetrated to the brain, the seṭṭhi, the householder, would die. Those doctors have seen it quite rightly. And the doctors who said, "On the seventh day the seṭṭhi, the householder, will die," have seen this small worm, and how it would penetrate on the seventh day to the brain of the seṭṭhi, the householder, and that when it had penetrated to the brain, the seṭṭhi, the householder, would die. Those doctors have seen it quite rightly.' (Speaking thus) he closed up the sides of the wound, stitched up the skin on the head, and anointed it with salve.

19. And when seven days had elapsed, the seṭṭhi, the householder, said to Jīvaka Komārabhacca: 'I am not able, doctor, to lie down on one side for seven months.'

'Did you not tell me, my good householder: "I shall be able, doctor, to lie down on one side for seven months?"'

'It is true, doctor, I told you so indeed, but I shall die (if I do); I cannot lie down on one side for seven months.'

'Well, my good householder, then you must lie down on the other side for seven months.'

And when seven days had elapsed, the seṭṭhi, the householder, said to Jīvaka Komārabhacca: 'I am not able, doctor, to lie down on the other side for seven months.'

'Did you not tell me, &c.'

It is true, doctor, I told you so indeed, &c.'

'Well, my good householder, then you must lie down on your back for seven months.'

And when seven days had elapsed, the seṭṭhi, the householder, said to Jīvaka Komārabhacca: 'I am not able, doctor, to lie down on my back for seven months.'

Did you not tell me, &c.?'

It is true, doctor, I told you so indeed, &c.'

20. 'If I had not spoken thus to you, my good householder, you would not have lain down even so long a time. But I knew beforehand, "After three times seven days the seṭṭhi, the householder, will be restored to health." Arise, my good householder, you are restored; look to it what fee you give me.'

'All that I possess shall be yours, doctor, and I will be your slave.'

'Nay, my good householder, do not give me all that you possess, and do not be my slave; give one hundred thousand (kāhāpaṇas) to the king, and one hundred thousand to me.'

Then the seṭṭhi, the householder, having regained his health, gave a hundred thousand (kāhāpaṇas) to the king, and a hundred thousand to Jīvaka Komārabhacca.

21. At that time the son of the seṭṭhi at Benares, who used to amuse himself by tumbling (mokkhacikā[8]), brought upon himself an entanglement of his intestines, in consequence of which he could digest neither the rice-milk which he drank, nor the food of which he partook, nor was he able to ease himself in the regular way. In consequence of that he grew lean, he looked disfigured and discoloured, (his complexion became) more and more yellow, and the veins stood out upon his skin.

Now the seṭṭhi of Benares thought: 'My son is suffering from such and such a disease: he neither can digest the rice-milk which he drinks (&c., as above, down to:) and the veins stand out upon his skin. What if I were to go to Rājagaha and to ask the king for his physician Jīvaka to cure my son.'

And the seṭṭhi of Benares went to Rājagaha and repaired to the place where the Magadha king Seṇiya Bimbisāra was; having approached him he said to the Magadha king Seṇiya Bimbisāra: 'My son, Your Majesty, is suffering from such and such a disease: he neither can digest the rice-milk which he drinks (&c., as above, down to:) and the veins stand out upon his skin. May it please Your Majesty to order the physician Jīvaka to cure my son.'

22. Then the Magadha king Seṇiya Bimbisāra gave orders to Jīvaka Komārabhacca (saying), 'Go, my dear Jīvaka; go to Benares, and cure the seṭṭhi's son at Benares.'

Jīvaka Komārabhacca accepted this order of the Magadha king Seṇiya Bimbisāra (by saying), 'Yes, Your Majesty,' went to Benares, and repaired to the place where the son of the Benares seṭṭhi was; having approached him, and having carefully

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observed the change in his appearance, he ordered the people to leave the room, drew the curtain, tied him fast to a pillar, placed his wife in front of him, cut through the skin of the belly, drew the twisted intestines out, and showed them to his wife (saying), 'Look here what the disease was, from which your husband was suffering. This is the reason why he neither can digest the rice-milk which he drinks, nor can digest the food of which he partakes, nor is able to ease himself in the regular way, and why he has grown lean, and looks disfigured and discoloured, and (why his complexion has become) more and more yellow, and the veins have stood out upon his skin.' (Speaking thus), he disentangled the twisted intestines, put the intestines back (into their right position), stitched the skin together, and anointed it with salve. And before long the Benares seṭṭhi's son regained his health.

Then the seṭṭhi of Benares (saying to himself), 'My son stands here restored to health,' gave sixteen thousand (kāhāpaṇas) to Jīvaka Komārabhacca. And Jīvaka Komārabhacca took those sixteen thousand (kāhāpaṇas), and went back again to Rājagaha.

23. At that time king Pajjota (of Ujjenī) was suffering from jaundice. Many very great and world-renowned physicians came and were not able to restore him to health; they received much gold and went away. Then king Pajjota sent a messenger to the Magadha king Seṇiya Bimbisāra (with the following message): 'I am suffering from such and such a disease; pray, Your Majesty[9], give orders to the physician Jīvaka; he will cure me.' Then the Magadha king Seṇiya Bimbisāra gave orders to Jīvaka Komārabhacca (saying), 'Go, my dear Jīvaka; go to Ujjenī, and cure king Pajjota.'

Jīvaka Komārabhacca accepted this order of the Magadha king Seṇiya Bimbisāra (by saying), 'Yes, Your Majesty,' went to Ujjenī and to the place where king Pajjota was, and having approached him, and having carefully observed the change in his appearance, he said to king Pajjota:

24. 'I will boil up some ghee, Sire, which Your Majesty must drink.'

'Nay, my good Jīvaka; do what you can for restoring me without giving me ghee; I have an aversion and a distaste for ghee.'

Then Jīvaka Komārabhacca thought: 'The disease of this king is such a one that it cannot be cured without ghee. What if I were to boil up ghee so that it takes the colour, the smell, and the taste of an astringent decoction[10].'

Then Jīvaka Komārabhacca boiled some ghee with various drugs so as to give it the colour, the smell, and the taste of an astringent decoction. And Jīvaka Komārabhacca thought: 'When this king will shall have taken the butter and digested it, it will make him vomit. This king is cruel; he might have me killed. What if I were to take leave before hand.' And Jīvaka Komārabhacca went to the place where king Pajjota was; having approached him he said to king Pajjota:

25. 'We physicians, Sire, draw out roots and gather medical drugs at such an hour as this. May it please Your Majesty to send the following order to the (royal) stables, and to the gates (of the town): "Let Jīvaka ride out on what animal he likes; let him leave (the town) by what gate he likes; let him leave at what hour he likes; let him enter again at what hour he likes."'

And king Pajjota sent the following order to the (royal) stables and to the gates (of the town): 'Let Jīvaka ride out on what animal he likes, &c.'

At that time king Pajjota had a she-elephant, called Bhaddavatikā, which could travel fifty yogaṇas (in one day). And Jīvaka Komārabhacca gave the ghee to king Pajjota (saying), 'May Your Majesty drink this decoction.' Then, having made king Pajjota drink the ghee, Jīvaka Komārabhacca went to the elephant stable, and hasted away from the town on the she-elephant Bhaddavatikā.

26. And when king Pajjota had drunk that ghee and was digesting it, it made him vomit. Then king Pajjota said to his attendants: 'That wicked Jīvaka, my good Sirs, has given me ghee to drink. Go, my good Sirs, and seek the physician Jīvaka.'

(The attendants answered), 'He has run away from the town on the she-elephant Bhaddavatikā.'

At that time king Pajjota had a slave, Kāka by name, who could travel sixty yogaṇas (in one day), who had been begotten by a non-human being. To this slave Kāka; king Pajjota gave the order: 'Go, my good Kāka, and call the physician Jīvaka back (saying), "The king orders you to return, doctor." But those physicians, my good Kāka, are cunning people; do not accept anything from him.'

27. And the slave Kāka overtook Jīvaka Komārabhacca on his way, at Kosambī, when he was taking his breakfast. And the slave Kāka said to Jīvaka Komārabhacca: 'The king orders you to return, doctor.'

(Jīvaka replied), 'Wait, my good Kāka, until we have taken our meal; here, my good Kāka, eat.'

(Kāka said), 'Nay, doctor, the king has told me, "Those physicians, my good Kāka, are cunning people; do not accept anything from him."'

At that time Jīvaka Komārabhacca, who had cut off some drug with his nail, was eating an emblic myrobalan fruit and drinking water. And Jīvaka Komārabhacca said to the slave Kāka: 'Here, my good Kāka, eat of this myrobalan fruit and take some water.'

28. Then the slave Kāka thought: 'This physician eats the myrobalan and drinks the water; there cannot be any harm in it;' so he ate half of the myrobalan and drank some water. And that half myrobalan which (Jīvaka) had given him to eat, opened his bowels on the spot.

Then the slave Kāka said to Jīvaka Komārabhacca: 'Can my life be saved, doctor?'

(Jīvaka replied), 'Be not afraid, my good Kāka, you will be quite well. But the king is cruel; that king might have me killed; therefore do I not return.'

Speaking thus he handed over to Kāka the she-elephant Bhaddavatikā and set out for Rājagaha. Having reached Rājagaha in due course, he went to the place where the Magadha king Seṇiya Bimbisāra was; having approached him he told the whole thing to the Magadha king Bimbisāra.

(Bimbisāra said), 'You have done right, my good Jīvaka, that you have not returned; that king is cruel; he might have had you killed.'

29. And king Pajjota, being restored to health, sent a messenger to Jīvaka Komārabhacca (with this message), 'May Jīvaka come to me; I will grant him a boon.'

(Jīvaka replied), 'Nay, Sir, may His Majesty remember my office.'

At that time king Pajjota had a suit of Siveyyaka cloth[11], which was the best, and the most excellent, and the first, and the most precious, and the noblest of many cloths, and of many suits of cloth, and of many hundred suits of cloth, and of many thousand suits of cloth, and of many hundred thousand suits of cloth. And king Pajjota sent this suit of Siveyyaka cloth to Jīvaka Komārabhacca. Then Jīvaka Komārabhacca thought: 'This suit of Siveyyaka cloth which king Pajjota has sent me, is the best and the most excellent (&c., down to:) and of many hundred thousand suits of cloth. Nobody else is worthy to receive it but He the blessed, perfect Arahat-Buddha, or the Magadha king Seṇiya Bimbisāra.'

30. At that time a disturbance had befallen the humors of the Blessed One's body. And the Blessed One said to the venerable Ānanda: 'A disturbance, Ānanda, has befallen the humors of the Tathāgata's body; the Tathāgata wishes to take a purgative.' Then the venerable Ānanda went to the place where Jīvaka Komārabhacca was; having approached him he said to Jīvaka Komārabhacca:

'My good Jīvaka, a disturbance has befallen the humors of the Tathāgata's body; the Tathāgata wishes to take a purgative.'

(Jīvaka replied), 'Well, venerable Ānanda, you ought to rub the Blessed One's body with fat for a few days.'

And the venerable Ānanda, having rubbed the Blessed One's body with fat for some days, went to the place where Jīvaka Komārabhacca was; having approached him he said to Jīvaka Komārabhacca: 'I have rubbed, my good Jīvaka, the Tathāgata's body with fat; do you now what you think fit.'

31. Then Jīvaka Komārabhacca thought: 'It is not becoming that I should give a strong purgative to the Blessed One.' (Thinking thus), he imbued three handfuls of blue lotuses with various drugs and went therewith to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him he offered one handful of lotuses to the Blessed One (saying), 'Lord, may the Blessed One smell this first handful of lotuses; that will purge the Blessed One ten times.' Thus he offered also the second handful of lotuses to the Blessed One (saying), 'Lord, may the Blessed One smell this second handful of lotuses; that will purge the Blessed One ten times.' Thus he offered also the third handful of lotuses to the Blessed One (saying), 'Lord, may the Blessed One smell this third handful of lotuses; that will purge the Blessed One ten times. Thus the Blessed One will have purged full thirty times.' And Jīvaka Komārabhacca, having given to the Blessed One a purgative for full thirty times, bowed down before the Blessed One, and passed round him with his right side towards him, and went away.

32. And Jīvaka Komārabhacca, when he was out of doors, thought: 'I have given indeed to the Blessed One a purgative for full thirty times, but as the humors of the Tathāgatha's body are disturbed, it will not purge the Blessed One full thirty times; it will purge the Blessed One only twenty-nine times. But the Blessed One, having purged, will take a bath; the bath will purge the Blessed One once; thus the Blessed One will be purged full thirty times.'

And the Blessed One, who understood by the power of his mind this reflection of Jīvaka Komārabhacca, said to the venerable Ānanda: 'Jīvaka Komārabhacca, Ānanda, when he was out of doors, has thought: "I have given indeed (&c., as above, down to:) thus the Blessed One will be purged full thirty times." Well, Ānanda, get warm water ready.'

The venerable Ānanda accepted this order of the Blessed One (saying), 'Yes, Lord,' and got warm water ready.

33. And Jīvaka Komārabhacca went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat down near him; sitting near him Jīvaka Komārabhacca said to the Blessed One: 'Lord, has the Blessed One purged?' (Buddha replied), 'I have purged, Jīvaka' (Jīvaka said), 'When I was out of doors, Lord, I thought: "I have given indeed, &c." Lord, may the Blessed One take a bath, may the Happy One take a bath.' Then the Blessed One bathed in that warm water; the bath purged the Blessed One once; thus the Blessed One was purged full thirty times.

And Jīvaka Komārabhacca said to the Blessed One: 'Lord, until the Blessed One's body is completely restored, you had better abstain from liquid food.' And ere long the Blessed One's body was completely restored.

34. Then Jīvaka Komārabhacca took that suit of Siveyyaka cloth and went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him, and having respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat down near him. Sitting near him, Jīvaka Komārabhacca said to the Blessed One: 'Lord, I ask one boon of the Blessed One.' (Buddha replied), 'The Tathāgatas, Jīvaka, are above granting boons (before they know what they are).' (Jīvaka said), 'Lord, it is a proper and unobjectionable demand.'—'Speak, Jīvaka.'

'Lord, the Blessed One wears only paṃsukūla robes (robes made of rags taken from a dust heap or a cemetery[12]), and so does the fraternity of Bhikkhus. Now, Lord, this suit of Siveyyaka cloth has been sent to me by king Pajjota, which is the best, and the most excellent, and the first, and the most precious, and the noblest of many cloths and of many suits of cloth, and of many hundred suits of cloth, and of many thousand suits of cloth, and of many hundred thousand suits of cloth. Lord, may the Blessed One accept from me this suit of Siveyyaka cloth, and may he allow to the fraternity of Bhikkhus to wear lay robes[13].'

The Blessed One accepted the suit of Siveyyaka cloth. And the Blessed One taught, incited, animated, and gladdened Jīvaka Komārabhacca by religious discourse. And Jīvaka Komārabhacca, having been taught, incited, animated, and gladdened by the Blessed One by religious discourse, rose from his seat, respectfully saluted the Blessed One, passed round him with his right side towards him, and went away.

35. And the Blessed One, after having delivered a religious discourse in consequence of that, thus addressed the Bhikkhus:

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to wear lay robes. He who likes may wear paṃsukūla robes; he who likes may accept lay robes. Whether you are pleased with the one or with the other sort[14] of robes, I approve it.'

Now the people at Rājagaha heard, The Blessed One has allowed the Bhikkhus to wear lay robes.' Then those people became glad and delighted (because they thought), 'Now we will bestow gifts (on the Bhikkhus) and acquire merit by good works, since the Blessed One has allowed the Bhikkhus to wear lay robes.' And in one day many thousands of robes were presented at Rājagaha (to the Bhikkhus).

And the people in the country heard, 'The Blessed One has allowed the Bhikkhus to wear lay robes.' Then those people became glad (&c., as above, down to:) And in one day many thousands of robes were presented through the country also (to the Bhikkhus).

36. At that time the Saṃgha had received a mantle. They told this thing to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to wear a mantle.'

They had got a silk mantle.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to wear a silk mantle.'

They had got a fleecy counterpane[15].

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to use a fleecy counterpane.'

__________________

End of the first Bhāṇavāra.

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

Compare Mahā-sudassana Sutta I, 3, and Mahā-parinibbāna Sutta V, 42.

[2]:

See above, VI, 30, 6; Mahā-parinibbāna Sutta II, 16 seq.

[3]:

This royal prince Abhaya' (Abhaya kumāra) is mentioned by the Jainas under the name of Abhayakumāra as the son of Seṇiya, i.e. Bimbisāra. See Jacobi, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morg. Gesellschaft, vol. xxxiv, p. 187.

[4]:

The word which we have translated 'Your Highness' (deva, lit. 'God') is the same which is used by all persons except by Samaṇas in addressing a king.

[5]:

Evidently the redactors of this passage referred the first part of the compound Komārabhacca to the royal prince (kumāra) Abhaya, and intended Komārabhacca to be understood as 'a person whose life is supported by a royal prince.' So also the name Kumāra-Kassapa is explained in the Jātaka commentary (Rh. D., 'Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. 204). The true meaning of the name, however, appears to have been different, for in Sanskrit kumārabhṛtyā and kaumārabhṛtya are technical terms for the part of the medical science which comprises the treatment of infants (see Wise, 'Commentary on the Hindu System of Medicine,' p. 3). We believe, therefore, that this surname Komārabhacca really means,' Master of the kaumārabhṛtya science.'

[6]:

See the note at I, 7, 1.

[7]:

One prasṛta or prasṛti ('handful') is said by the Sanskrit lexicographers to be equal to two palas. About the pala, which according to the ghee measure (ghṛtapramāṇa) of Magadha was the thirty-second part of a prastha, see the Atharva-pariśiṣṭa 35, 3, ap. Weber, Ueber den Vedakalender namens Jyotiṣam, p. 82. Compare also Rh. D., 'Ancient Coins and Measures of Ceylon,' pp. 18, 19.

[8]:

Mokkhacikā is explained in a passage quoted by Childers sub voce and taken from the Sumaṅgala Vilāsinī on the 4th Majjhima Sīla. (Compare Rh. D., 'Buddhist Suttas from the Pāli,' p. 193.) The passage from Buddhaghosa is however not devoid of ambiguity. He says: 'Mokkhacikā is the feat of turning over and over. One gets hold of a staff in the air, and places his head on the ground; turning himself upside down. This is what is meant (by the word mokkhacikā).' It is not clear whether the performer suspends himself by his feet from a horizontal bar fixed at a height above the ground; or whether he turns a sommersault, holding at the same time a stick in his hands. The latter seems more in accordance with the phrase 'holding a stick in the air' (ākāse daṇḍaṃ gahetvā) and with the phrase 'turning over and over' (samparivaṭṭanaṃ).

[9]:

This passage in which king Pajjota is represented as addressing king Bimbisāra by the respectful expression 'deva' may in our opinion be brought forward against Professor Jacobi's conjecture (Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morg. Gesellschaft, vol. xxxiv, p. 188) that Bimbisāra was merely a feudal chief under the supreme rule of king Pajjota. The Piṭaka texts are always very exact in the selection of the terms of respect in which the different persons address each other.

[10]:

See, about the decoctions used in medicine, VI, 4.

[11]:

Buddhaghosa gives two explanations of Siveyyakaṃ dussayugaṃ. 'Either Siveyyaka cloth means the cloth used in the Uttarakuru country for veiling the dead bodies when they are brought to the burying-ground (sivathikā). (A certain kind of birds take the bodies to the Himavat mountains in order to eat them, and throw the cloths away. When eremites find them there, they bring them to the king.) Or Siveyyaka cloth means a cloth woven from yarn which skilful women in the Sivi country spin.' No doubt the latter explication is the right one.

[12]:

Buddhaghosa: 'To the Blessed One during the twenty years from his Sambodhi till this story happened no one had presented a lay robe.'

[13]:

Gahapaticīvāra may be translated also, as Buddhaghosa explains it, 'a robe presented by lay people.'

[14]:

Itarītara ('the one or the other') clearly refers to the two sorts of robes mentioned before, not, as Childers (s.v. itarītaro) understands it, to whether the robes are good or bad. Compare also chap. 3, § 2.

[15]:

See Abhidhānapp. v. 312.

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