The Manual of Insight
by Mahathera Ledi Sayadaw | 1915 | 21,831 words
The Vipassana-Dipani The Manual of Insight Or The Exposition Of Insight Honor to the Buddha By Mahathera Ledi Sayadaw, Aggamahapandita, D.Litt. Translated into English by Sayadaw U Nyana, Patamagyaw of Masoeyein Monastery Mandalay. Edited by The English Editorial Board...
a) The Seven Common Properties (Sabba cittaka), so called on account of being common to all classes of consciousness, viz:
- Phassa (contact)
- Vedana (feeling)
- Sañña (perception)
- Cetana (volition)
- Ekaggata (concentration of mind)
- Jivita (psychic life)
- Manasikara (attention)
b) The six Particulars (pakinnaka) so called because they invariably enter into composition with consciousness, viz:
- Vitakka (initial application)
- Vicara (sustained application)
- Viriya (effort)
- Piti (pleasurable interest)
- Chanda (desire-to-do)
- Adhimokkha (deciding)
The above thirteen kinds (a) and (b) are called Mixtures (vimissaka), or better, as rendered by Shwe Zan Aung "Un-morals", as they are common to both moral and immoral consciousness in composition.
c) The fourteen Immoral’s (papa-jati), viz:
- Lobha (greed)
- Dosa (hate)
- Moha (dullness)
- Ditthi (error)
- Mana (conceit)
- Issa (envy)
- Macchariya (selfishness)
- Kukkucca (worry)
- Ahirika (shamelessness)
- Anottappa (recklessness)
- Uddhacca (distraction)
- Thina (sloth)
- Middha (torpor)
- Vicikiccha (perplexity)
d) The twenty-five Morals (kalayana-jatika), viz:
- Alobha (disinterestedness)
- Adosa (amity)
- Amoha (reason)
- Saddha (faith)
- Sati (mindfulness)
- Hiri (modesty)
- Ottappa (discretion)
- Tatramajjhattata (balance of mind)
- Kayapassaddhi (composure of mental properties)
- Cittapassadhi (composure of mind)
- Kayalahuta (buoyancy of mental properties)
- Cittalahuta (buoyancy of mind)
- Kayamuduta (pliancy of mental properties)
- Citta muduta (pliancy of mind)
- Kayakammannata (adaptability of mental properties)
- Cittakammannata (adaptability of mind)
- Kayapagunnata (proficiency of mental properties)
- Cittapagunnata (proficiency of mind)
- Kayujkata (rectitude of mental properties)
- Cittujukata (rectitude of mind)
- Sammavaca (right speech)
- Sammakammanta (right action)
- Sammaajiva (right livelihood)
(The immediately preceding three are called the Three Abstinences)
- Karuna (pity)
- Mudita (appreciation)
(The last two are called the two Illimitable’s or Appamanna).
- Phassa means contact, and contact means the faculty of pressing the object (arammana), so as to cause the agreeable or disagreeable sap (so to speak) to come out. So it is the main principle or prime mover of the mental properties in the uprising. If the sap cannot be squeezed out, then all objects (arammana) will be of no use.
- Vedana means feeling, or the faculty of tasting the sapid flavor thus squeezed out by the phassa. All creatures are sunk in this vedana.
- Sañña means perception, or the act of perceiving. All creatures become wise through this perception, if they perceive things with sufficient clearness in accordance with their own ways, custom, creed, and so forth.
- Cetana means volition or the faculty of determining the activities of the mental concomitants so as to bring them into harmony. In the common speech of the world we are accustomed to say of one who supervises a piece of work that he is the performer or author of the work. We usually say: "Oh, this work was done by So-and-so", or "This is such and such a person's great work". It is somewhat the same in connection with the ethical aspects of things. The volition (cetana) is called the doer (kamma), as it determines the activities of the mental concomitants, or supervises all the actions of body, of speech, and of mind. As every kind of prosperity in this life is the outcome of the exertions put forth in work performed with body, with speech and with mind, so also the issues of new life or existence are the results of the volition (asynchronous volition is the name given to it in the Patthana, and it is known by the name of Kamma in the actions of body, speech and mind) performed in previous existences. Earth, water, mountains, trees, grass and so forth, are all born of Utu, the element of warmth and they may quite properly be called the children or the issue of the warmth- element. So also living creatures may be called the children or the issue of volition, or what is called Kamma-dhatu, as they are all born through Kamma.
- Ekaggata means concentration of mind. It is also called Right Concentration (samádhi). It becomes prominent in the Jhanasampatti the attainment of the supernormal modes of mind called Jhana.
- Jivita means the life of mental phenomena. It is pre-eminent in preserving the continuance of mental phenomena.
- Manasikara means attention. Its function is to bring the desired object into view of consciousness.
- These seven factors are called Sabba-cittika, Universal Properties, as they always enter into the composition of all consciousness.
- Vitakka means the initial application of mind. Its function is to direct the mind towards the object of research. It is also called Sankappa (aspiration), which is of two kinds, viz., Sammasankappa or Right Aspiration, Micchasankappa or Wrong Aspiration.
- Vicara means sustained application. Its function is to concentrate upon objects.
- Viriya means effort of mind in actions. It is of two kinds, right effort and wrong effort.
- Piti means pleasurable interest of mind, or buoyancy of mind or the bulkiness of mind.
- Chanda means desire-to-do, such as desire-to-go, desire-to-say, desire-to-speak, and so forth.
- Adhimokkha means decisions, or literally, apartness of mind for the object; that is, it is intended to connote the freedom of mind from the wavering state between the two courses; "Is it?" or "Is it not?"
- These last six mental properties are not common to all classes of consciousness, but severally enter into their composition. Hence they are called Pakinnaka or Particulars. They make thirteen if they are added to the Common Properties; and both, taken together are called Vimissaka (mixtures) as they enter into composition both with moral and immoral consciousness.
- Lobha ethically means greed, but psychically it means agglutination of mind with objects. It is sometimes called Tanha (craving), sometimes Abhijjha (covetousness), sometimes Kama (lust) and sometimes Raga (sensual passion).
- Dosa in its ethical sense is hate, but psychically it means the violent striking of mind at the object. It has two other names i.e. Patigha (repugnance), and Byapada (ill-will).
- Moha means dullness or lack of understanding in philosophical matters. It is also called Avijjha (nescience), Annana (not knowing) and Adassana (not-seeing).
- The above three just mentioned are called the three Akusalamula, or the three main immoral roots, as they are the sources of all immoralities.
- Ditthi means error or wrong seeing in matters of philosophy. It takes impermanence for permanence, and non-soul for soul, and moral activities for immoral ones; or it denies that there are any results of action, and so forth.
- Mana means conceit or wrong estimation. It wrongly imagines the name-and-form (nama-rupa) to be an "I", and estimates it as noble or ignoble according to the caste, creed, or family, and so on, to which the person belongs.
- Issa means envy, or disapprobation, or lack of appreciation, or absence of inclination to congratulate others upon their success in life. It also means a disposition to find fault with others.
- Macchariya means selfishness, illiberality, or unwillingness to share with others.
- Kukkucca means worry, anxiety, or undue anxiousness for what has been done wrongly, or for right actions that have been left undone. There are two wrongs in the world, namely, doing sinful deeds and failing to do meritorious deeds. There are also two ways of representing thus "I have done sinful acts", or "I have left undone meritorious acts, such as charity, virtue, and so forth." "A fool always invents plans after all is over", runs the saying. So worry is of two kinds, with regard to viciousness, to sins of omissions and sins of commission.
- Ahirika means shamelessness. When a sinful act is about to be committed, no feeling of shame such as "I will be corrupted if I do this", or "Some people and Devas may know this of me", arise in him who is shameless.
- Anottapa means utter recklessness as regards such consequences, as Attanuvad-abhaya (fear of self-accusations like: "I have been foolish; I have done wrong", and so forth), Paranuvadabhaya (fear of accusations by others); Dandabhaya (fear of punishments in the present life inflicted by the rulers); Apayabhaya (fear of punishments to be suffered in the realms of misery).
- Uddhacca means distraction as regards an object.
- Thina means slothfulness of mind; that is, the dimness of the mind's consciousness of an object.
- Middha means slothfulness of mental properties that is, the dimness of the faculties of each of the mental properties, such as contact, feeling and so forth.
- Vicikiccha means perplexity, that is, not believing what ought to be believed.
- The above fourteen kinds are called Papajati or Akusala-Dhamma, in fact, they are real immoralities.
- Alobha means disinterestedness of mind as regards an object. It is also called Nekkhama-dhatu (element of abnegation or renunciation), and Anabhijha (liberality).
- Adosa, or amity in its ethical sense means inclination of mind in the direction of its object, or purity of mind. It is also called Abyapada (peace of mind), and Mettá (loving-kindness).
- Amoha means knowing things as they are. It is also called Nana (wisdom), Paññá (insight), Vijjha (knowledge), Samma-ditthi (right view).
- These three are called the three Kalayana-mulas or the three Main Moral Roots as they are the sources of all moralities.
- Saddha means faith in what ought to be believed. This is also called Pasada (transparence).
- Sati means constant mindfulness in good things so as not to forget them. It is also called Dharana (Retention), and Utthana (readiness).
- Hiri means modesty, which connotes hesitation in doing sinful acts through shame of being known to do them.
- Ottappa means discretion, which connotes hesitation in doing sinful deeds through fear of self-accusation, of accusation by others, or of punishments in spheres of misery (apayabhaya).
- Tatramajjhattata is balance of mind, that is to say, that mode of mind, which neither cleaves to an object nor repulses it. This is called Upekkha-brahmavihara (equanimity of the Sublime Abode) in the category of Brahmavihara; and Upekkhasambojjhanga (equanimity that pertains to the factors of Enlightenment) in the Bojjhanga.
- Kayapassaddhi means composure of mental properties.
- Cittapassaddhi means composure of mind. By composure it is meant that the mental properties are set at rest and become cool, as they are free from the three Immoral (Papa-Dhamma), which cause annoyance in doing good deeds.
- Kaya-lahuta means buoyancy of mental properties.
- Citta-lahuta means buoyancy of mind. By buoyancy it is meant that the mental properties become light, as they are free from the Immoral’s, which weigh against them in the doing of good deeds. It should be explained in the same manner as the rest.
- Kaya-muduta means pliancy of mental properties.
- Citta-muduta means pliancy of mind.
- Kaya-kammannata means fitness of work of mental properties.
- Citta-kammannata means the fitness of the mind for work.
- Kaya-pagunnata means proficiency of mental properties.
- Citta-pagunnata means proficiency of mind. Proficiency here means skillfulness.
- Kayujukata means rectitude of mental properties.
- Cittajukata means rectitude of mind.
- Samma-vaca means Right Speech, that is abstinence from the fourfold sinful modes of speech i.e. lying, slandering, abusive language and idle talk.
- Sammakammanta means Right Action, that is abstinence from the threefold sinful acts, i.e. killing, stealing, and un-chastity.
- Samma-ajiva means Right Livelihood. These three Samma-vaca, Samma-kammanta and Samma-ajiva are called the Triple Abstinences.
- Karuna means pity, sympathy, compassion or wishing to help those who are in distress.
- Mudita means appreciation of, or congratulation upon or delight in the success of others.
These two are respectively called Karuna-brahmavihara and mudita-brahma-vihara.
They are also called Appamanna (Illimitable’s) according to the definition "Appamanesu sattesu bhava ti Appamanna", that is: "Appamanna is so called because it exists without limit among living beings."
- Nibbána may be classified into three kinds, viz: First Nibbána, Second Nibbána and Third Nibbána.
- Freeing or deliverance from the plane of misery is the First Nibbána.
- Freeing or deliverance from the plane of Kama-loka is the Second Nibbána.
- Freeing or deliverance from the planes of Rupa-loka and Arupa-loka is the Third Nibbána.
Consciousness one, Mental Properties fifty-two, Nibbána one, altogether make up fifty-four Mental Phenomena.
Thus the twenty-eight material phenomena and 54 mental phenomena make up 82 ultimate things, which are called Ultimate Facts. On the other hand, Self, Soul, Creature, Person and so forth, are Conventional Facts.