The Buddhist Philosophy of Relations
by Mahathera Ledi Sayadaw | 1935 | 21,602 words
The Patthanuddesa Dipani The Buddhist Philosophy of Relations By Mahathera Ledi Sayadaw, Aggamahapandita, D.Litt. Translated into English by Sayadaw U Nyana, Patamagyaw of Masoeyein Monastery Mandalay. Edited by The English Editorial Board Note to the electronic version: This electronic version is reproduced directly from the printed version the...
The twelve path-constituents are the paccaya-Dhammas in this relation of Magga. They are: -- Right Views, Right Aspiration, Right Speech, Right Action, Right Livelihood, Right Endeavor, Right Mindfulness, Right Concentration, Wrong Views, Wrong Aspiration, Wrong Endeavor, and Wrong Concentration. There are, however, no distinct mental properties to which to assign the terms Wrong Speech, Wrong Action and Wrong Livelihood. These are but other names for the four immoral aggregates (akusala-khandha), which appear under the names of lying and so forth. Therefore they are not taken as distinct path-constituents. All classes of consciousness and mental concomitants conditioned by hetu, and all material qualities in coexistence with the hetu-conditioned mind are paccayuppanna-Dhammas.
In what sense is magga to be understood? It is to be understood in the sense of path, that is, as the means of reaching the realm of misfortune or the realm of Nibbána. The eight path-constituents (Right Views, and so on) lead to Nibbána. The four wrong path-constituents lead to the realm of misfortune.
Now the functioning of jhana is to make the mind straight, steadfast, and ecstatic  in the object. "Ecstatic mind" means mind that sinks into the kasina-object, and so forth, like a fish in deep water. The functioning of magga is to make kammic volition in the "way-in" to the circle of existence and bhavanic volition in the "way-out" of the circle, straight and steadfast, issue in a course of action, develop, flourish and prosper, and reach a higher plane. This is the distinction between the two relations.
Here, the kammic volition, which can produce a rebirth--since it has worked out in moral and immoral acts such as taking life, and so forth is spoken of as kammapathapatta. And the bhavanic volition, which arrives at the higher stages, that is, proceeds from the sensuous stage to the transcendental one, through a succession of higher and higher stages, by the power of an orderly succession of training-practices (bhavananukamma), even within the brief period occupied by one bodily posture, is spoken of as bhummantarapatta.
To understand this relation, the characteristic mark of each of the path-constituents should also be separately explained in the manner shown in the Relation of Jhana.
[End of the Magga-Relation]
Footnotes and references:
Standing out of, or going beyond, its normal mode.