The Mahavastu (great story)

by J. J. Jones | 1949 | 502,133 words | ISBN-10: 086013041X

This page describes after the enlightenment which is Chapter XXIV of the English translation of the Mahavastu (“great story”), dating to the 2nd-century BC. This work belongs to the Mahasanghika school of early Buddhism and contains narrative stories of the Buddha’s former lives, such as Apadanas, Jatakas and more..

Chapter XXIV - After the enlightenment

After the Exalted One had awakened to the incomparable enlightenment, he sat for seven days on his bed of straw at the foot of the bodhi tree with his legs crossed. “Here,” said he, “at the bodhi tree I won pre-eminence (273) after seven days, woke up to enlightenment, and reached the end of the jungle and wilderness of birth, old age and death. Here I broke Māra of the lusts.[1] Here I broke Māra the deva.

Here I realised the vow made by me an infinite incalculable kalpa ago. Here at the foot of the bodhi tree. . .[2]

For a full seven days[3] the perfect Buddha, the monument of the whole world, after awakening to the supreme enlightenment, did not rise from his seat.

Thousands of koṭis of devas assembled in the sky, and for a full seven nights poured down a shower of blossoms. Blue lotuses, red lotuses, campaka, and white lotuses, lovely, thousand-petalled and brilliant, did the devas then rain down.

And Māra was then confounded, and with his staff he wrote on the ground; “Vanquished am I by the deva of devas, by the mighty Śākyan lion.”

The Trāyastriṃśa devas, the Yāma devas, the Tuṣita devas, the Nirmāṇarati devas, the Paranirmitavaśavartin devas, devas who still abide in a world of sensuous delights, scattered in the sky celestial showers of blossoms, red sandalwood, celestial aloe and campaka.

A celestial powder of jewels rained down from the sky. This Buddha-field was spread[4] all over with a rain of flowers the size of a dice.

Thousands of koṭis of Brahmas assembled in the sky, and poured down a fine[5] powder of celestial red sandal-wood.

With the devas of earth were self-luminous Śuddhāvāsa devas; (274) every place, from one quarter to another, swarmed with devas.

The air was filled with sunshades, flags and banners, as they rendered highest honour to the glorious perfect Buddha. A rich radiance was shed wherewith the Buddha-field was suffused. The highest parts of the world-system became the colour of fire.

The hells became tranquil in the rays of the Buddha;[6] bodies became cool,[7] and all were happy.

Those who had worked out their hellish penalty of woe, on passing away from the hells,[8] were forthwith rehorn among the devas.

In Saṃjīva, Kālasūtra, Tapana, Pratāpana and Raurava, the fire was quenched by the rays of the Saviour of the world.

In Avīci and in Saṃghāta and in the separate hells, everywhere was the fire quenched by the rays of the Saviour of the world.

In all those separate hells that are in the world-systems, the fire was quenched by the rays of the Saviour of the world.

Those who in the sphere of the brutes were wont to feed on gory flesh, were filled with love by the Buddha, and did no harm to one another.

The bodhi tree was adorned with sunshades, banners and flags, and covered with minarets fashioned[9] by the devas.

All around on the ground away from the bodhi tree were stumps of trees,[10] rough earth,[11] gravel and pebbles.

(275) But the bodhi throne was surrounded by bejewelled ground which the devas fashioned in the centre[12] of the Buddha-field.

Thousands of devas stood on the ground, carrying censers and worshipping the Guide of the world.

All the ground beneath[13] was covered with lotuses the colour of Jāmbunada gold, which sprang up through the power of the Buddha.

And the beings who were afflicted with the ill of disease,[14] and were defenceless and helpless, became whole and happy, bathed in the rays of the Buddha.

Those blind from birth gained sure sight and were able to see objects. They spoke to one another of the mighty One who had won enlightenment.

Passion, hate and folly were done with[15] when enlightenment was won by the Śākyan Lion, the great Seer.

Palaces and fair mansions, gabled and delightful, all turned towards the mighty Bodhisattva.

All men and women in the Buddha-field turned towards the bodhi tree of the great Seer.

Devas, male and female, deva sons and fair deva maidens all turned towards the bodhi tree of the great Seer.

Nāgas, Gandharvas, Yakṣas, Kumbhāṇḍas and Rākṣasas all turned towards the bodhi tree of the great Seer.

Young boys and young girls arose from their beds[16] and

(276) stood and turned towards the bodhi tree of the great Seer.

All gems of precious stones, celestial and rare, ornaments of devas, turned thitherwards.

The jewels of Nāgas, Yakṣas, Piśācas and Rākṣasas turned towards the immovable bodhi tree.

The mansions of devas, Nāgas, Yakṣas and Rākṣasas turned towards the bodhi tree of the great Seer.[17]

Anklets, bracelets and armlets turned towards the immovable bodhi tree[18] of the Buddha who had won enlightenment,

Necklaces worn[19] on the neck and lovely strings of pearls, the adornments of human beings, all turned towards the immovable bodhi tree.

Strings of pearls, brilliant adornments, earrings of gems, draperies[20] and signet-rings all turned towards the immovable bodhi tree.

All the inconceivable beings in the Buddha-field, wittingly or unwittingly, turned towards the immovable bodhi tree.

Cool winds, fragrant and delightful, blew[21] all around the Buddha-field of the Mighty One who had won enlightenment.

The love of an only son[22] and the constant obedience of one beloved by his parents were there.[23]

All the devas in the Buddha-field, Nāgas, men, Asuras, Kinnaras and Yakṣas gazed upon their Guide.

(277) Carrying censers they all stood there in happiness, and worshipped the Light of the world as he stood[24] on the bodhi throne.

With joined hands uplifted they adored and praised him in verse. They did honour to the Buddha as they stood near the bodhi throne.

All beheld him seated there, the light-bringing Saviour of the world; no one perceived him standing at a distance, even of a fathom’s length.

No one in the world beheld the Buddha from behind, but all the quarters saw him face to face.

No one beheld the Guide of the world from the left or from the right, but all beheld the great Hero straight in front.

Forthwith incense was burnt in the Buddha-field and all the confines of the Buddha-fields were filled with its scent.

It is not possible to count all the koṭis who saw the glory of the Buddha as they stepped towards the bodhi tree.

All grasses, herbs and trees turned towards the bodhi tree of the great Seer.

Who having heard of such marvellous signs displayed by the Saviour of the world, would not be glad? Who but a minion of Māra?

All the glory that was the mighty Buddha’s when he won enlightenment could not be declared even in the words of one gifted with magical powers of speech.[25]

(278) When those who saw the perfect Buddha as he stood on the bodhi throne, and worshipped him, the great Hero, heard of the signs they were glad because they understood.

And the monks who stand flawless in morality[26] will beget a fine rapture when they hear this sūtra.

There will be joy for those who are endowed with good forbearance and a gentle disposition, who are high-minded[27] and desirous for knowledge of the Buddha.

There will be joy for those who, awake to the supreme enlightenment, comfort men by saying[28] that they will deliver them from oppression.[29]

There will be joy for those who have honoured previous Buddhas, Best of bipeds, when they hear this sūtra.

Those who gladdened and refreshed men[30] with food and drink will also do reverence to the Buddha when they hear this sūtra.

Those who succoured the poor with their wealth will do reverence to the Buddha when they hear this sūtra.

Those, too, who reared monuments to Buddhas of old, lofty and fair palaces,[31] will be made glad.

Those who upheld the true dharma of the Saviours of the world when it was disintegrating,[32] and who renounce gain and reputation, will also be gladdened.

Those, too, whose lives are no more to be re-compounded and are rid of karma that demands requital, the beloved[33] of the Saviour of the world, will be enraptured.

(279) There will be rapture for those who, when they see Maitreya,[34] the Best of bipeds, will do him great honour.

There will be rapture for those who, seeing Siṃha, the great Nāga, the monument of the world, will do him great honour.

There will be rapture for those who, eager for knowledge of the Buddha, will do honour to Ketu, the Saviour of the world.

There will be rapture for those who, eager for knowledge of the Buddha, will do honour to the Buddha Pradyota.

There will be rapture for those who, seeing the Buddha Jyotin, the invincible, will do him great honour.

There will be rapture for those who, seeing Sunetra, the Light of the world, will revere him with adoring[35] worship.

There will be rapture for those who, seeing the two Saviours of the world, the Tathāgatas named Kusuma, will revere them.

There will be rapture for those who, seeing Meru,[36] perfect Buddha, best of bipeds, choicest of speakers, will revere him.

There will be rapture for those who, seeing Puṣpa, supreme Buddha, best of bipeds, will render him the highest worship.

Those, too, will be exultant who have revered the Saṅgha of the four Lords of men in this auspicious kalpa.[37]

There will be terror for those who are greedy for gain and reputation, who rely on false knowledge and are avaricious,[38] when they hear this sūtra.

(280) There will be happiness[39] for those who, though they delight in society and dwell amid the crowd, have heeded seclusion with the Buddha,[40]

Even the immoral, when they have heard the Buddha speaking thus, will turn to the Light of the world, and render him eager reverence.

There will be joy for the future gentle and blessed Bodhisattvas who have been proclaimed by the Buddha.

Those who will never lapse from knowledge of the Buddha will be blessed when they have heard this sūtra.

Those who, trained with submissive minds in knowledge of the Buddha, have revered, honoured and worshipped former Buddhas, choice beings and Lords of men, will be glad when they hear of the beauty of the Best of men.

Those whose faith[41] is entirely perfect, those endowed with hundreds of koṭis of good qualities, those who, rejoicing in the Sugata’s teaching, uphold[42] the dharma when it is dissolving,[43]

And those who are constant and humble,[44] and are not scurrilous and loose of talk, but are kindly of speech[45] and not given to pride, all will be glad when they hear of the beauty of the noble Conqueror.

Those who do not forsake the knowledge of the Buddha, (281) and whose infinite, peerless enlightenment is without a fault, and those who abide in unremitting devotion, will be glad when they hear of the knowledge[46] of the noble Conqueror.

Then at the end of the seven days the Exalted One rose up from his throne, surveyed the bodhi tree with a Nāga’s look[47] and with a steady gaze. In joy and ease he stood for the second seven days fasting and gazing steadily at the bodhi tree. “Here at the bodhi tree,” said he, “I made an end of the jungle and thicket of the round of rebirth and death which has no beginning or end.[48] Here I have broken Māra of the lusts, Māra of death, and Māra of the skandhas[49]; I have broken Māra the deva. Here I have realised the vow I made an infinite incalculable kalpa ago. Here at the bodhi tree I have won pre-eminence in the world; I have won primacy in the world; I have won the essence of being.”[50] Thus for seven days the Exalted One in joy and ease contemplated the bodhi tree with steady gaze. The third seven days he spent in walking up and down a long way in joy and ease. Now on that occasion wicked Māra was sitting down not far from the Exalted One; and he was ill at ease, dejected and filled with remorse. With his staff he wrote on the ground, “Gotama the recluse has escaped from my power; Gotama the recluse has escaped from my power.”

Then Māra’s daughters Tantrī and Aratī[51] approached Māra and addressed him in a verse:

Is it your wish, my troubled father, that I should bring this man to you bound in the snares of passion like an elephant from the wood? I could bring him to you in chains, and he would be your slave.

(282) But wicked Māra replied to his daughters in a verse:

An Arhan and a Sugata in the world is not easily enticed[52] by passion. He has passed beyond the sphere of my power, and hence am I sore distressed.

Māra’s daughters, however, not heeding their father’s words, went to the Exalted One, followed him as he walked up and down, and said to him, “We would pay worship[53] at thy feet, O Exalted One; we would pay worship at thy feet, O Sugata.” But the Exalted One paid them no heed, since verily his heart was perfectly emancipated through the utter decay of every substrate of rebirth.

Then Māra’s daughters stepped to one side and recited their spells,[54] saying, “Manifold is the desire of men; manifold is the desire of men.[55] Let us now fashion ourselves[56] by means of our magic power into forms of what girls of fifteen or sixteen years look like, a hundred of them for each of us.” They did so and went up to Gotama the recluse and followed him as he walked up and down. “We would pay worship at thy feet, Lord,” said they. “We would pay worship at thy feet, Sugata.” But the Exalted One paid them no heed, since verily his heart was perfectly emancipated through the utter decay of all substrates of rebirth.

Then Māra’s daughters stepped to one side. They recited their spells, saying, “Manifold is the desire of men; manifold is the desire of men. Let us now fashion ourselves by our magic power into forms of what women with one child or with two children look like, a hundred of them for each of us.” They did so and went up to Gotama the recluse (283) and followed him as he walked up and down. “We would pay worship at thy feet, Lord,” said they. “We would pay worship at thy feet, O Sugata.” But the Exalted One paid them no heed, since verily his heart was perfectly emancipated through the utter decay of all substrates of rebirth.

Then Māra’s daughters stepped to one side. They recited their spells, saying, “Manifold is the desire of men; manifold is the desire of men. Let us now fashion ourselves by our magic power into forms of what women of middle age look like, a hundred of them for each of us.” They did so, and went up to the Exalted One and followed him as he walked up and down. “We would pay worship at thy feet, Lord,” said they. “We would pay worship at thy feet, O Sugata.” But the Exalted One paid them no heed, since verily his heart was perfectly emancipated through the utter decay of all substrates of rebirth.

Again, Māra’s daughters stepped to one side. They recited their spells. “Surely”, said they, “we can go and fashion[57] ourselves into the likeness of extreme age. Let us now then become aged, old, ancient, hoary headed, bent like rafters, leaning on our sticks, and go to Gotama the recluse, bow at his feet, and one by one ask him a question.” So Māra’s daughters became aged, old, ancient, hoary headed, bent like rafters and leaning on their sticks. Going up to the Exalted One they bowed at his feet and stood to one side.

As they thus stood to one side, Māra’s daughter, Tantrī, addressed the Exalted One in verse:

How does a monk live and apply himself in the world,[58] who, having crossed the five floods[59] is crossing the sixth?

(284) How does a monk meditate and apply himself so that sensual thoughts are kept outside of him and gain no foothold in him?[60]

The Exalted One replied to Māra’s daughter, Tantrī, in verse:

Knowing[61] the dharma and meditating without applied thought[62] he is not excited by passion nor harbours slothful memories.[63] Abiding and applying himself thus the monk who has crossed the five floods crosses the sixth.

His body impassible,[64] his heart set free, he is mindful, without anger, and rid of pride. Meditating and applying himself thus, sensual thoughts are kept outside of him and gain no foothold in him.

Then Māra’s daughter, Aratī, addressed the Exalted One in verse:

Īs it because thou art overwhelmed[65] with grief that thou dost meditate in the wood, seeking to spend thy life in thought[66]? Hast thou insulted[67] the villagers and canst not make friends with them? Else why dost thou not make friends with folk[68]?

The Exalted One replied to Aratī, Māra’s daughter, in verse:

Nay, the whole root of grief have I dug out; all greed for life have I abandoned, and I shall win (285) the goal of my endeavour, the peace of my heart. Devoted to meditation, aware of true happiness, I thus cannot make friends with man; there can be no friendship between him and me.[69]

Then Aratī, Mara’s queen,[70] addressed the Exalted One in verse:

He who fares on with his groups and orders[71] has cut off all craving. And many beings[72] will make a resolve.[73] Yea, he will surely pluck many men from the clutches of the king of death,[74] and lead them to the sphere of the immovable and the griefless.

The Exalted One then replied to Māra’s daughters in verse:

You seek to dig through a mountain with your finger-nails. You chew iron with your teeth; you beat your heads against a hillside; you seek a footing in the abyss. What else, you wicked ones, is your pursuit of me because of your envy of the Buddha?

Māra’s daughters, thus perceiving that Gotama the recluse knew them, in their distress, dejection and remorse came to Māra, their father, and addressed him in verse:

This day, father, have I been beaten. This man cannot be led by passion. He has passed beyond my power, and hence I grieve me sore.

“Any other man, father, who was not free of attachment, would, on seeing us in all our beauty (286) be overcome[75] and fall down in a swoon. The warm blood would be drained from his face, and he might die from his affliction, or suffer the loss of his senses. But Gotama the recluse, father, being an Arhan and rid of passion, hatred and folly, has proved superior.”

Then wicked Māra approached the Exalted One and stood to one side, and as he thus stood to one side he addressed the Exalted One in verse:

Hither came in joyful anticipation, Tantrī, Aratī and Ratī,[76] but the great Hero swept them away as the wind[77] sweeps away a fluttering tuft of cotton.

When he had recited this verse, wicked Māra, unhappy, dejected and remorseful, forthwith disappeared.

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

Kleśamāra and devaputramāra (see next sentence). To those appellations of Māra are added below (p. 281, text) two others, mṛtyumāra, “Māra of death,” and skandhamāra, “Māra of the skandhas.” In the commentarial literature, including the Sk. Dharmasaṃgraha, LXXX, these appellations are taken to denote four separate Māras. Some commentaries, indeed, add a fifth, abhisaṅkhāramāra, “Māra of the saṃskāras.” (See D.P.N.) But it is doubtful whether, as some modern writers assume (e.g., E. Lamotte: Le Traité de la grande vertu de sagesse, vol. 1, p. 339f.), the Mhvu. can be taken as evidence for the belief jn four Māras. The compiler of the Mhvu. in recounting the Buddha’s encounters with the Evil One is clearly thinking of only one and the same Māra. He has nowhere a hint of a distinct legend of each of the four. In these two passages of the Mhvu. Māra is rhetorically named in terms of the transient elements of man’s make-up and of death itself. The passage in Śikṣāsamuccaya (p. 98) can be interpreted in the same way. It is a commonplace of the history of religion and myth that divine epithets become personified at a late stage. Examples abound in the mythology of all nations.

[2]:

Lacuna.

[3]:

These verses have already appeared in vol. 2 as part of the second Avalokita Sūtra there inserted. See pp. 349 ff (text) and pp. 317 ff (translation, with the notes).

[4]:

Spharin from sphar. Vol. 2, p. 349 has phalin, “blossomed”.

[5]:

Sūkṣma. Vol. 2, p. 349 has sukhuma.

[6]:

Buddharaśmibhi. Vol. 2, p. 350 has buddhakṣetrasmi, “in the Buddha-field.”

[7]:

Śītabhūtā aṅgāni, which, in Senart’s opinion, is preferable to śītabhūtā aṅgārā, “burning coals were cooled,” of vol. 2, p. 350.

[8]:

Nirayeṣu cyavitvāna (with loc. for abl.) which, as Senart says, is preferable to nirayeṣu ca satvā, “the beings in the hells,” of vol. 2, p. 350.

[9]:

Reading nirmitā (irregular for nirmitehi, as in vol. 2, p. 350) for nirmito of the text.

[10]:

Khaṇḍa. Vol. 2, p. 350 has khāṇu, BSk. and Pali. See P.E.D.

[11]:

Kāntarakā. Vol. 2, p. 350 has kaṇṭakathala, “thorns and potsherds,” kathala being for kaṭhala, BSk. and Pali for Sk. kaṭhara.

[12]:

Nābhi, loc. case. Cf. Edgerton Gram § 10. 89.

[13]:

Heṣṭā. But vol. 2, p. 351 has here the BSk. and Pali form heṭṭhā.

[14]:

Vyādhiduḥkhārttā. Vol. 2, p. 351 has vyādhitā satvā duḥkhitā.

[15]:

Or “made an end of,” antakīkṛtaḥ. Vol. 2, p. 351, has tanuno kṛtā “were allayed.”

[16]:

Śayyāyaṃ avaropitā. Śayyāyam is loc. for abl. Avaropita is the causal past participle passive of ava-ruh, used for the participle of the radical, avaruḍha. Vol. 2, p. 351 has śayyāsanāvaśāyitā—“lying on their beds and couches.”

[17]:

This couplet was inadvertently omitted from the translation at vol. 2, p. 320.

[18]:

Yena bodhi niriṅgitā. Vol. 2, p. 352 has yena vilambitāmbaram, “where hung the garment.”

[19]:

Literally “used”, valañjita, Pali and BSk. part, of valañjati, a verb the etymology of which is obscure, but which is used in Pali in the two senses of (1) “to trace, track, travel (a road)”; (2) “to use, use up, spend.” The P.E.D. gives the meaning “used” to the word in the present passage, though “used up” would be more in accord with the other examples of its usage which are there given. Senart gives only one MS. variant of this line, and in this valañjita appears as ācaraṃjano, so that without further MS. evidence it is impossible to judge what warrant there is for Senart’s conjecture. He lists the word in his index but makes no comment on it in his notes. Perhaps, after all, the true reading is vilambilā “hanging”, or vigalitā “glittering.” The corresponding couplet in vol. 2, p. 352 has nothing remotely resembling valañjita. Edgerton (B.H.S.D.) does not mention the word.

[20]:

Or “veils,” oguṇthikā. Cf. Pali oguṇṭheti, “to cover, veil over, hide,” and BSk. avaguṇṭhita (Jtm. 30). Vol. 2, p. 352 has kaṭakā, “chain, bracelet,” with the MS. variants kuntika and kuṇḍika. Two MSS. of. Vol. 3 also here read okuntika, but all these variants are meaningless. B.H.S.D. gives only avaguṇṭhika, “veil,” from L V. 321.

[21]:

Vāye, opt. (3 sg. for pl.) in aor. sense.

[22]:

Literally, “in an only son,” ekaputrasmin. This couplet is not in vol. 2, and at first sight it appears foreign to the context, but presumably it expresses the atmosphere of love surrounding the bodhi tree or pervading the Buddha-field.

[23]:

Literally “immediately followed,” tadanantaram.

[24]:

It might be better to read pratiṣṭhitā here in agreement with the plural subject of the verb, as in the next couplet. The same suggestion applies to the corresponding couplet in vol. 2, p. 352.

[25]:

See vol. 2, p. 321, n. 3.

[26]:

Śilaskandhena acchidrā. But the reading at vol. 2, p. 353, Śilaskandhe acchidre, “in flawless morality,” would seem to be better.

[27]:

Adīnamanasā. Vol. 2, p. 354 has alīnakāyamānasā, “active of body and mind.”

[28]:

See vol. 2, p. 321, n. 5.

[29]:

Literally, “I shall deliver those oppressed,” moceṣyāmi upadrutā. Vol. 2, p. 354 has mociṣyi upapadyatāṃ, “I shall deliver (from) rebirth”.

[30]:

Satvā only, undefined by kṛpaṇā, “needy,” as it is in vol. 2, p. 354.

[31]:

Udviddhā varaprāsādā. Vol. 2, p. 354 has buddhitvā varaprasādā (for -prāsādā) “when they are aware of the fair palace” (sc. the truth of Buddhism. Śee vol. 2 (trans.) p. 321, n. 1.)

[32]:

Or “crumbling up,” pralujyanta. See vol. 2, p. 323 n. 4. In his note here Senart says that this word should be read at the corresponding place in vol. 2, p. 354 (text), instead of puluvam = pūrvam. (See vol. 2, p. 322, m. 2). Miss I. B. Horner remarks that such passages apparently forecast the Buddhist “Apocalypse,” described in detail in Anāgatavaṃsa.

[33]:

Urasā for orasā. See vol. 2, p. 322 n. 4.

[34]:

Better rendered as referring to Maitreya than as an adjective qualifying the present Buddha as in vol. 2, p. 322. And similarly for Siṃha (lion), Ketu (banner), Jyotin (light-bringer), and Pradyota (light), that is, these epithets should be taken as names of future Buddhas.

[35]:

Arcamānāya from ṛc. Vol. 2, p. 355 has apramānāya, “infinite”.

[36]:

Vol. 2, p. 355 has Maru.

[37]:

I.e., the four Buddhas Krakucchanda, Konākamuni, Kāśyapa and Gotama. This couplet does not appear in Vol. 2.

[38]:

Bahvicchā, “desiring much Vol. 2, p. 355 (text) is different here, reading alpecham, which can only be for alpeccham, “desiring little,” and has to be taken as a neuter used adverbially to modify śruṇitvāna, "when they have heard the sūtra with little desire.” The context requires it to be taken in a bad sense, hence the translation “with little heed” (Vol. 2, p.232).

[39]:

Saumanasyatā. Vol. 2, p. 355 has na daurmanasyatā “no distress”.

[40]:

Vivekaṃ buddhena. Vo1. 2, vivekaṃ buddhasya, “seclusion of the Buddha.”

[41]:

Yeṣām... śraddhā. Vol. 2, p. 356 has ye... śuddhā “those who are... pure”.

[42]:

Dhārayi, habitual aorist; sg. for pl. Vol. 2 has the aorist form dharesi.

[43]:

Lujjamāna. Vol. 2 has lujyamāna.

[44]:

Anuddhatā “not puffed up.” Vol. 2 has the truncated -ānubaddhā, which on Senart’s suggestion was restored as vratānubaddhā. See vol. 2 (trans.), p. 323.

[45]:

Susakhilavācā. Senart leaves a lacuna at the corresponding place in vol. 2, the MSS. having vikilavācā.

[46]:

Jñānam. Vol. 2, p. 356 has varṇam, as above.

[47]:

See p. 56, n. 1.

[48]:

Anavarāgra. See vol. 1, p. 29, n. 4.

[49]:

I.e., Māra as personifying the death which is the outcome of the lusts and the skandhas. See p. 261, n. 3.

[50]:

Satvasāratā, abstract from the concrete satvasāra.

[51]:

This passage is to be compared with 5.1.124 ff.

[52]:

Literally “easy to bring”, suvānaya = su-v-ānaya. Cf. Pali at S. 1.124.

[53]:

Literally “worship thy feet,” pādānte paricareṃha. Note the Prakrit (? and BSk.) form of conjugation. See Edgerton, Gram. § 26. 7.

[54]:

Mantrā.

[55]:

Uccāvacaṃ chando puruṣānām, repeated, would seem to be the actual words of a spell intended to achieve its object by a sort of sympathetic magic.

[56]:

Abhinirmiṇitvā. There is no finite verb. The Mhvu. text is clumsily abridged here and in the repetitions below, even to the extent of ruining the syntax. We should expect to have first yaṃ nūnaṃ vayaṃ abhinirmiṇeyāma, “let us now fashion or conjure up.” The narrative would then be taken up by abhinirmiṇitvā “they did so (they conjured up),” as in S. 1.124 ff.

[57]:

Literally, “I fashioning may fashion,” abhinirmiṇanti abhinirmiṇeyam.

[58]:

Bahuliha = bahuli + iha (“here”). For bahulin in this sense, cf. bahula, “devoted”, “intent on”, and bahuli compounded with kara in Pali and BSk. (e.g. Lal. Vist. 348). This seems better than the translation “mainly” in K.S. 1.158, which, ethically speaking, is not thoroughgoing enough. Edgerton (B.H.S.D.) however, maintains that the text should be emended to contain some forms of Sk. and Pali bahula.

[59]:

According to S. 1. 3, Th. 1. 15, 633 (cf. Dh. 370) the “flood” (ogha) is fifteen states of the mind, or three groups of five bonds or fetters. P.E.D. suggests that the five here alluded to are identical with the last group of five, namely, lust, ill-temper, stupidity, conceit, and vain speculation. But this leaves the sixth unexplained. It is, therefore, better to adopt the first of two alternative explanations offered by Buddhaghosa, namely, that the five are the perils by way of the five senses, and the sixth those of the door of the mind. See K.S. 1, p. 158, n. 3.

[60]:

Alabdhagāḍhā “not having a footing gained.” Cf. gāḍhāṃ. labhati, “to gain firm footing.” Senart seems to be right in asserting that the Mhvu. text is here nearer the original tradition than is S. 1. 126 which reads aladdhāyo tan ti. The form aladdhā is not easily explicable as an active participle, which the translation, “and catch him not,” at K.S. 1. 158 makes it to be. It is more reasonable to assume that aladdha is the first part of a compound, the second element of which, whether or not it was gādhā, has been corrupted or lost. The Critical Pali Dictionary takes aladdha as equivalent to the active alabhitvā, and adds that yo tam may stand for otāram “chance”. See also SA. 1. 187.

[61]:

Aññāya, BSk. for ājñāya, restored by Senart after the Pali form at S. 1.126, for anyāya of the MSS. See Edgerton, Gram. § 2. 15.

[62]:

Avitarka, as in the second dhyāna.

[63]:

Literally “does not remember slothfully” na sarati (BSk. and Pali = smarati) thīnam (BSk. and Pali = Sk. styāna).

[64]:

Or, “composed”, praśrabdha BSk. = Pali passaddha.

[65]:

Abhitunna. BSk. and Pali for abhituṇṇa, Sk. abhitūrṇa from abhiturvati. S. 1.126 has avatiṇṇa.

[66]:

This pāda is difficult. Senart’s text is citāya jīvaṃ abhiprārthayanto, and he translates, “ne désirant la vie que pour le bûcher” (citā). But he has no faith in the correctness of the text. Nor will he allow that Windisch (Māra und Buddha) has succeeded in interpreting the equally obscure corresponding pāda at S. 1. 126. The latter reads cittaṃ nu jiṇṇo uda patthayāno. K.S., 1.157, inexplicably expands this to mean “Art downcast at loss of wealth, or art thou wishing it were thine?” The Pali as it stands says no more than “Art old? Or longing with your heart (or mind)?” as Miss I. B. Horner, in a letter to the translator, renders it. At the same time, she calls attention to the v.l. jina, when possibly the sense would be “art thou deprived of thought (or mind)?” In any case, it is clear that the correct reading in the Mhvu. should be some form of citta; two MSS. have cittā ca (or va). Reading cittāya we would have the meaning “seeking a livelihood (? = to spend your life) for thought or by means of thought.”

[67]:

Or “assaulted”, āsādya. S. 1. 126 has āguṃ nu gāmasmiṃ akāsi kiñci, “hast some misdeed in the village wrought?” (K.S. 1.158).

[68]:

Kasmājjane na karoṣi sākhyam. S. 1.126 is only slightly different: kasmā janena na karosi sakkhim.

[69]:

Literally, “no friendship with him is found in me,” sākhyaṃ na saṃvidyate tena asme (loc. or gen. of aham).

[70]:

So called here, Māradevī. But at S. 1.127 this verse is put into the mouth of Ragā, the last of the three daughters of Māra there mentioned.

[71]:

Reading, on Miss Horner’s suggestion, gaṇasaṅghacāri for guṇasampracāri of the text. The Pali has gaṇasaṅghavāri “(goes) attended by his bands” (K.S. 1.159), but the Commentary (SA. 1.182) quotes the line as gaṇasaṅghacarī (for -cārī), and interprets it by, gaṇe ca saṅghe carati “he fares in groups and orders.”

[72]:

Reading sattvā for raktā, “defiled persons.”

[73]:

Chandaṃ kariṣyanti. The corresponding Pali pāda is addhā carissanti bahū ca sattā, “yea, surely many souls will go” (K.S. 1.159), which is better in that it continues the sentiment of the preceding pāda.

[74]:

There is a lacuna here, but not necessarily of a word forming the construct of the genitive mṛtyurājño. The latter can well stand as gen. of separation after ācchetvā as maccurājassa does after acchijja in the Pali (S. 1.127).

[75]:

Reading jito for jitam. Senart retains the latter and identifies it with the inexplicable jitam which has been met with several times already in our text. Hitherto it has been tentatively explained as a corrupt (?) form of jñātam “known”, but this explanation would not be admissible here, unless we render it by some cognate adverb like “assuredly” (= “it is known”). But it seems much simpler here to change it into jito. Edgerton  (B.H.S.D.) takes it as an interjection or particle expressive of astonishment.

[76]:

This is the first hint in the Mhvu. that the daughters of Māra were three as they are in S., though there the first and the last respectively are named Taṇhā and Ragā.

[77]:

Reading māruto for mārutam.

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