by T. W. Rhys Davids | 1881 | 17,356 words
The Patimokkha is one of the oldest, if not the oldest, of all Buddhist text-books; and it has been inserted in its entirety into the first part of the Vinaya, the Vibhanga. The Patimokkha seems to have owed its existence to the ancient Indian custom of holding sacred two periods in each month, the times of the Full Moon and of the New Moon....
Here, venerable Sirs, the thirteen matters, which, as well in their earlier as in their later stages, require formal meetings of the Order, come into recitation.
2. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, being degraded, shall, with perverted mind, come into bodily contact with a woman, by taking hold of her hand, or by taking hold ofher hair, or by touching any part of her body—that is a Saṃghādisesa.
3. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, being degraded, shall, with perverted mind, address a woman with wicked words, exciting to passion as those of a young man to a maid—that is a Saṃghādisesa.
4. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, being degraded, shall, with perverted mind, magnify, in the hearing of a woman, ministration to himself (by saying), 'This, Sister would be the noblest of ministrations, that to so righteous and exalted a religious person as myself you should ministrate by that act,' (meaning) sexual intercourse—that is a Saṃghādisesa.
6. A Bhikkhu who, begging (the materials) together, is having a hut put up for his own use, to belong to no one (else), must have it made of due measurement. And herein this is the measurement—in length twelve spans according to the accepted span, in breadth seven spans (measured) inside. The Bhikkhus must be brought to the place to approve the site; and those Bhikkhus shall approve a site free from danger, and with an open space around it. If a Bhikku shall, at his own request, have a hut put up on a dangerous site, without the open space around it, or shall not bring the Bhikkus to approve the site, or shall exceed the (due) measure—that is a Saṃghādisesa.
7. A Bhikkhu who is having a large residence made for his own use, and to belong (also) to others, shall bring the Bhikkhus to the place to approve the site; and those Bhikkhus shall approve a site free from danger, and with an open space around it. If a Bhikkhu shall have a large residence made on a dangerous site, without the open space around it, or shall not bring the Bhikkhus to the place to approve the site—that is a Saṃghādisesa.
8. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, in harshness, malice, or anger, shall harass (another) Bhikkhu by a groundless (charge of having committed) a Pārājika offence, thinking to himself, 'Perchance I may (thus) get him to fall from this religious life:—and then at some later time, either when he is pressed, or without his being pressed, the case turns out to be groundless, and the Bhikkhu confesses his malice—that is a Saṃghādisesa.
9. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, in harshness, malice, or anger, shall harass another Bhikkhu by a groundless charge of having committed a Pārājika offence, supporting himself by some point or other of no importance in a case that really rests on something of a different kind; thinking to himself, 'Perchance I may thus get him to fall from this religious life'—and then at .some later time, either when he is pressed, or without his being pressed, the case turns out to rest on something of a different kind, and that Bhikkhu confesses his malice-that is a Saṃghādisesa.
10. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall go about to cause division in a community that is at union, or shall persist in calling attention to some matter calculated to cause division, that Bhikkhu should thus be addressed by the Bhikkhus: 'Sir, go not about to cause division in a community that is at union,' or, 'Persist not in calling attention to a matter calculated to cause division;' 'Be, Sir, at one with the community, for the community, being at unity, in harmony, without dispute, dwells pleasantly under one authority.'If that Bhikkhu, when he has thus been spoken to by the Bhikkhus, should persist as before, then let that Bhikkhu be (formally) admonished about it by the Bhikkhus as a body, even to the third time, to the intent that he abandon that course. If, while being so admonished up to the third time, he abandon that course, it is well: if he abandon it not—that is a Saṃghādisesa.
11. Now if other Bhikkhus, one, or two, or three, become adherents of that Bhikkhu, and raise their voices on his side; if they should say thus: 'Say not, Sirs, anything against. that Bhikkhu! That Bhikkhu both speaks according to the Dhamma, and he speaks according to the Vinaya; it is our wish, too, and desire, that he adopts, and gives expression to; and he speaks, knowing that what he says appears to us also to be right:'—then let those Bhikkhus be addressed by the Bhikkhus thus: 'Say not so, Sirs! That Bhikkhu speaks not according to the Dhamma, neither does he speak according to the Vinaya. Let not, Sirs, the causing of division in the community be pleasing to you! Be, Sirs, at one with the community! for the community, being at unity, in harmony, without dispute, dwells pleasantly under one discipline.' If those Bhikkhus, when they have thus been spoken to by the Bhikkhus, should persist as before, those Bhikkhus should be (formally) adjured by the Bhikkhus, as a body, even to the third time, to the end that they abandon that course. If, while being so adjured, up to the third time, they abandon that course, it is well: if they abandon it not—that is a Saṃghādisesa.
12. Should a Bhikkhu refuse to listen to what is said to him; and when spoken to by the Bhikkhus, in accordance with the Dhamma, touching the precepts handed clown in the body of recited law, will allow nothing to be said to him (objecting), 'Say nothing to me, Sirs, either good or bad: and I will say nothing, either good or bad, to you. Be good enough, Sirs, to refrain from speaking to me!'—then let that Bhikkhu be addressed by the Bhikkhus thus: 'Do not, Sir, make yourself a person who cannot be spoken to: make yourself rather, Sir, a person to whom we can speak. Speak to the Bhikkhus, Sir, in accordance with the Dhamma; and the Bhlkkhus, Sir, will speak in accordance with the Dhamma to you. For thus has the church of the Blessed One grown large; that is to say, by mutual converse, and by mutual help.' If that Bhikkhu, when he has thus been spoken to by the Bhikkhus, should persist as before, then let that Bhikkhu be (formally) adjured by the Bhikkhus as a body, even to the third time, to the end that he abandon that course. If, while being so adjured, up to the third time, he abandon that course, it is well: if he abandon it not—that is a Saṃghādisesa.
13. Should a Bhikkhu dwell near a certain village or town, leading a life hurtful to the laity, and devoted to evil, (so that) his evil deeds are seen and heard, and the families led astray by him are seen and heard, let that Bhikkhu be spoken to by the Bhikkhus thus: 'Your life, Sir, is hurtful to the laity, and evil; your evil deeds, Sir, are seen and heard; and families are seen and heard to be led astray by you. Be so good, Sir, as to depart from this residence; you have dwelt here, Sir, long enough.' If, when that Bhikkhu is thus addressed by the Bhikkhus he should answer the Bhikkhus thus: 'The Bhikkhus are walking in longing, the Bhikkhus are walking in malice, the Bhikkhus are walking in delusion, the Bhikkhus are walking in fear; and, for a fault of a like nature, they send some away, and some they send not away:'—then that Bhikkhu should be spoken to by the Bhikkhus thus: 'Say not so, Sir! The Bhikkhus walk not in longing, the Bhikkhus walk not in malice, the Bhikkhus walk not in delusion, the Bhikkhus walk not in fear; and they send not some away, for a fault of a like nature, while they send others not away. Your life, Sir, is hurtful to the laity, and evil; your evil deeds, Sir, are seen and heard, and families are seen and heard, Sir, to be led astray by you. Be so good, Sir, as to depart from this residence; you have dwelt here, Sir, long enough.' If that Bhikkhu, when thus spoken to by the Bhikkhus should persist as before, that Bhikkhu should be (formally) adjured by the Bhikkhus as a body, even to the third time, to the end that he abandon that course. If, while beīng so adjured, up to the third time, he abandon that course, it is well: if he abandon it not—that is a Saṃghādisesa.
Venerable Sirs, the thirteen matters which require, as well in their earlier as in their later stages, formal meetings of the Order, have been recited; nine which become offences at once, and four which are not completed until the third admonition.
If a Bhikkhu have committed either one or other of these, for as many days as he knowingly conceals his sin, for so many days must that Bhikkhu, even against his will, remain in probation. When the probation is over, that Bhikkhu must, for six further days, undergo the Mānatta discipline (Penance). When the Penance has been removed, that Bhikkhu must be reinstated in some place where the community of the Bhikkhus forms a body of twenty. If a community of Bhikkhus forming a body of less than twenty, even by one, should reinstate that Bhikkhu, he is not reinstated, and that community is blameworthy. This is the proper course in that case.
In respect of them I ask the venerable ones, 'Are you pure in this matter?'
A second time I ask the venerable ones, 'Are you pure in this matter?'
A third time I ask the venerable ones, 'Are you pure in this matter?'
The venerable ones are pure herein. Therefore do they keep silence. Thus I understand.
Here endeth the recitation of the Saṃghādisesas.
Footnotes and references:
The expression is curious, but the authorites given (sub voce) are decisive as to its meaning. Whereas the Pārājika offences were dealt with in one meeting of the Order, these thirteen offences gave rise to the various Saṃghakammas (formai resolutions or proceedings at meetings of the Order), which are explained in detail in the third Khandhaka of the Cullavagga.
Otiṇṇo, literally, 'having gone down,' which the old commentator in the Vibhaṅga explains as 'lustfully, or with a mind bound by desire.' Our word 'degraded' has often a very similar connotation.
Vipariṇatena, literally, 'changed;' here 'changed for the worse.' Compare Mahā-sudassana Sut ta II, 39, and the Old Com- ment at Minayeff, p. 64.
Compare the second Aniyata.
Attakāmapāricariyā, perhaps 'to his lusts;' but we follow the old commentator.
Sugata-vidatthiyā. Dickson translates 'of the span of Buddha,' Sugata being one of the many epithets applied to the Buddha in poetry, or poetical prose. Mr. James D'Alwis in the Ceylon Asiatic Society's Journal for 1874 has a long article to show that this cannot be the correct meaning of the word 'Sugata' in this connection; and we think he is right, though his discussion as to what it does mean (evidently more than a simple span) seems to lead to no certain conclusion. The older Ceylon commentators take the expression as being equal to one and a half carpenter's cubits, a 'carpenter's cubit' (Siṃhalese Waḍu-riyana) being two ordinary cubits, so that 'the Buddha's span' (as they translate it) would be four feet and a half! But the Bhikkhus of the present day in Ceylon take it to be equal to the length of the supposed foot-print of the Buddha on Adam's Peak; that is, four ordinary cubits, or six feet. See Dickson's note; and compare Nissaggiya 15, and Pācittiya 87-92.
That is, either to living creatures (birds, ants, and so on) by clearing the site; or to the future resident after it is built. See the old commentator's note on Sārambha at Minayeff, p. 71.
'Sufficient for a cart drawn by a yoke of oxen to pass round it,' according to the old commentator.
Mahallaka. Compare Cullavagga VI, 11, 1.
In the text read, of course, Bhikkhu, not Bhikkhū.
I. e. to throw off the robes, to leave the Order.
Dosaṃ was probably meant here to refer to the doso at the beginning of the rule.
For instance, the Bhikkhu has seen that A, who is a Khattiya, has committed some offence. He says either that he has seen a Khattiya commit that offence, and thus harasses an innocent person; or he says that A has committed a Pārājika offence, whereas the offence is of a lesser nature.
Saṃgha; that is, the company of the Brethren dwelling in one place, or in one district.
Ekuddeso; that is, the authority of the rules recited in the Pātimokkha.
Samanubhāsitabbo. We think 'admonish' is not too strong a rendering of this term; and not inconsistent with the equality of the fraternity, as the admonition comes from the united body. The preposition sam need not imply a Saṃghakamma, which appears to have been necessary only after the Saṃghādisesa offence had been completed. We occasionally render the word by 'adjure.'
Dubbako is not 'unruly,' as Dickson has, following Childers, who gives 'abusive, unruly, violent.' It means rather 'difficult to reason with, averse to instruction.' Compare Jātaka I, 151, 152.
Sahadhammikaṃ, which is here adverbial; and where the Dhamma refers to the Rules, as is pointed out in the Introduction.
Uddesa-pariyāpannesu; uddesa being here practically the same as Pātimokkha.
Parisā, 'the retinue, the followers, the adherents,' referring here to the Saṃgha only.
In the text read vuṭṭhāpanena.
On the use of Pabbājeti in this sense comp. the 2nd Pār.
Literally, 'of which.' In the text there should be no full stop after yāvatatiyakā.
On the regulations respecting Parivāsa (Probation), see Cullavagga II, 1-3.
On the regulations respecting Mānatta (Penance), see Cullavagga II, 6-8.