The Mahavastu (great story)

by J. J. Jones | 1949 | 502,133 words | ISBN-10: 086013041X

This page describes rolling of the wheel which is Chapter XXX of the English translation of the Mahavastu (“great story”), dating to the 2nd-century BC. This work belongs to the Mahasanghika school of early Buddhism and contains narrative stories of the Buddha’s former lives, such as Apadanas, Jatakas and more..

Chapter XXX - The rolling of the wheel

Note: It is to be noted that the course of the narrative hitherto followed in our text breaks off here, and the story takes a fresh start with the insertion of an independent sūtra (sutta), identical to all intents and purposes with the Dhammacakkapavattana-vaggo as found in S. 5. 420 ff., which purported to give both the historical occasion and the content of the First Sermon. In the Mahāvagga (V. 1.10 ff.) the sermon takes its place in the narrative immediately after the account of the events which led up to it. In Lal. Vist., (416 ff.) also, the sermon is part of the consecutive narrative, although it is preceded by an account, peculiar to this text, of the many prodigies which intervened upon the Buddha’s decision to preach the dharma.

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Exalted One was staying in Benares, in the Deer Park at Ṛṣivadana.[1] There (331) the Exalted One addressed the venerable five monks, saying, “Monks.” “Lord,” said they in reply. Then the Exalted One said to the monks, “There are these two extremes to which a man who has gone forth to the religious life is liable.[2] What two? There is the addiction to sensual enjoyment among the pleasures of sense, which is loutish,[3] common,[4] un-Aryan, profitless, not conducing[5] to brahma-life in the future, to disgust with the world,[6] to passionlessness, to cessation, to the state of a recluse, to enlightenment, and to nirvana. Then there is addiction to mortification of the self, which is evil, un-Aryan, and profitless. These, monks, are the two extremes to which a man who has taken up the religious life is liable. Avoiding these two extremes, monks, by[7] the Tathāgata’s Āryan dharma and discipline is the middle course, which is the way of the Buddhas,[8] and confers insight, conduces to calm, to disgust with the world, to passionlessness, to cessation, to the state of a recluse, to enlightenment, and to nirvana.

“And what, monks, is this middle course fully awakened to by the Tathāgata[9] in his Āryan dharma and Discipline, which confers insight and knowledge and conduces to calm, to disgust with the world, to passionlessness, to cessation, to the state of a recluse, to enlightenment, and to nirvana? It is the Āryan eightfold Way, that is to say, right belief, right purpose, right endeavour, right action, right living, right speech, right mindfulness, right concentration. This, monks, is the middle course fully awakened to by the Tathāgata in his Āryan dharma and discipline, which confers insight and conduces to calm, to disgust with the world, to passionlessness, to cessation, to the state of a recluse, to enlightenment, and to nirvana.

“Now, monks, there are these four Āryan truths.[10] What four? They are the Āryan truth of ill, the Āryan truth of the uprising of ill, the Āryan truth of the stopping of ill, and the Āryan truth of the course that leads to the stopping of ill. (332) And what, monks, is the Āryan truth of ill? It is this, namely, that birth is ill, old age is ill, disease is ill, death is ill, association with what is not dear is ill, separation from what is dear is ill, failure to get what one wants and seeks is ill, body is ill, feeling is ill, perception is ill, the samṣkāras are ill, consciousness is ill, in a word all the five skandhas of grasping at material things are ill.[11] This, monks, is the Āryan truth of ill.

“Then what is the Āryan truth of the uprising of ill? That it is the craving which leads to further existence[12] and which is bound up with the passion for pleasure, finding delight in this and that—this, monks, is the Āryan truth of the uprising of ill.[13]

“Then what is the Āryan truth of the stopping of ill? That it is the utter extinction of this craving which is bound up with the passion for pleasure, finding delight in this and that; it is passionlessness, cessation, self-sacrifice, renunciation, and surrender.[14] This, monks, is the Āryan truth of the stopping of ill.

“Then what is the Āryan truth of the course that leads to the stopping of ill? That it is the Āryan eightfold Way, namely, right belief, right purpose, right speech, right action, right living, right endeavour, right mindfulness and right concentration—this, monks, is the Āryan truth of the course that leads to the stopping of ill.

“From the truth[15] ‘This is ill,’ by whole-hearted attention[16] to things unheard of before,[17] there arose in me knowledge, vision, understanding, wisdom, intelligence[18] and insight, and light appeared.

“From the truth ‘This is the uprising of ill,’ by wholehearted attention to things unheard of before, there arose in me knowledge, vision, understanding, wisdom, intelligence, sagacity[19] and insight, and light appeared.

“From the truth ‘This is the stopping of ill,’ by wholehearted attention to things unheard of before, there arose in me knowledge, vision, understanding, wisdom, intelligence, sagacity (333) and insight, and light appeared.

“From the truth ‘This is the course that leads to the stopping of ill,’ by whole-hearted attention to things unheard of before, there arose in me knowledge, and so on to[20] light appeared.

“At the thought[21] that this Āryan truth of ill must be thoroughly known,[22] by whole-hearted attention to things unheard of before, there arose in me knowledge and so on to light appeared.

“At the thought that this which is the Āryan truth of the uprising of ill[23] must be given up, by whole-hearted attention to things unheard of before there arose in me knowledge and so on to light appeared.

“At the thought that this which is the Āryan truth of the stopping of ill has been realised, by whole-hearted attention to things unheard of before, there arose in me knowledge and so on to light appeared.

“At the thought that this which is the Āryan truth of the course leading to the stopping of ill has been made-to-become, by whole-hearted attention to things unheard of before, there arose in me knowledge and so on to light appeared.

“And, monks, as long as I did not with perfect insight fully know[24] these four truths, which are three-fold and of twelve modes,[25] as they really are, so long could I not claim to be thoroughly awakened to the supreme perfect enlightenment, so long did knowledge not arise in me, and so long did I not realise an unshakeable freedom of heart. But when, monks, I did with perfect insight fully know these four truths, which are three-fold and of twelve modes, as they really are, then was I aware that I had awakened to the supreme perfect enlightenment; knowledge then came to me, and I realised unshakeable freedom of heart, and freedom through intuitive wisdom.”

Thus did the Exalted One speak while he was staying in Benares in the Deer Park at Ṛṣivadana. And at this discourse[26] the venerable Ājñātakauṇḍinya acquired the unimpaired and unblemished pure dharma-insight into things, (334) as did[27] also eighteen koṭis of devas. Then did this great earth quake violently. In six ways, like a fallen leaf it trembled and shook.[28] The eastern extremity rose, the western sank; the western extremity rose, the eastern sank; the southern extremity rose, the northern sank; the northern extremity rose, the southern sank; the centre sank, the extremities rose; the extremities sank, the centre rose. Then there appeared in the world an infinite radiance, surpassing the splendour of devas, of Nāgas and of Yakṣas. And the regions between the worlds, regions of darkness wrapped in darkness, regions of blackness wrapped in blackness, gloomy regions, unfathomed, never before fathomed, where the moon and sun, powerful and majestic though they be, with all their brilliance cannot make their brilliance prevail, with all their light cannot spread[29] their light—these regions were suffused with that radiance.[30] Some beings who had been reborn in those regions were able to see one another in the light of that radiance, and they exclaimed, “Lo, other beings have been reborn here. Lo, other beings have been reborn here.” For that moment, for that instant all beings were lapped in entire well-being, even those who had been reborn in the great hell of Avīci.

The devas of earth raised a shout and made the noise of it heard. “Behold, friends,” cried they, “in Benares, in the Deer Park at Risivadana, the Exalted One has set rolling the incomparable wheel of dharma, which is thrice-revolved and twelve-fold[31] and which can not be rolled[32] in accordance with dharma[33] by any recluse or brahman or deva, by Māra or by any one else in the world again. This will be for the welfare and happiness of mankind, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit, welfare and happiness of the great multitude of devas and men. The hosts of the Asuras will wane; the hosts of the devas will wax.”

(335) When they had heard the shout of the devas of earth, the Caturmahārājika devas raised a shout and made the noise of it heard. And so did the devas of Trāyastriṃśa, the Yāma devas, the Tuṣita devas, the Nirmāṇarati devas, and the devas of Brahmā’s world. “Behold, friends,” cried they, “in Benares, in the Deer Park at Ṛṣivadana, the Exalted One has set rolling the incomparable wheel of dharma which is thrice-revolved and twelve-fold, and which can not be rolled in accordance with dharma by any recluse or brāhman or deva, by Māra or by anyone else in the world again. This will be for the welfare and happiness of mankind, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit, welfare and happiness of the great multitude of devas and men. The hosts of the Asuras will wane; the hosts of the devas will wax.”

The venerable good group of five were elated and they applauded the words of the Exalted One.

The Exalted One, fully enlightened and having realised the aim he had set himself, was staying in Benares, teaching devas and men.[34] And he addressed the venerable good group of five, saying, “Monks, body is not the self; feeling is not the self; perception is not the self; the saṃskāras are not the self; consciousness is not the self. If, monks, the body were the self,[35] it would not be liable to affliction and ill, and one could[36] say at will in regard to the body, “Let my body become thus; let my body not become thus.” But since the body is not the self, therefore, monks, it is liable to affliction and ill, and one cannot[37] say at will, “Let my body become thus; let my body not become thus.”

“If this feeling, monks, were the self, it would not be liable[38] to affliction and ill and one could say at will[39] in regard to the feeling, “Let my feeling become thus; let not my feeling become thus.” But inasmuch, monks, (336) as feeling is not the self, it is liable to affliction and ill, and one cannot say at will, “Let my feeling become thus, let not my feeling become thus.”

“If, monks, this perception were the self, it would not be liable[40] to affliction and ill, and one could say at will[41] in regard to perception, “Let my perception become thus, let not my perception become thus.” But inasmuch, monks, as perception is not the self, therefore it is liable to affliction and ill, and one cannot say at will in regard to perception, “Let my perception become thus.”[42]

“If,[43] monks, the saṃskāras were the self, they would not be liable[44] to affliction and ill, and one could say at will in regard to the saṃskāras, “Let my saṃskāra[45] become thus, let not my saṃskāra become thus.” But inasmuch, monks, as the saṃskāras are not the self, they are liable to affliction and ill, and one cannot say at will, “Let my saṃskāras become thus, let not my saṃskāras become thus.”

“If, monks, consciousness were the self, it would not be liable[46] to affliction and ill, and one could say at will[47] in regard to consciousness, “Let my consciousness become thus, let not my consciousness become thus.” But inasmuch, monks, as consciousness is not the self, therefore it is liable to affliction and ill, and one cannot say at will, “Let my consciousness become thus, let not my consciousness become thus.”

“Therefore, monks, on this point,[48] you must teach yourself thus: Whatever is body, internal or external, gross or fine, base or choice, far or near, past, future or present, it must be seen as it really is in the light of right knowledge, namely, that all this body is not mine, is not I, is not my self. What ever is feeling, whatever is perception, whatever are saṃskāras, whatever is consciousness, internal or external, gross or fine, (337) base or choice, far or near, past, future or present, all this consciousness is not mine, is not I, is not my self. Thus must you see it as it really is in the light of perfect knowledge.”

Thus did the Exalted One speak when he was staying in Benares, in the Deer Park at Ṛṣivadana. And while this discourse was being delivered the heart of the venerable Ājñātakauṇḍinya was rid of the āśravas, grasping no more at existence,[49] and the four other monks, Aśvaki, Bhadrika, Vāṣpa and Mahānāma, won the unimpaired and unblemished pure dharma-insight into things, as also did thirty koṭis of devas.

The venerable good group of five were elated, and they applauded the words of the Exalted One.

The Exalted One, perfectly enlightened and having achieved the aim he had set himself, was staying in Benares, in the Deer Park at Ṛṣivadana. And there the Exalted One addressed the monks,[50] saying, “If you think of it, monks, from what source do grief, lamentation, ill, despair and tribulation spring? Whence do they have their birth and origin?”

When this had been said, the venerable good group of five replied[51] to the Exalted One, “Coming-to-be, Lord, is the source of things; coming-to-be is their conduit;[52] coming-to-be is their cause; coming-to-be is their mainstay.[53] Well would it be if the Exalted One explained to the monks the meaning of this. The monks hearing it and grasping it from the lips of the Exalted One will hold it to be the truth.”

When this had been said, the Exalted One replied to the good group of five, saying, “Monks, grief, lamentation, ill, despair and tribulation have their source in body; body is their birth and origin. They have their source in feeling, in perception, in the saṃskāras and in consciousness; these are their birth and origin.

“If you think of it, monks, is body permanent or impermanent?” “Surely it is impermanent, Lord.” (338) “Now when you have recognised the impermanence of body, its instability, its frailty,[54] its changeableness, its evanescence, and its perishableness, then the āśravas which arise because of body, the vexations and troubles, feverish and baneful, involving other existences in the future, birth, old age and death, will stop. When body[55] is stopped, the āśravas arise no more, nor the vexations and troubles, feverish and baneful, involving other existences in the future, nor birth, old age and death.

“If you think of it, monks, are feeling, perception, the saṃskāras and consciousness permanent or impermanent?” “Surely they are impermanent, Lord.” “Well said, monks. Now when you have recognised the impermanence of consciousness,[56] its instability, its frailty, its changeableness, its evanescence and its perishableness, then the āśravas which arise because of consciousness, the vexations and troubles, feverish and baneful, involving other existences in the future, birth, old age and death, will be stopped, suppressed, eliminated[57] and brought to an end.[58] When these[59] are stopped, then the āśravas which arise from consciousness,[60] the vexations and troubles, feverish and baneful, involving other existences in the future, birth, old age and death, which have their birth and origin in consciousness, no more arise.

“Therefore, monks, on this point you must teach yourselves thus: whatever is body, internal or external, gross or fine, base or choice, far or near, past, future or present, all this body is not mine, it is not I, it is not my self. Thus must you teach yourselves. Whatever is feeling, perception, the saṃskāras, and consciousness, internal or external, gross or fine, base or choice, far or near, past, future or present, all these are not mine, they are not I, they are not my self. Thus must you look on things as they really are in the light of perfect knowledge.”

Thus did the Exalted One speak when he was staying in Benares, in the Deer Park at Ṛṣivadana.[61] And while this discourse was being delivered the venerable Ājñāta Kauṇḍinya attained mastery of the powers.[62] The hearts of the four other monks, (339) Aśvaki, Bhadrika, Vāṣpa and Mahānāma were rid of the āśravas, grasping no more at existence, and five koṭis of devas won the unimpaired, unblemished pure dharma-insight into things.

The venerable good group of five were elated and they applauded the words of the Exalted One.

The Exalted One, perfectly enlightened and having achieved the aim he had set himself, was staying in Benares, in the Deer Park at Ṛṣivadana. Now on that occasion three monks went into Benares to beg for alms. Then the Exalted One, controlling[63] with his own heart the hearts of those monks, exhorted and instructed them, saying, “Thus act with your minds; thus direct your minds; think these thoughts. Live, monks, with the self and no other as your island;[64] live with the self and no other as your haven; live with the dharma as your island, with the dharma and no other as your haven. Then, monks, those living with the self and no other as their island, with the dharma as their island, with the dharma and no other as their haven, must carefully investigate the source from whence grief, lamentation, ill, despair and tribulation arise, their birth and their origin.”

When this had been said, the monks replied to the Exalted One, “Coming-to-be,[65] Lord, is the source of things; coming-to-be is their conduit; coming-to-be is their cause; coming-to-be is their mainstay. Well would it be if the Exalted One explained to the monks the meaning of this. The monks hearing it and catching it from the lips of the Exalted One will hold it to be the truth.”

Then the Exalted One said to the monks, “Grief, lamentation, ill, despair and tribulation have their source in body; body is their birth and origin.

“If you think of it, monks, is body permanent or impermanent?” “Surely it is impermanent, Lord.” “Well said, monks. Now when you have recognised the impermanence of body, its weakness, its frailty, its changeableness, its evanescence (340) and its perishableness, then the āśravas which arise because of body, the vexations and troubles, feverish and baneful, involving other existences in the future, birth, old age and death, will stop.

“If you think of it, monks, are feeling, perception, the saṃskāras and consciousness permanent or impermanent?” “Surely they are[66] impermanent, Lord.” “Well said, monks. Now when you have recognised the impermanence of consciousness, its weakness and its frailty, the āśravas etc.,[67] are stopped, suppressed, eliminated and brought to an end. When these[68] are stopped the āśravas arise no more, and the vexations and troubles, feverish and baneful, involving other existences in the future, birth, old age and death, are stopped. For consciousness is the source of the āśravas, the vexations and troubles, feverish and baneful, involving other existences in the future, birth, old age and death; consciousness is their birth and origin.

“Therefore, monks, you must teach yourselves thus on this point: Whatever is body, internal or external, gross or fine, base or choice, far or near, past, future or present, all this body is not mine, it is not I, it is not my self. Thus must you look on it as it really is in the light of perfect knowledge.”

Thus did the Exalted One speak when he was staying in Benares, in the Deer Park at Ṛṣivadana. And when this discourse was delivered three monks[69] achieved mastery of the powers and eighty koṭis of devas won the unimpaired, unblemished clear dharma-insight into things.

The monks were elated and they applauded the words of the Exalted One.

Then[70] on the twelfth day of the second fortnight of the month Āṣāḍha,[71] the Exalted One, after his midday meal, sat down with his face to the east. When the sun’s shadow was half a man’s length and the asterism Anurādha[72] in the ascendant, at that instant he set rolling[73] the peerless wheel of dharma. Now the wheel that exalted Buddhas set rolling is not of gold, nor of silver, nor of pearl, nor of beryl, nor of crystal, nor of white coral, nor of ruby, (341) nor of brass, nor of copper, nor of bronze, nor of wood, nor of clay. But the thrice-revolved and twelve-fold wheel of dharma consists of the four Āryan truths.

When the sūtra of “setting the wheel rolling” was first delivered the venerable Ājñāta Kauṇḍinya acquired the unimpaired, unblemished clear dharma-insight into things, as did also eighteen koṭis of devas. Then this great earth shook, trembled, quaked, quivered, vibrated and rocked in six ways. It rocked[74] on the right hand, it rocked on the left, it rocked on the left and the right.[75] There was something thrilling in this quaking,[76] something beautiful, joyful, amiable, exhilarating, refreshing,[77] cheerful, assuring, gladdening,[78] causing no misgiving nor fear. For while this great earth quaked, it destroyed no life whatever, whether animal or plant.[79] And through the power of the Exalted One an infinite radiance was shed in the world, surpassing the splendour of devas, Nāgas and Yakṣas. And the regions between the worlds, regions wrapped in darkness, regions of blackness wrapped in blackness, gloomy regions, impenetrable, never before penetrated,[80] where the moon and sun, splendid and powerful though they be, with all their brilliance cannot make their brilliance prevail,[81] with all their light cannot spread their light,—these regions became suffused with this radiance. And the beings who had been reborn there were able to recognise one another. “Lo”, cried they, “other beings have been reborn here; other beings have been reborn here.” Those beings for that moment and for that instant were lapped in entire well-being, even those who had been reborn in the great hell of Avīci.

While he was setting the wheel of dharma rolling the Exalted One (342) made his voice as he spoke[82] resound through the sixty-one universes of thrice thousand great thousand worlds and the Buddha-fields beyond. And the exalted Buddhas who at that time were teaching dharma to their assemblies in the other universes fell silent when the Exalted One set rolling his wheel of dharma.

The perfect Buddha Duṣprasaha was teaching dharma to his assembly and he became silent when the sound of a Buddha’s voice went forth. His astonished assembly asked Duṣprasaha, “Lord, the sound of a Buddha’s voice goes forth, and as it goes forth the world-saviour Duṣprasaha becomes silent. The assembly is astonished. For while the sweet voice of the cuckoo is heard even at the same time as the distant rumble of the thunder-cloud, the Exalted One,[83] a prince of speakers, speaks not when this sound of a Buddha’s voice goes forth.”

Duṣprasaha replied:

O Mahānāma,[84] in that world yonder a Conqueror, a Śākyan sage, sets rolling the wheel of dharma. It is the sound of his voice that goes forth.

He shouts through countless thousands of worlds and the sound of the voice[85] of the nobly intelligent One is heard both far and near.

Such is his majesty that the perfect Buddha, who fulfils all desires, distributes[86] his gifts to those who wish for enlightenment.[87]

The voice with which the Tathāgata, Arhan and perfect Buddha was endowed when, in Benares, in the Deer Park at Ṛṣivadana, he set rolling the thrice-revolved and twelve-fold peerless wheel of dharma, had sixty qualities.[88] What sixty? The voice of the Tathāgata was deep, awe-inspiring, understandable, (343) reaching the heart, amiable, charming, irresistible,[89] flowing, agreeable, faultless, unbroken, even,[90] unblemished, like the sound of a chariot-wheel, like the roar and rumble of a thunder-cloud, like the soughing of the wind, like the patter of rain, like the voice of a deva, like the voice of Brahmā, pleasant, unspoilt, not confused, moderate, not excessive, firm, significant, truthful, glorious, like the voice of a bull, a lion, an elephant, a steer, a thoroughbred horse,[91] like the voice of a curlew, a sparrow, a cuckoo, resonant, lovely, a voice of understanding, constant, a voice full of understanding and gentleness, a voice with a wide range, full of native goodness, truthful in every detail, full of the native root of goodness, full of real ease, thrilling, like the sound of a stringed instrument, of song, of music, of the drum, a man’s voice, a superb voice, like the sound of the kettle-drum, a matchless voice, a Tathāgata’s voice. The Tathāgata’s voice permeates all quarters; nowhere is it obstructed. The voice, then, that the Tathāgata was endowed with when, in Benares, he set rolling the thrice-revolved and twelve-fold wheel of dharma, had these sixty qualities.

Then on that occasion Great Brahmā extolled the Exalted One in his presence in these fitting verses.[92]

By the very choicest of beings, by the scion of Ikṣvāku’s line, the whole earth is made to tremble as he sets rolling the wheel of dharma.

Then, indeed, by the might of the wheel of dharma eighty terrible portents arose and also eighty earth-born demons,[93] Clouds consisting of waves of bright flowers arose and swept down on Kāśi’s Benefactor, the Saviour, the Man Supreme.

(344) Clouds like elephants with swaying trunks[94] arose, aweinspiring masses, full of golden shells and laden with flowers.

When he heard that the Lion-man had at length appeared in his dharma body[95] Sanatkumāra[96] reflected and said, “I will sing the praises of the Tathāgata.”

He, Brahmā, in his aerial home, then lauded him who beholds all good and is distinguished[97] by his native brilliance and splendour.

“O Gotama, thou dost hurl thy thunderbolt[98] as thou sittest here, and makest to tremble the three thousandfold world that is full of precious stones and surrounded by an ocean of Buddhas.[99]

“O Best of men,[100] when thou dost hurl thy consummate weapon, the ten quarters all around are visibly shaken.

“Uprooting the errors lurking in the thicket of false belief he shines as a king of Nāgas, a foremost Lord of men, a lion-hearted Conqueror,[101]

“Like a fearless lion lying in his mountain lair, filling all his foes with fear, shines forth the lion-hearted Conqueror.

“Smiting Mara’s troops, routing Mara’s ranks, scattering[102] them with thy right hand, thou dost raise thy Conqueror’s banner.”[103]

The wealth-bearing earth quaked to the rattling of its many precious stones,[104] for it rises up when it remembers that speaking voice.[105]

Devas standing in Meru’s sky from all sides showered wreaths on the Sage, the supreme being whose radiance is golden.[106]

(345) Sumanas,[107] with devotion in my heart, my joined hands raised[108] and doing obeisance,[109] I have come hither because I have heard of the wheel of dharma.

When the Exalted One first delivered the sūtra of “setting the wheel of dharma rolling,” Ājñāta Kauṇḍinya and eighteen koṭis of devas were converted. And the devas went to their own homes carrying the tidings[110] to the deva worlds.

“There is no safety in the skandhas, but torment and great fear. There is no freedom in them[111]: they are worthless.” This does Gotama declare.

Enough talk of faith, sir.[112] With an insight into the meaning of truth, go[113] to salute the Buddha who makes hate and fear things of the past.

Thirty koṭis of devas then came to Ṛṣivadana, and they were converted when the second sūtra of “setting the wheel of dharma rolling” was delivered. They then went to their own homes bearing the tidings[114] with them. On hearing these fifty, koṭis of devas came, and they were converted when the Exalted One delivered the sūtra of “setting the wheel of dharma rolling” the third time. They then went to their homes bearing the tidings to the deva worlds. On hearing these, eighty koṭis of devas came and these were converted when the Exalted One delivered the sūtra of "setting the wheel of dharma rolling” the fourth time. They then went to their own homes bearing the tidings to the deva worlds.

Then a deva of Tuṣita, named Śikharadhara, recited these verses of praise before the Exalted One at Ṛṣivadana.[115]

Hail to thee, hail to thy beauty. Thy radiance extends a full fathom. Hail to thy profitable, successful and charming speech.

(346) Hail to thee who art devoted to aversion from the world and art endowed with the virtue of absolute non-attachment.[116] Hail to the Four Truths. O Sage, it is the truth that thou dost proclaim.

Hail to thee. The devas and Gandharvas imbibe thy sweet song. Hail to thee. Thou hast set rolling the matchless wheel that may not be rolled back.

In all the world there is none thy equal in form, in beauty and in birth, in deportment, in energy, in meditation, nor yet in knowledge.

O valiant Sage, this day at thy first teaching[117] eighteen[118] koṭis of devas were led to the first fruition.

At thy second teaching, O valiant Friend, thirty koṭis more of devas were led to the first fruition.

At thy third teaching fifty koṭis more of devas were converted and saved from states of woe.

At thy fourth[119] teaching eighty koṭis more of devas were led to the fruit of winning the stream and saved from spheres of ill.

Hence is there none like thee in love, O Man supreme, so merciful with compassion, O fearless, valiant Man.

O joy! Thou wert born a boon to the world, O tiger-like Man, to confer blessings on all beings, O long-living great Sage.[120]

A short while ago[121] thou wert born the son of a king, O bulllike Man, to be a guide of the lost, to give sight to the blind.[122]

May the teacher who is now with us never disappear.[123]

(347) May thy stability have no limit, O Guide of the world. By thy majesty, O Self-becoming One, states of desolation are brought to an end.[124] Through thee, O Man supreme, heaven is made completely full.[125]

Thanks to thee, O valiant Man supreme, he who belongs to the class of people whose wrong-doing is fixed in its consequences achieves the class where no consequences are entailed.[126]

Thanks to thee, O thou that art extolled of Suras, he who belongs to the class where actions entail no consequences achieves the class where righteousness is fixed in its consequences.

O Man of light, thanks to thee, the steadfast dispeller of darkness, the growth[127] of wondrous states is won.

Whilst thou speakest of these true states, O beloved of men,[128] the worlds of men and of Indra extol thy voice, O great Sage.

Thus with gladsome hearts[129] did the hosts of devas laud the beneficent One who is endowed with boundless virtue, the Caravan-leader,[130] the Man Supreme.

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

See Vol. I, p. 37 n.

[2]:

All this is expressed in the text by the three words dvāvimaū pravrajitasya antau, “there are these two extremes of (= for) one who has gone forth.” The Pali texts have dve’me antā pabbajiíena na sevitabbā, “these two extremes are not to be followed by one who has gone forth.” Lal. Vist., 416, says dvāvimaū pravrajitasyāntāvakrāmau, “these two extremes beset one who has gone forth.” I. B. Horner, op. cit., 15, n. 3, cites the interesting remark of MA. 1. 104—“the Way does not lead to, does not approach these sides, it is freed from these sides, therefore it is called the middle course.” The reader is referred to the rest of Miss Horner’s notes on this passage and also to Mrs. Rhys Davids: Manual, p. 109. E. J. Thomas, op. cit., p. 87, gives a translation of the sutta from S. 5. 420.

[3]:

Grāmya, "belonging to the village.” Miss I. B. Horner cites SA. 3. 297 which explains by gāmavāsinam. santako, “belonging to village dwellers.” She herself suggests “boorish.”

[4]:

Prāthujjanika, Pali pothujjanika. Lal. Vist., 416, has pārthagjanika. Cf. BSk. prithagjana, Pali puthujjana.

[5]:

This and the rest of the description of the first extreme is also, with slight differences, given in Lal. Vist., but not in the Pali texts.

[6]:

Nirvidā, BSk. Pali, nibbidā; Sk. nirvid.

[7]:

Literally, “in” (loc. case).

[8]:

Pratipadā anubuddhā. In the Pali texts, however, instead of tathāgatasya depending on dharmavinaye (not in the Pali), we have tathāgatena, instr., to be construed with the past part, abhisambuddhā, i.e. the course to which the Tathāgata has fully awakened. Lal. Vist. differs greatly here from both the Mhvu. and the Pali texts.

[9]:

Here we have tathāgatena abhisambuddhā. See preceding note.

[10]:

As in Lal. Vist., 417. The Pali texts go straight on to the definition of each of the truths, without explicitly saying that they are four.

[11]:

The Pali texts do not name the five skandhas, as is done here and in Lal. Vist., 417.

[12]:

Paunarbhavika, Pali ponobbhavika.

[13]:

The Mhvu. and Lal. Vist. 417 do not add the further definition of tṛṣṇā (taṇhā), namely, kāmataṇhā bhavataṇhā vibhavataṇhā given at V. 1.10 and 5. 5. 421.

[14]:

The phraseology here differs from that in the Pali texts. It has tṛṣṇāye... aśeṣakṣayo “the utter extincton of craving,” amplified by the explanatory substantives virāgo nirodho, etc. The Pali has taṇhāya... asesavirāganirodho, i.e., “the utter and passionless stopping of craving,” followed by the other substantives governing the genitive taṇhayā. Lal. Vist. 417 is similar to the Mhvu., but adds two adjectives in further qualification of tṛṣṇā namely, janikā and nivartikā.

[15]:

Or “thinking”—iti. The Mhvu. and Lal. Vist. do not here add āryasatyam to correspond to the ariyasaccam of the Pali texts.

[16]:

Yoniśo manasikārā(ṭ), so also Lal. Vist. 417. But the words do not appear in the Pah texts.

[17]:

Literally “among things, etc.,” locative case. It would make for simplicity here if yoniśo manasikārā could be taken with idam duḥkhaṃ iti, thus, “by whole-hearted attention to (the truth that) “this is ill” there arose in me concerning things unheard of before knowledge, etc.” But the position of the two words after purve ananuśrutehi dharmehi seems to be against this interpretation.

[18]:

Bhūri, BSk., also at Lal. Vist. 417. Pali bhūrī.

[19]:

Medhā. Not in the first series.

[20]:

Yāvad. Lal. Vist. 417 uses peyālam.

[21]:

Iti. This rendering is more suitable here, especially as each truth is defined by āryasatyam.

[22]:

In the Pali texts these gerundival sentences follow directly upon the statement of each of the truths. Lal. Vist. 418 has the same arrangement as the Mhvu.

[23]:

I.e., “craving,” tṛṣṇā, which is the Āryan truth of the uprising of ill. The translation follows I. B. Horner, op. cit., p. 17. A too literal rendering would give “the Āryan truth of the uprising of ill must be given up.” The same is the case with the Pali texts (V. 1.11 and S. 5. 422). Mrs. Rhys Davids (K.S. 5, p. 358 n.) would, accordingly, omit ariyasaccam in this particular sentence.

[24]:

Abhyajñāsiṣam, a regular Sk. aorist, a form unusual in the Mhvu.

[25]:

In the Pali texts and in Lal. Vist. 418 the statement of each of the four truths is followed by two amplifications. Thus, of the first it is said that it “was to be known” and then that it “was known”. The second (that is the “craving”) was “to be given up” and “was given up”; the third was “to be realised” and “was realised,” and the fourth was “to be made-to-become” and “was made-to-become.” The Mhvu., however, omits four of these amplifications, which in their totality make three stages or “folds” for each truth, or twelve " modes” in all. Triparivartam and dvādaśākāram appear in our text as though they were in apposition to catvāryāryasatyāni. But they are really adjectives, and in the Pali texts they qualify ñāṇadassanam, i.e., “the vision of knowledge of (literally ‘in’—imesu catusu ariyasaccesu) these four truths” (so also in Lai Vist.). It would seem as though in the Mhvu. the word jñānadarśanam has been accidentally omitted, or it may be that the formula was too well known to need particular care about its correct statement. These two adjectives came afterwards to be applied to the dharmacakra itself. See Mhvu., passim.

[26]:

Vyākaraṇa, Pali veyyākaraṇa, “called at DA. 130 a sutta (discourse) without verses.” (I. B. Horner, op. cit., 17,11. 4). The Mhvu. has vyākaraṇe (loc.) only, where the Pali texts have the loc. absolute veyyākaraṇasmiṃ bhaññamāne.

[27]:

The text, of course, repeats the whole statement. The Pali texts here have no allusion to the conversion of the devas.

[28]:

Vedhati, sampravedhati. Cf. Pali vedhati *vethati, vyathati. See also B.H.S.D.

[29]:

Or “flash, make manifest.” The text has sphurati, but it may be better to read, with one MS., spharati, which serves for a causal stem for sphurati and is thus a more apposite form to use with the cognate accusative ālokam. It is also the reading in the parallel passages at 1. 240 and 2. 162. The expression is not found in the parallel passage at 1. 41.

[30]:

Cf. vol. 1, p. 35 and notes there.

[31]:

Triparivartam dvādaśākāram, which, as has been seen (p. 326, n. 3) are really applicable to jñānadarśanam or knowledge of the four truths. When applied to dharmacakram they have to be rendered in slightly different terms.

[32]:

Apravartyam. The Pali texts have appaṭivattiyam, “not to be rolled back”.

[33]:

Saha dharmeṇa. Although in the text put at the end of the sentence this phrase must be taken adverbially with apravartyam. Owing to its strange position the whole expression punarloke sahadharmeṇa has on its previous occurences been construed in translation with the following clauses. (See vol. 1. 33 (= 39 trans.), 277 (= 330) and Vol. 2. I3§ = 132). In the present passage, however, it is definitely final as it is in Lal. Vist. 104. It does not occur in the Pali versions of this formula, but is found in Nett. 169 in another connection. See B.H.S.D.

[34]:

Here again, the Mhvu. continues the narrative by introducing bodily a whole sūtra complete with the nidāna, or “occasion,” with which it was the fashion to introduce such sūtras. In the Mahāvagga this second “sermon” is separated from the first by the account of the conversion and ordination of each of the five monks in succession. Then that text goes on to give the second “sermon” as part of the consecutive narrative. In the Mhvu., however, it has all the marks of a sūtra which was current at the time of the compilation of our text, either separate, or already as much a part of a collection of sūtras as the corresponding Pali sutta was part of the Saṃyutta Nikāya (S. 3. 66 ff.). This second utterance as such is not found in Lal. Vist., being replaced there (418 ff.) by a number of traditional (hence introduced by the words tatredamucyate) gāthās more or less on the same subject. As Windisch, op. cit., p. 24, points out, however, these gāthās are not without some relation to the text of the Mahāvagga.

[35]:

In V. 1.12 and S. 3.66, the arguments in support of each thesis immediately follow the statement of it.

[36]:

The text has ṛddhyācca (ṛdhyāt-ca) rūpe kāmakārikatā. Senart renders the latter compound by “la libre production de” or “la libre disposition sur,” i.e., “the free power (‘to say’ being implied in the following words, in spite of the absence of iti) would thrive” (ṛddhyāt, potential of ṛddhyati). The Pali texts have simply labbhetha “you could say.” Edgerton (B.H.S.D.) renders “one could make what he pleased in regard to his form”.

[37]:

Ṛddhyati, indicative here in accordance with the sense.

[38]:

Reading saṃvarteta, potential, (as in preceding paragraph) for the indie. saṃvartati.

[39]:

Ṛddhyā (for ṛddhyāt see Edgerton, Gram. § 29. 42.) kāmakārikatā.

[40]:

The text has bhavati, which must be considered an error for saṃvarteta.

[41]:

Ṛddhyati, indie., instead of the regular potential ṛddhyāt.

[42]:

The negative clause is omitted in the text.

[43]:

The three words, saṃskārā bhikṣavaḥ ābādhāya, at the beginning of this sentence are obviously out of place.

[44]:

Saṃvartanti, indie., where the pot. saṃvarteyus would be rightly expected.

[45]:

Singular.

[46]:

Saṃvartati, indie, again for the pot.

[47]:

Ṛddhyet, pot. according to the first conjugation.

[48]:

Iha, “here”.

[49]:

Anupādāya, “without grasping” or “clinging to” (existence).

[50]:

This discourse on the impermanence of the skandhas is here given the form of a separate sūtra, which is introduced by a similar device as the first Avalokita-sūtra (vol. 2, 257, text, = 2. 242 trans.) That is to say, the monks are said to have invited the Buddha to pronounce the discourse. In the Mahāvagga (V. 1. 14) and S. 3.66, however, the discourse is given immediately after the discourse on the “not-self” without any preamble.

[51]:

Uvācat, a hybrid form intermediate between perf. uvāca and aor. avocat. So Senart. See Edgerton Gram. § 33. 10.

[52]:

Senart’s difficulty over the form netrika (netraka) seems to be due to a misunderstanding. There is here no statement by the monks as to what constituted bhavanetri (see vol. 2, 206, 307 (text) and cf. Pali bhavanetti). That was to be explained by the Buddha in his discourse. Here the monks merely make the empiric observation that “things (dharmā) have existence as their conduit” (bhavanetrikā). The conduit to existence itself is a deeper problem.

[53]:

Pratiśaraṇa “shelter,” “protection.”

[54]:

Prabhaṅguṇatā, BSk. Cf. Pali adjs. pabhaṅgu, pabhaṅguṇa, pabhaṅgura. The text form is Senart’s emendation of the MS. prabhaṅguratā (-latā). See B.H.S.D. s.v.

[55]:

The text has teṣāṃ nirodhāt “from the stopping of these,” where teṣām can, grammatically, only refer to the plural antecedent āśravas. But the sentence goes on to add na utpadye āśravas, i.e., as the text stands the argument is that the knowledge of the impermanence of the body brings about the cessation of the āśravas and that from the cessation of these [sc. the āśravas] the āśravas do not arise. It seems imperative, therefore, that teṣām be changed into tasya, i.e. tasya rūpasya.

The argument then runs:

“when one realises the impermanence of body the āśravas which arise because of body will stop. When that (sc. body) stops the āśravas do not arise.”

That the recognition or realisation of the impermanence of the skandhas leads automatically to their destruction is a well-known Buddhist doctrine. See, e.g., S. 3. 60, 131 f.; A. 2. 45, 90; 4. 153.

[56]:

The discourse is abridged here by limiting the argument to the last thesis.

[57]:

Prahāṇaṃ gacchanti “go to an abandonment.”

[58]:

Astam (gacchanti) “set, disappear, vanish.” Cf. rūpassa... viññāṇassa atthaṅgamo, S. 2.28f.

[59]:

Teṣām is correct here, for the reference is to the last four skandhas.

[60]:

And, of course, because of the other skandhas.

[61]:

This sūtra on the impermanence of the skandhas has a closer resemblance to the latter half of the Attadīpa-sutta of S. 2. 42 than to the discourse on the same subject in the Mahāvagga (V. 1.14) and the Pañca-sutta at 5. 5. 66. The first part of the Attadīpasutta is given in the following sūtra of the Mhvu. But S. locates the delivery of it at Sāvatthī. It should be noted also that each of the sūtras into which the “second sermon” is divided in the Mhvu. has an allusion to the effect the preaching of it had on the five monks. The Pali texts, having only two separate discourses, refer to them only twice.

[62]:

I.e., the balāni of an ārya-śrāvaka. See vol. 1, p. 43, n. 2.

[63]:

Adhiṣṭhāya, from adhitiṣṭhati, with the implication that the control was supernatural. See B.H.S.D. s.v. adhitiṣṭhati.

[64]:

Ātmadvīpa. See vol. 2, p. 280 n. 1.

[65]:

This is a repetition of the preceding sūtra.

[66]:

In the text the answer refers to consciousness (vijñāna) only and the argument goes on to deal with the impermanence of this last one of the four skandhas. But, of course, the same answer and argument apply to all the four.

[67]:

The whole of the antecedent clause, ye vijñānapraiyayā utpadyanti āśravā, etc., is omitted in the text. Just so much of it is given in translation to make the argument intelligible.

[68]:

Sc. the four particular skandhas mentioned in this paragraph.

[69]:

Reference to “three” monks here may be a reminiscence of the tradition preserved in M. 1. 173 and V. 1. 13, according to which the Buddha discoursed on the enlightenment and dharma to three of the five monks, while the other two were away seeking alms, and then to the two while the three were absent.

[70]:

Another independent account of the rolling of the wheel of dharma is added here.

[71]:

June-July.

[72]:

Vijaya. This is also “the name of a particular Tithi or lunar day (third, eighth or thirteenth)” M.W. But the day has already been said to be the twelfth.

[73]:

Reading pravartesi for the ungrammatical pravartitam.

[74]:

Abhidhyāyati in the text. This is Senart’s restoration, but he is, of course, hard put to it to fit this verb, which normally means “to covet,” into the context. It is impossible to conceive how any of its figurative developments could produce the sense required here. Senart can only ask “marque-t-il un mouvement, un sobresaut violent?” Emendation seems clearly to be called for, and it is suggested that the right reading is some compound of vyath, the root which actually appears in the BSk. and Pali vedhati and its compounds in the preceding sentence. The MSS. vary between abhiv- and adhiv-; neither adhivyati nor abhivyati seems, however, to be known to the dictionaries. One MS. reads adhivyāyati. Edgerton (B.H.S.D.). explains the verb abhidhyāyati as a compound of dhyāyati, from Pali jhāyati, the verb which, in its causative form, is used in our text for “to cremate (See 1. 126, 302, 304, 357; 2. 78, 174). The “burning” of the earth, however, is not usually a part of the stock account of earthquakes in our text. Just at the point where this verb occurs we are generally told of the rising and sinking of the earth in the various quarters. Besides, the “burning” would seem to be particularly out of place here, for express mention is made of the harmlessness of the earthquake.

[75]:

This gives only three ways of quaking, instead of the six alluded to (ṣaḍvikāram). Also, there is a variation from the stock description of these earthquakes.

[76]:

See Vol. I, p. 164, n. 1.

[77]:

Nirvāpanīya. So B.H.S.D.

[78]:

Reading prasaraṇīya (see Vol. 1, p. 164, n. 2) for prasadanīya.

[79]:

Trasaṃ vā sthāvavaṃ, corresponding to jaṅgamaṃ sthāvaraṃ vā of the corresponding passage at 1. 207 (text). Cf. trasasthāvarā (3. 386) and Pali tasāthavarā.

[80]:

Aghā asambhūtā asambhūtapūrvā. Asambhūta here is taken as the past participle pass, of a-sambhuṇati, a special form of sambhavati in the sense of “to reach”, “to be able to”. (See Vol. I, p. 35, n. 3). The corresponding phrase in the parallel passage at 1.41 is aghā asamviditā asamviditapūrvā “dark regions unknown, unknown before,” at 1. 240 it is aghā aghasambhūtapūrvā “dark regions produced of yore from dark regions” (Trans, p. 106—” eternal darkness”); at 2. 162 it is aghā asamviditapūrvā as in the first example. See Vol. I, p. 35, n. 2.

[81]:

Abhisambhuṇanti. See preceding note.

[82]:

Literally “makes resound with his speaking voice”, bhāṣamāṇasvareṇa abhivijñāpeti. For this use of abhivijñapayati, “make perceptible” and so “make to resound”, see B.H.S.D., s.v., and the examples there quoted.

[83]:

Sc. Duṣprasaha.

[84]:

The spokesman of the assembly; not, of course, to be identified with any of the persons of this name already met with. We have here a piece of Buddhist mythology concerning the Buddha of a different universe.

[85]:

Ghoṣa, to be supplied from the context as the subject of śrūyati.

[86]:

Literally, “rolls out”, pravarteti; keeping up the metaphor of rolling the wheel of dharma.

[87]:

The episode of Duṣprasaha ends abruptly here, and seems to have been related only in order to introduce the following description of the Buddha’s voice.

[88]:

This list of qualities is comparable, but far from identical, with the list in 1. 170-2 (134-6, trans.).

[89]:

Aprativāṇiya. BSk., cf. Divy. aprativāṇiḥ and Pali appaṭivāṇīya, grd. of a -paṭi -vṛ (See P.E.D.) B.H.S.D. gives it the meaning of “not repellent”.

[90]:

Aprāgbhāra, Senart’s restoration of apabhāra and apadbhāra of the MSS. Cf. Pali apabbhāra, “not slanting or sloping” (P.E.D.). The B.H.S.D. prints the word with a (?) and says of it, “Perhaps level, even, without descents or drops(?) Pali apabbhāra is used of a body of water having even or smooth banks, without steep slopes.” The corresponding adjective in Vol. 1. 171 would seem to be anamanti “not bending” (“even”, trans. p. 135). Perhaps it would be better to render both words more literally, thus, “not bending”, “not sloping”, “not prone to” (sc. hastiness).

[91]:

Ājāneyasvara.

[92]:

The eulogy of Brahmā’s actually begins with the 7th stanza.

[93]:

The text has bhūmijā, “earthborn”, only. It is not clear what phenomenon is referred to here.

[94]:

Literally “with outstretched limb”. pramuktāṅgin. This simile would seem to confirm the explanation in the B.H.S.D. of gajaśvasana at 1. 216 (= 2. 19) as meaning “elephant’s trunk” and equivalent to AMg. gayasasaṇa. The translation (Vol. 1, p. 172 and 2, p. 17) unfortunately has followed Senart’s misinterpretation of śvasana as meaning “the vapour of the elephant’s breathing.”

[95]:

Literally “that the dharma-body of the Lion-man had appeared.” The Buddha assumed such a body or became dharma incarnate when he won enlightenment. For the identification of Buddha with dharma, see vol. 1, p. 192 n. 4. Dharmakāya may, formally, be related to the later doctrinal development which represented the Buddha as having three bodies, dharmakāya, sambhogakāya and nirmāṇakāya (see B.H.S.D. for references), but there is nothing to indicate that the Mhvu. itself knew of such a doctrine. In Pali this compound expression is an adjective, meaning “he whose body is the dharma”, that is, he who is in every way identical with dharma, and therefore different from those whose body is material form (rūpakāya) only. The same usage is found in BSk., e.g. AsP. 513, na hi tathāgato rūpakāyato draṣṭavya, dharmakāyās tathāgatāḥ. But BSk. also uses dharmakāya as a substantival compound, again in antithesis to rūpakāya. B.H.S.D. says of this that it is “perhaps to be rendered spiritual body(?).” But it would seem simpler and truer to say that dharmakāya, in our text at any rate, merely means a body or personality so informed, or even reformed, by the dharma that henceforth it is radically and essentially different from the crude physical body (rūpakāya).

[96]:

I.e. Great Brahmā. See D.P.N.

[97]:

Suvijānita, apparently an anomalous form of suvijñāta. The MSS. have an infinitive form, which is inconstruable. Now see Edgerton, Gram. § 34. 10, for another example of jānita.

[98]:

Vajira, Pali id., Sk. vajra. A metaphor for spreading the doctrine.

[99]:

Sc. in the various Buddha-fields.

[100]:

Reading puriṣottama for -m.

[101]:

Literally “a conqueror whose sphere or career is a lion’s”, siṃhagatirjina.

[102]:

Vyūhanta, from vi-ud-han. So Senart, comparing samūhata 1.506 (text).

[103]:

Great Brahmā’s eulogy ends here, but the compiler or compilers of the Mhvu., forgetting that it was just this only that they meant to quote, add some other verses from this, otherwise unknown, metrical version of “the turning of the wheel.”

[104]:

Mahāratananirghoṣā. Or does this mean “(the earth) famed for its great riches”?

[105]:

Svareṇa vadatotthāpyānusmṛtā. The above seems to be the only feasible translation of this phrase. But, though Senart does not remark on it, the text must be regarded as very doubtful, especially as the line is a syllable short. The construing of it is difficult, almost impossible. It seems necessary to take the causative utthāpya in a radical sense, while anusmṛtā, on the contrary, has to be given a causal sense equivalent to that of anusmaritā. For anusmṛtā one MS. reads anuṣṛtā, which could, perhaps, give “(rising) in consequence of (that speaking voice)”. For utthāpya the two MSS. quoted in the apparatus have uttadya, which provides no safe clue to a certain restoration. The line would be construable and would give a clear meaning if we could read svareṇa vadatonnatāvanatā, “the earth rising and sinking at (= when it heard) that speaking voice”, Unnamati and avanamati are the verbs usual in our text to describe the behaviour of the earth when it quakes. But this emendation also leaves the line a syllable short. Alternatively, one might suggest svareṇa vadatā tadāniścaratā “at that speaking voice which then went forth”.

[106]:

Senart admits that the text here is “infiniment problématique”. In the translation “devas” has been taken to be implied in merugaganamāśritā. Dhātum is unusual if not unique in the sense of “being”, and it would seem to be necessary to emend dhātum uttamam into sattvam uttamam (in apposition to munim), unless we actually have here a unique example of dhātu = sattva. (Cf. the compound sattvadhātu, which, however, according to B.H.S.D., means “a number of beings,” and is not an abstract compound equivalent to the simple concrete sattva). Senart takes dhātum as being for lokadhātum, and explains the accusative as being dependent on samantā (= samantād), “from all sides of the world.” But then it would be difficult to explain the adjective uttamam “supreme” as qualifying (loka)dhātum. In the text the verb abhikirensu has no secondary object to denote with what “they bestrewed the sage”. Uttamāḥ has, therefore, been tentatively emended into uttaṃsāṃ. “wreaths”, although this word is not found elsewhere in our text in this connexion. Alternatively, we might suggest uttamāṃ. “upper garments”. Cf. Vol. 2, p. 24-5 (text) where we read of devas taking off their upper garments (uttariya there) and waving them in honour of the Buddha.

[107]:

Presumably one of the devas alluded to in the preceding verse. But as we have here only a fragment of a longer narrative the allusion must remain obscure, just as is that to Mahānāma in the same passage, above p. 337. An alternative interpretation would be to take sumano as an adjective and understand all the verses from the ending of the eulogy onwards as being Great Brahmā’s description of the scene at the turning of the wheel. This verse would then read, “with devotion in my heart, and glad, etc., I have come hither after hearing of the wheel of dharma.”

[108]:

Prāñjali, adjectival here as at Sn. 1031, with compositional i for ī, for the more usual prāñjalīkṛta.

[109]:

Praṇatendriyaḥ—“with bent or bowed senses, i.e., body.”

[110]:

Ārocentā, pr. part, of ārocayati, āroceti, BSk. and Pali, “to tell, announce.”

[111]:

Lit. “they (the skandhas) are not freed,” aniḥśṛta.

[112]:

Bhavān, nom. for voc.

[113]:

Abhikramatha, pl. for sg.

[114]:

Rocentā for ārocentā. Cf. Vol. 1, p. 394, n. 4.

[115]:

But the compiler in quoting these verses from some source or other, did not begin his quotation at quite the appropriate place. Inadvertently he has started off with verses in which it is Brahmā and not Śikharadhara that eulogises the Buddha, but he immediately recollects himself, after giving only half a śloka of the verse introducing Brahmā’s words. This line is omitted from the translation. In vol. 1, p. 174 these verses of Śikharadhara are spoken in praise of the Buddha’s voice.

[116]:

This line is difficult. The text reads sādhu aratisaṃyogah sarvasandhiguṇānvitaḥ. Senart combines the two compounds into one word, taking the initial a to negate the whole. He renders “le détachment de la person-nalité dont les chaînes sont faites de tous les liens des naissances accumulées.” He comments, however, “l’expédient est, même pour ce style, beaucoup trop violent pour que j’y aie grande confiance.” It is perhaps, better to make a slight emendation and read (for sarvasandhi-) sarvāsandhi-, that is, “every non-attachment.” The expression then approximates to sarvadharmūnām... asandhi, “emancipation of all states of being,” in Lank. 160. 11 (quoted in B.H.S.D. s.v. sandhi) where asandhi is expressly the synonym of parimocana. This suggested emendation has been adopted in translating. The corresponding words in vol. 1, p. 174 are, of course, modified to suit their application to vāca.

[117]:

Reading śāsane, here and in the immediate sequel, for āsane of the text. The former is the reading at 1.174.

[118]:

Vol. 1, p. 174 has hṛṣṭā daśa “ten (kotis) were thrilled”, for aṣṭādaśā.

[119]:

This has inadvertently become “third” in the translation of Vol. 1, p. 138.

[120]:

The passage at 1.175 here speaks of Bodhisattvas, with a corresponding modification of language.

[121]:

Acirasya. Vol. 1. 175 has aticirasya, “a very long while ago”.

[122]:

Andhānāṃ nayanaṃ dadā. Vol. I, 175 has ārttānāṃ nayanandanam.

[123]:

Nāsmāsu kadācidbhūtvā gururantarahāyatu. Vol. 1. 175 has mā kadācidbhūtaguru nātho antarahāyatu.

[124]:

? Antībhūtā. Vol. 1. 175 has tanukībhūtā. Edgerton (B.H.S.D.) would retain the MS. reading kiṃbhūtā, “become what” = “destroyed”.

[125]:

Nirākāśa “having no (free) space.” This seems to confirm the correctness of Senart’s restoration of the MS. anākāsā at 1.175 into anokāśā “having no sufficient space,” Pali anokāsa. Cf. B.H.S.D.

[126]:

See Vol. 1, p. 138 (trans.), nn. 4, 5.

[127]:

Vivṛddhi. Vol. 1. 175 has viśuddhi.

[128]:

Janapriya. Vol. 1. 176 has jinarṣabha.

[129]:

Reading prītimānasā, as at 1.176, for prītimānasam.

[130]:

Sārthavāha. Vol. I. 176 has saṃstavārha “worthy of praise.”

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