The Mahavastu (great story)

by J. J. Jones | 1949 | 502,133 words | ISBN-10: 086013041X

This page describes second avalokita-sutra which is Chapter XXX of the English translation of the Mahavastu (“great story”), dating to the 2nd-century BC. This work belongs to the Mahasanghika school of early Buddhism and contains narrative stories of the Buddha’s former lives, such as Apadanas, Jatakas and more..

Chapter XXX - The second Avalokita-sūtra

Thus have I heard. Once the Exalted One was staying at Veśālī[1] in the grove of Āmrapālī,[2] with a great company of monks and a great crowd of Bodhisattvas.[3] Then a monk, named Viśuddhamati,[4] rose up from his seat, and, arranging his robe over one shoulder, knelt on the ground with his right knee. He extended his joined hands (294) in salutation to the Exalted One, and said to him, “Let the Exalted One disclose what he saw when, as a Bodhisattva, he had come to the bodhi tree and stood on the bodhi throne[5] and, for the benefit and welfare of the whole world, made his survey.[6] This will be for the good and happiness of mankind, will bestow compassion on the world, and will be for the sake of the great multitude, and for the good and welfare of devas and men and the Great Beings, the Bodhisattvas. The great world of dharma[7] will be established[8] and comfort assured.”[9]

And on that occasion the monk Viśuddhamati recited these verses:—

How, O Light of the world,[10] infinite, free of passion, didst thou cross the Nairañjanā for the sake of all living beings?

Declare, O mighty hero, Tathāgata, great seer, what portents there were as the Best of Men crossed over.

How, O Light of the world, was the throne of bodhi adorned for thee? This I beseech thee to tell me, O good and beneficent one.

And, O Monument of the world,[11] tell how thou didst win the supreme enlightenment, and how thou didst smite the Son of Darkness[12] and his host.

O Self-dependent, True Being, without superior, declare what thy ten powers[13] are...,[14]

“With[15] the power of thy magic thou didst illumine the ten quarters of the world, O Caravan-leader, O Great Seer, honoured a hundred times over by men and gods.[16] Thou dost stride like a king of swans, white as snow, pure, of Dhṛtarāṣtra’s family of swans,[17] the best of Suras whose body knows no weariness. Thou dost wander from region to region, ranging through the hosts of devas, Asuras, Nāgas, Yakṣas and the abodes of the gods, (295) making their golden pillars look dull. Just as a disk of gold excels a burnt pillar[18] so does the Master excel the whole world. Thou art a flower in bloom; thy body is studded with the marks of excellence as the sky is overlaid with stars. There is no limit[19] to the hundreds of thousands of merits that accrue from calling on the name of the Sugata but once. There is none equal to thee in the whole world; how much less a superior one? So dost thou light up all the ten regions all around, as the sun in the sky. Thy body, O Daśabala, freed from what is gross, is adorned with the thirty-two marks of excellence as with a coat of mail, and is bright like the moon in the month of Kārttika.[20] As thousand-rayed stars are the Master’s eighty-four followers, by whom the Exalted One’s voice, perfect in its thousand tones and endowed with five qualities, and his speech are comprehended.[21] From the Exalted One’s mouth there breathes the scent of sandal-wood. He maintains the immeasurable, limitless and infinite Buddha-fields.[22] He cures[23] the barrenness[24] of malice and folly. If all the three thousand worlds were filled with mountains of mustard seed, it might be possible, by taking them one by one, to count the seed. But it is not possible to count all the infinite, numberless creatures in the ten regions who smell and perceive the sandal-wood scent of the Exalted One. Thou art in a state of forbearance;[25] thou art wise, unequalled, a hero with great compassion, majestic and powerful, a healer of beings, a saviour, untarnished, worthy of the offerings of those who come to thy refuge, a most eminent Conqueror, a Self-dependent One.[26] Who can ever have enough of praising thee? So measureless is thy power. May we come to the place of unending beauty, where passion is stilled, where the heart is at peace, to the refuge, to thee[27] the victor, the invincible. It may be possible for a traveller to reach the limit of[28] the air and of the sea; it is not possible to reach the limit (296) of the measure of the Conqueror’s power. So instinct with power is the perfect Buddha. I beseech thee, Lion, Lord of men, the Daśabala, the Infinite One, O hero, whose passion is stilled, explain to me in answer to my request what the heart at peace through knowledge is, and a pure world free from attachment.[29]

For thousands of koṭis of kalpas, for an infinite, unthinkable time, the Omniscient One, the supreme of bipeds, fared in quest of the good.

He ensued charity, morality, forbearance, and the meditations, and practised wisdom in former lives for many a hundred koṭis of kalpas.

The gleam of fiery gems, of flashes of lightning in the sky and of the stars became broken.[30]

There is no deva, nor Nāga, nor Yakṣa, nor Kumbhāṇḍa, nor Rākṣasa, whose body is like thine, O Leader of men.

“Worshipped by Suras and Asuras, venerated, praised and revered art thou, O Great Seer, Light-bringer, Lord of bipeds, noble essence of being, Bull-man, Monument of men. The circle of hair on the forehead of the Exalted One, between his eyebrows, shines like the sun; is bright like the clear moon in the month of Kārttika, when it is full. The dark-blue clear eyes of the Leader gleam like the sheen of the bright blue lotus, spotless, shining and lustrous. The teeth of the Lord of men and women, which are a joy to behold[31], spotless and white, well-developed and even, like pure snow, (297) find a fitting place[32] in thy mouth which is clean like a fair petal, O Daśabala. The tongue of the Master, of the Leader, covered with gentle, delicate lines, and having an exquisite sense of taste, has the sheen of a young bud; it is divine, and gratifying to men. His joy-giving broad forehead, his eyebrows and his face, shine with glowing radiance like the moon. O Daśabala, the dark-blue hair on the Exalted One’s head is neatly arranged. O Śākyan Lion, thy neck gleams like a golden[33] shell, as though dividing the body of the Conqueror.[34] The body of the Exalted One, with its bust like a lion’s,[35] cannot be broken up.[36] Thou illuminest all the regions of the world. O thou whose eloquence is inimitable, O thou peerless sea (of eloquence), make us realise the maturing of our karma as thou speakest these words. The whole world does homage to thee, turned[37] towards thee in entreaty with joined hands raised.”

When the monk Viśuddhamati had thus spoken the Exalted One said to him, “Good is it for you, O monk, yea, good is it for you that you think that the Tathāgata should be asked this favour. Brilliant is your readiness of speech, O monk, and good is your reflection in that this occurred[38] to you. So, too, the fruits of karma become clear[39] for these young gentlemen[40] who will master this exposition of the dharma. They will not fall into the power of wicked Māra. Neither human beings nor demons will have a chance[41] (of harming) them. And why? Because these monks, these beings, on behalf of whom you ask this concerning the Bodhisattvas, the Great Beings, have laid up[42] a noble root of goodness. It is for the good of all beings, monk, that you think that you should question the Tathāgata about the Bodhisattvas, the leaders of the world, who stand out among all beings pre-eminent for conduct. O monk, it is for the good of all beings (298) that you question the Tathāgata about the Bodhisattvas, the Great Beings, leaders of the world, who are outstanding in their skill to dispel and scatter all doubt. O monk, it is for the good of all beings that you question the Tathāgata about the Bodhisattvas, the Great Beings, leaders of the world, who are eminently devoted to liberality, forbearance, meditation and wisdom.”

And on that occasion the Exalted One recited these verses:—

When I came down from Tuṣita, the abode of devas, and, in the form of a white six-tusked elephant, entered the womb of the king’s chief queen, then did the three thousand worlds quake.

Then did rich golden radiance light up the three thousand worlds, even the highest heaven above, when the Conqueror, self-possessed, entered the womb.

Śakra with his hundred thousands, and koṭis from Brahmā’s realm came to pay him constant homage by day and by night, nor did they ever go away without being dismissed.

A hundred thousand musical instruments played in the sky above, which was thronged[43] by all the devas. They let fall celestial powder of sandal-wood, and others held banners and sunshades in their hands.

(They)[44] showered down fair celestial flowers of the blue lotus, bees and peacocks, and golden garlands, when the Conqueror, self-possessed, entered the womb.

When the Buddha, the quintessence of being, was born the lord of devas in elation brought him an especial garment, bright, silken, and gleaming like the gold of Jāmbūnada.[45]

And when the Bodhisattva stood on the ground he joyfully took seven strides and said (299) “Lo, I will put an incomparable end in the world to old age that brings death in its train.”

Then did the earth quake six times, and a radiance was shed in all directions around. Celestial voices sang in the sky, and eighty thousand devas appeared.

The devas showered down from the sky celestial powder of sandal-wood, golden and bright. The devas,[46] joyful and thrilled, bestrewed the Bodhisattva with flowers of the coral-tree.

When the world’s[47] Bodhisattva was twenty-nine years old and had reached maturity,[48] he renounced his kingdom and the seven fair treasures,[49] and put on the yellow robe.

The wise Bodhisattva left his home, and for six years lived a life of austerities. He entered the domain of Magadha, and there a village chieftain’s daughter saw him.[50]

Exultantly the Bodhisattva took the golden vessel, the pitcher, which sparkled with gems, was perfectly formed[51] and entirely beautiful, and then the Seer rinsed (his mouth).

She tendered him strength-giving food that was exquisitely flavoured and fragrant of smell. Then greatly stirred she formed a resolution[52] saying, “May I become a Buddha accoutred with the (thirty-two) marks.

“Abandoning this base state of desire,[53] may I live the pure, untarnished holy life. May I renounce the pleasures of sense, the source of ill, the root of passion, and follow after the Buddhas who have destroyed defilement and are rid of the lusts.”

And when, happy in her heart, Senāpati’s daughter had spoken these verses, she held out her joined hands in adoration of the Bodhisattva, wept and said:—

“Great gain has Bimbisāra well won, my Lord; he has gained freedom from grief and has knowledge of increase.[54] (300) For in his kingdom there stands to-day the Bodhisattva who will win the incomparable enlightenment.

“After eating the food I gave him, Krakucchanda, the self-dependent one, went on to the tree, the monarch of all that grows, irradiating the ten quarters around like a sacrificial post made of Jāmbūnada gold.

“And he who was named Konaka and was greatly worthy of offerings, went on to the bodhi throne after eating my food, sublime of heart, immoveable, unshakable, his body covered[55] with the thirty-two marks.

“He, too, who was then named Kāśyapa, whose body was like Jāmbūnada gold, the wise one, the essence of being, self-dependent, went on to the noble tree, the monarch of all that grows, after he had eaten my food.

“And all the matchless ones, worthy of offerings, that will be in some auspicious kalpa, wise, with defilements destroyed and rid of the lusts, may I be able to worship them all by reason of my incomparable enlightenment. No other desire whatsoever is mine”

And the devas in the sky bestrewed the Bodhisattva, with sandalwood (powder) while Senāpati’s daughter, moved with joy at the great gain she had won, spoke (these) words.

And Sujātā, conceiving a pure love for the Bodhisattva, again recalled to mind[56] her former lives, and said, “Thousands of koṭis of nayutas of Buddhas ate my food and went on to the foot of the bodhi tree.”

When the Bodhisattva had come to the river Nairañjanā he stopped for a moment. With the even soles of his feet[57] he made the earth to tremble. And on that occasion the great earthquake was terrifying, hair-raising. For by that great earthquake the great system of three thousand worlds was made level like the palm of the hand. And Sumeru,[58] the monarch of mountains, the mountains of Cakravāḍa[59] and Mahācakravāḍa, the seven mountain-ranges, Nimindhara, Yugandhara, Īṣāndhara, Khadiraka, Aśvakarṇa, Vinataka and Sudarśana, within the continent, and other Kāla[60] mountains subsided to the ground (301) through the power of the Bodhisattva. The great oceans were violently and perceptibly stirred.[61]

Again, on that occasion the great system of three thousand worlds was covered[62] with hundreds of thousands of lotuses of Jāmbūnada gold, the size of a cartwheel, with hundreds of thousands of leaves like dark-blue beryl, with white coral flowers, (and) yellow[63] śirigarbhas.[64] And a great radiance in the form of a chequer-board[65] appeared, and in this radiance the terrible hells became tranquil. All the denizens of hell became happy. All those reborn as brutes became happy. All the inhabitants of Yama’s world[66] became happy and friendly towards one another, through the power of the Bodhisattva. The great system of three thousand worlds was bathed in that great radiance.

Again, on that occasion, all the abodes of the lords of the devas, Nāgas, Yakṣas, and Garuḍas[67], in the great system of three thousand worlds, radiant though they were, seemed bereft of light.[68] Everywhere they became aware of the Bodhisattva’s attainment of his true personality.[69]

Again, on that occasion all devas, Nāgas, Yakṣas, Gandharvas, Asuras, Garuḍas, Kinnaras and Mahoragas[70] no longer found joy in their own abodes, through the power of the Bodhisattva. Unable to endure the radiant glory of the Bodhisattva, they all came to the bodhi throne carrying flowers, garlands, perfumes, sunshades, banners, musical instruments, incense and ointments.

Again, on that occasion, in the countless, infinite Buddha-fields, Bodhisattvas of exceeding loveliness stood in the sky above, fashioning celestial garments and carrying celestial blue, red and white lotuses.

Again, on that occasion, this great system of three thousand worlds, (302) from the surface of the earth up to the highest abode, was filled with hundreds of thousands of lotuses of Jāmbūnada gold, the size of a cartwheel, with stalks of dark-blue beryl, and myriads[71] of filaments yellow like the acacia gem,[72] and by the arrival of Bodhisattvas, Nāgas, Yakṣas, Asuras, Garuḍas, Kinnaras and Mahoragas. Then the Bodhisattva crossed the river Nairañjanā in front of the great host of devas. And on that occasion eighty koṭis of sunshades made of Jāmbūnada gold appeared and stood above the Bodhisattva, and eighty koṭis made of silver, eighty koṭis made of emerald, eighty koṭis made of “elephant stone,”[73] eighty koṭis made of ruby, and eighty koṭis made of gems. And eighty koṭis of Nāgas, each Nāga attended by eighty koṭis of Nāgas carrying red jasmine approached the Bodhisattva and worshipped him, because of the merit they had acquired of yore.

Then Kāla, the Nāga king, attended by his people, rose up from his dwelling-place, approached the Bodhisattva, bowed his head at his feet, extended his joined hands towards him, and, gazing at him, addressed him in verses.[74]

When the Bodhisattva, confident in his quest for enlightenment, came to the Nairañjanā he reached the foot of the bodhi tree,

In which flocks of various birds were singing; which was encircled by fair plants and laden with noble flowers and fruits up to the number of three thousand.

Where those Lights of the world,[75] Krakucchanda, Konākamuni, and the great seer Kāśyapa, came and achieved enlightenment,

(303) To that place has come this Light of the world, the world’s Guide, he who is the foremost seer of the Śākyans, kinsmen of the sun.[76]

The hosts of devas all rejoicing and exhilarated made this earth a billowy cloud of flowers.

The Śuddhāvāsa devas coming from their own abodes, gathered together and reverently adored the Bodhisattva, the Guide of the world.

They adorned the bodhi throne with celestial and earthly flowers of the coral tree, the costliest[77] and the best.

All the trees in front of it worshipped and bowed to the bodhi throne, for that is the noble place to which former Buddhas resorted.

And the goddess that dwelt in the tree at the bodhi throne spoke in the tongue of faery[78] when she saw the Bodhisattva.

She waved her garment and let fall celestial sandal-wood powder; with a celestial powder of gems she bestrewed the valiant Man.

The winds that have their homes in the four quarters, redolent of various celestial and earthly scents, blew on the bodhi throne.

Bright celestial musical instruments in the sky played divers songs, making lovely and charming music.

There was a great radiance made by the rays of the bodhi throne, and anon the whole world of devas was bathed in it.

(304) The bejewelled mansions of the devas were paled[79] by the golden rays of the Bodhisattva.

Thousands of majestic devas, standing in the sky, bestrewed the Bodhisattva with flowers of the coral tree.

Hearing the matchless voice of the great Seer, Kāla the Nāga, attended by his Nāga maidens, was thrilled, gladdened and delighted.

Abandoning his celestial ease and the enjoyment of his diversions, he came and scanned the four quarters and beheld the valiant Man.

Joyful and delighted he adored the Bodhisattva, who was like the sun[80] risen in the sky with all its rays, and addressed him thus:—

“O Supreme of men, as were[81] the marks[82] of former Buddhas, those of Krakucchanda, of Konākamuni, the supreme of men, and of Kāśyapa,[83] the Conqueror, Tathāgata, pre-eminent of men.

“The feet of these great seers were level of soles, covered with network designs,[84] well-formed, coloured like the essence of lac, and adorned with designs of wheels. The soles of their feet were bright with svastikas.

“Lifted with the toes ever turning to the right, the feet of the saviours of the world lit up the bright earth as they moved along.

“Unfettered of feet were these saviours even as thou art; their ankles and toes when chafed[85] did not shine.[86]

(305) “The feet of the saviours of the world who wandered over the bright earth had long toes, copper-coloured nails, network designs and (other) characteristics.[87]

“Their legs were like the antelope’s, their knees and well-covered ankles were the colour of acacia; thus were the benefactors of the world.

“The arms of those great seers were like elephants’ trunks, their busts like those of lions, like the banyan tree in circumference.

“The sheen of their golden skin was like burnished gold. Without bending their bodies they could touch their knees with their hands.

“Their waists were rounded and full like that of the king of beasts; their male organs were enclosed in a sheath like that of a royal steed.

“Their conduct was clean.[88] Their knees were well-knit. Deep navels had the Buddhas of old, the great seers.

“Unsoiled by dust or powder were the bodies of those great seers; smooth of skin were those saviours. And so is the Lord.

“They had the hairs on their bodies growing straight upwards in rows, with each hair separate, dark-blue, growing towards the right. So has the Lord, the Saviour of the world.

“Well-rounded were their shoulders, and their eyebrows, just as those of the Valiant One are. The saviours had divinely straight limbs;[89] these were their characteristics.

“Their upper and lower arms were snake-like,[90] thickening gradually.[91] Such were the hosts of Nārāyaṇa,[92] and such is the Lord.

(306) “Long and copper-coloured nails had they, like the summit of mount Kailāsa.[93] Exceeding brilliant were their bodies with their signs and marks.

“Their necks were like shells, gradually thickening.[94] These saviours had the jaws of a lion, and they had the most delicate sense of taste.[95]

“Forty rounded teeth had these great seers. Their teeth were gleaming white, just as the Lord’s are.

“They could cover their faces with their long slender tongues;[96] with them they licked the tips of their two ears and their noses.

“Eight qualities[97] had the voice of those great seers, who had full perception of the truths that are to be known by all living beings.

“Their voice was divine;[98] their voice was like the cuckoo’s cry. The sound of their voice was like that of a drum; their voice was agreeable.[99]

“As the golden thousand-rayed lotus[100] gleams, so did gleam the faces of the saviours, the kinsmen of the sun.

“Long and dark-blue were the eyes of the great seers; their prominent noses shone like golden sacrificial posts.

“Between the eyebrows of the high-born great seers were bright moles, soft as cotton.

“Their faces were great (orbs of) fire, like the moon when it is full,[101] (307) or like fiery gems; all regions were lit up by them.[102]

“Dark-blue was their hair, and soft like kācilinda,[103] every hair turned to the right; so too is that of the Lord, the Saviour of the world.

“The saviours had turbans on their heads,[104] just as the Lord has. Their heads could not be looked on by Suras and A suras.

“The Buddhas with their rays excelled the greatly splendid ones,[105] as the moon is excelled in splendour by the king of light.”

And when he[106] had seen these and other signs, and all the marks of the Bodhisattva, he spoke these words:—

“Since these dev as have emerged to do thee honour, there is no doubt, Great Hero, that this day thou wilt become a Buddha.

“With the weapon of wisdom in thy hand, thou wilt calmly rend the fetters of Māra, the snare hitherto unsurmounted, craving, the conduit that leads to existence.[107]

“To-day, O Supreme of Men, having attained enlightenment, thou wilt throw off the fever of passion that remains anywhere lurking in the lusts.[108]

“Exactly like the robe,[109] the cloak,[110] the bowl, and the colour of the upper robe[111] which I saw those saviours had, are thine, O Saviour of the world.

“All men turn to thee in reverential salutation as thou movest like a lion. This day thou wilt become a Buddha.”

(308) Standing on the bodhi throne, firmly and energetically he exerted a concentration that was unshakable like a rock and like a Conqueror’s.

And when he had heard the words spoken by Kāla the Nāga, joyful and elated he went on to the foot of the bodhi tree.

The mighty Kāla, the Nāga, hearing the matchless voice of the Bodhisattva, hurriedly rose up from his abode.[112]

And raising his joined hands,[113] he extolled the heroic Buddha as he went on to the bodhi throne.

“May these breezes ever blow[114] gently and pleasantly, laden with fragrant and charming scents, and neither too hot nor too cold.

“May the devas rain[115] on him a shower of flowers. Thus will thy solitude be, O Sugata,[116] best of bipeds.

“Keeping to the right, go onwards, Lord, joyful, thrilled, rejoicing, glad, elated, radiating happiness.

“And inasmuch as a thousand musical instruments were played by the devas thronging[117] the sky above, thou, elated, glad, and eager wilt become a Buddha, unique in the whole world.

“And inasmuch as no other radiance at all shone,[118] and the heavenly mansions were paled,[119] and the earth quaked six times, this day thou wilt become one who is incomparably worthy of offerings.

“And inasmuch as the devas exultantly waved their garments when the terrible ranks of Māra were broken, and held up sunshades, flags and banners, I have no doubt that to-day thou wilt become a Buddha.

(309) “And inasmuch as drums sweetly resounded through the sky thus entirely filled with their garments, and the hosts of devas rained down flowers, thou wilt become a Self-becoming One in the world of men and devas.

“And inasmuch as thousands of exultant devas in the sky reverently[120] extolled thee, thou wilt become a Buddha, of golden radiance, unique, worthy of offerings, the most eloquent of men.”

Then the Bodhisattva approached the foot of the bodhi tree. And at that moment the bodhi throne became entirely draped in festoons of fine cloth. Above it were banners and flags. It was adorned with a koṭi of sunshades. It was decorated with strings of gems, and it was fragrant with incense. Around it were trees of jewels; it was draped all over with robes, and sprinkled with sandal-wood powder. It sparkled with a sea of jewels.

On that occasion several hundred thousands of devas took up their places in the sky above, and with incense in their hands[121] adored the Bodhisattva. They adored the Bodhisattva with sunshades, banners and flags in their hands; with celestial lotuses;[122] with celestial sandal-wood powder; with celestial powder of gems; with celestial flowers; gazing at him steadily they adored the Bodhisattva. And thus some devas saw the bodhi tree as a tree of gold. Others, according to their disposition,[123] saw it as a tree of silver; others as a tree of beryl; others as a tree of crystal; others as a tree of emerald; others as a tree of the seven precious stones, and others as a tree of a hundred thousand precious stones. And, according to their disposition, other devas saw the bodhi tree as a tree of red sandal-wood; others as a tree of aloe and sandal-wood; others (310) as a tree made of the jewel desirable to one or the other[124]; others as a tree of yellow sandal-wood; others as a tree of the lion sandal-wood, and others as a tree of the succulent sandal-wood.[125] And, according to their disposition, some devas saw the bodhi tree as a tree of iron sandal-wood;[126] others as a tree of celestial aloe and sandal-wood; others as a tree of precious gems. Other devas saw the bodhi tree adorned with every jewel; others saw it sparkling with precious gems; others saw it adorned with celestial blue beryl; others saw it sparkling with gems of white coral; others with gems of emerald; others with gems of “elephant-stone”;[127] others with gems of...;[128] others with gems of suprabhāsa;[129] others saw it adorned with gems of everlasting emerald;[130] others with “full-moon[131] stones”; others with “beautiful moon[132] stones”; others with “sunshine[133] stones”; others saw it sparkling with crystal; others saw it adorned with “valiant-sun[134] stones”; others with “moonshine[135] stones”; others with “brilliant-light[136] stones”; others with “lightning-flash[137] stones”; others with precious stones scintillating in all their parts;[138] others with precious stones gleaming like pearls;[139] others with precious stones of irresistible light;[140] others with a mass[141] of precious

stones; others with precious stones that were the choicest in the whole world; others with precious gems of śakrābhilagna;[142] others with leaves of precious stones; (311) others with gems of “snake-stone”;[143] others with the candana-prabha[144]; others with “red-eye[145] stone”; others with precious gems of gajapati;[146] others with gems of maheśvaraāanta;[147] others with rasakas;[148] others with precious gems of gomedaka;[149] others with precious gems of “hare-stone”;[150] others with precious gems of lālāṭika;[151] others with precious gems of śirigarbha;[152] others with gems of tālika.[153] With them and other precious stems did they see the bodhi tree adorned. Those devas, whose root of virtue in consequence of this will be ripened,[154] until they win the supreme enlightenment, viewed[155] the bodhi tree in accordance with their root of virtue. For they (variously) saw the bodhi tree adorned with strings of blue, red or white pearls; or with necklaces having golden threads; or with ear-rings; or with signet-rings; or with armlets; or with bracelets; or with anklets; or with tiaras; or with ornaments for the hands;[156] or with wristlets;[157] or with wreaths of jewels, of fine cloth, or of flowers; or with bands of gold for the upper arm, necklaces of jewels, ornaments of gold for the neck, wreaths of coral-flowers, strings of swan figurines or of lion figurines,[158] diamonds or svastikas. With these and other celestial adornments did they see the bodhi tree adorned.

Those devas whose root of virtue started when they beheld the bodhi-tree, saw it adorned with the adornment befitting their state.[159] Different devas saw the bodhi tree adorned with different adornments, as they have been related.

Then some devas saw the bodhi tree one yojana high; others saw it five yojanas high; others ten; (312) others twenty; others thirty; others forty; others fifty; and others one hundred. The height of the bodhi tree as seen by them was in proportion to their knowledge.[160] Some devas saw the bodhi tree one thousand yojanas high. Other devas, who in the course of their long lives had served former Conquerors, saw the bodhi tree a hundred thousand yojanas high. Other devas, who had won escape by means of the root of virtue which they had acquired,[161] saw the bodhi tree as high as the highest heaven.[162]

Then some devas perceived at the foot of the bodhi tree a throne of all the precious stones, which was celestial, many yojanas high, draped in celestial cloth, covered with a network of gold, and adorned with a network of tinkling ornaments. Other devas perceived the throne a hundred thousand yojanas high; others one thousand; others two hundred and fifty;[163] others two hundred; others fifty; others forty; others thirty; others twenty; others ten; others four; others three; others two, (313) and others one. Other devas perceived the throne at the foot of the bodhi tree to be three kos high, others two, and others one. Other devas perceived the throne to be seven palm-trees high; others six; others five; others four; others three; others two, and others one. Other devas perceived the throne at the foot of the bodhi tree to be as high as seven men; others as high as six men; others as high as five; others as high as four; others as high as three; others as high as two, and others as high as one.

Then the beings who had gross dispositions[164] perceived the Bodhisattva to be seated on a mat of straw, and said, “While he is seated on this mat of straw, the Bodhisattva will awaken to the supreme perfect enlightenment.”

Then, again, in the presence of the world of devas, men and Asuras, the Bodhisattva approached the bodhi tree, and went round it thrice, keeping it to the right. Recalling to mind former Tathāgatas he sat down cross-legged, holding his body erect, and set up mindfulness before his face. Thereupon, as the Bodhisattva was seated at the foot of the bodhi tree, his countenance shone, glowed and gleamed, just like the orb of the sun that diffuses its light through the great system of three thousand worlds. In his splendour all the great system of three thousand worlds was paled.[165] Just as (314) a burnt pillar, black and inky, in front of a disk of Jāmbūnada gold, does not glow or shine or reflect light, so the great system of three thousand worlds was surpassed by the splendour of the Bodhisattva.

Then the devas, including those of the highest heaven[166] above, saw the Bodhisattva seated. So, too, the devas of earth[167] saw him who was the Bodhisattva. So, too, the devas of the sky, including the Cāturmahārājika devas, the Trāyastriṃśa devas, the Yāma devas, the Tuṣita devas, the Nirmāṇarati devas, the Paranirmitavaśavartin devas, and the devas in the abode of Māra saw the Bodhisattva on the throne. Likewise the Brahmā devas and those in Brahmā’s retinue,[168] the devas who were priests of Brahmā,[169] the Mahā-Brahmā devas,[170] the Ābhā devas,[171] the Ābhāsvara devas,[172] the Śubha devas,[173] the Parīttaśubha devas, the Apramāṇaśubha devas, the Śubhakṛtsna devas, the Bṛhatphala devas,[174] the Avṛha devas,[175] the Atapa devas,[176] the Sudarśana devas,[177] and the devas of Akaniṣṭha saw the Bodhisattva on his throne. And all those beings standing on the confines of the great system of three thousand worlds, who were endowed with the root of virtue, saw the Bodhisattva on his throne. Those who had planted the root of virtue[178] through rendering service to former Conquerors, and had thoroughly mastered the world of desire,[179] did not see or become aware of Māra, as, through the power of the Bodhisattva, they honoured and worshipped him.

But wicked Māra perceived that his own power was eclipsed[180] and that the whole great system of three thousand worlds was turning towards the Bodhisattva. The Great Being reflected[181] on this,[182] and said, “I shall not awaken to the supreme perfect enlightenment until I vanquish wicked Māra who has come in arms with his host, so that it may be well understood of men[183] that Māra has been quelled by him who has won enlightenment, and that the Bodhisattva (315) is eager to show his strength in a marvellous feat of magic[184] before the world of men and devas, who will say, ‘The Bodhisattva has attained firmness, strength, force, and magic power.’ Learning of me they will produce the thought of the supreme perfect enlightenment.”

Then wicked Māra, unhappy, discomfited, pierced by the shaft of grief, and considering the Bodhisattva to be a rival king,[185] equipped his army of four arms, which occupied[186] an area of several yojanas, and advanced to the bodhi tree to see the Bodhisattva. But he could not bear to look on the Bodhisattva and his gaze wavered, for fear that[187] the latter would show his face with all the power that was his. If this great adamantine system of three thousand worlds were great mountains, the Bodhisattva would shake this system as though it were the tiniest atom of dust, and would hurl about the countless elements of the world so that not one tiniest atom of dust should meet with another.

But then the Bodhisattva saw in Māra’s host many who had the roots of virtue. For these, seeing that the Bodhisattva was possessed of such magic and marvellous power, had turned their thoughts to the supreme perfect enlightenment. It was through seeing this circumstance that the Bodhisattva waited[188] and said that he would not awaken to the supreme perfect enlightenment as long as Māra and his host were unconquered.

And on that occasion the Exalted One spoke this verse[189]:—

As a Self-becoming One, the king of the Śākyans, the utterly pure being, lovely like a disc of Jāmbūnada gold, and rid of all the lusts, stood at the foot of the bodhi tree.

The regions of the world were bathed in radiance, while Māra became terrified and distressed. (316) “Verily,” said he, “what will become of me? I find no joy in this mansion[190] of mine.

“Once all those ethereal mansions were finest palaces of sandal-wood, of crystal and coral, with strings of gold. May I not have to leave[191] this place to-day.

“The abundant windows were bright half-moons; the chambers within were overlaid with white coral. There was the incomparable radiance of the world’s sun. But what will happen to-day?

“The diadem has been torn from my head, and to-day my fair radiance is departed. My Apsarases have stayed their chorus. May I not have to leave this place to-day.

“As the mansions of the sky[192] have their light broken[193] by Jāmbūnada gold, so are these mansions, these celestial mansions eclipsed[194] now that the Bodhisattva has appeared.”

And Māra saw the Exalted One, the Self-becoming, seated like an irresistible lion, (317) the essence of purity, the choicest of the world’s beings. He shone like a pillar of Jāmbūnada gold.

Devas stood in the sky, wearing necklaces of pearls, sparkling with golden shells, and lovely. Enraptured they brought strings of golden ornaments and bedecked the bodhi tree of the Exalted One.

On the bodhi tree were bright svastikas and half-moons interspersed with figurines of lions.[195] foyfully the devas brought gems of “lightning-flash stones,”[196] wherewith they bedecked the bodhi tree.

They brought gems of “moon-stone,”[197] of “sun-crystal,”[198] of “sun-stone,”[199] and bedecked the bodhi tree of the Exalted One.

They brought gems gleaming like pearls, resplendent and lovely to behold, and rejoicing, glad and enraptured they bedecked the bodhi tree of the Exalted One.

They brought precious gems of “full-moon stones”[200] in a rope of jewels glittering and lovely. (318) They brought precious gems of gomedaka,[201] and bedecked the bodhi tree of the Exalted One.

Others brought precious gems of bright “red-eye stones”[202] and pure gems of śirigarbha[203] ...[204] and bedecked the bodhi tree of the Exalted One.

They brought gleaming coral,[205] bright and beautiful maheśvara[206] gems and karketana[207] gems, and bedecked the bodhi tree of the Exalted One.

With dark-blue, white and red pearls, bright and beautiful, did they, enraptured and thrilled, bedeck the bodhi tree of the Exalted One.

They brought precious gems of jyotika[208] which outshone in splendour the moon and sun; they brought precious gems of viśesaprāpta.[209]

Clear-eyed and rejoicing, standing in the sky full of magic power, they brought[210] bright and beautiful “nāga stones,”[211] and bedecked the bodhi tree of the Exalted One.

Thousands of Brahmās came to the bodhi throne, (319) and the deva Śakra, lord of the Guhyakas,[212] too; the devas who had seen former saviours of the world came to bow before the Self-becoming One.

The Ābhāsvara devas came, the Śubha devas, the Subhakṛtsna devas...,[213] the Bṛhatphala devas, the Atapa devas, the Sudarśana devas and the Akaniṣṭha devas, and bedecked the bodhi tree of the Exalted One.

The whole bodhi tree was covered over and shed a thousand infinite rays. The whole Buddha-field was ablaze with celestial gems and outshone all the thousand[214] world systems.

And this, they say, was the thought of the Son of Sloth:[215] “May he not remove me from my seat. So let him be the king of devas, for there is not his equal in the whole world.

“Let him be, too, the Buddha, the sovereign of dharma; let the mansions be empty of devas.[216] For he shows the way to bliss, calm and peace. Let me no more have the sovereignty.

“The Buddha-field will be crowded.[217] Ye koṭis of Māras[218] who are assembling,[219] (320) with mail and armour accoutred, be not remiss when the battle is joined.”

And when he had thus rallied his host Māra advanced to the noble lord of trees. Then the Dark One saw the Bodhisattva like a thousand suns in the sky.

Thus did he reflect in his wavering heart: “He cannot be defeated by me, for he has brought into the world the priceless jewel[220] and has begotten a disposition that makes him indifferent to a kingdom.”

Then bringing celestial powder of fair sandal-wood, precious stone of Jāmbūnada, and celestial choice perfumes he excitedly showered them on the Bodhisattva.

Throwing his robe over one shoulder and raising his joined hands, he knelt on the ground to the Bodhisattva’s right. Thrilled, but steadily gazing at him, he on that occasion sang the praises of the Bodhisattva.

“Thou art without a peer in beauty, Virtuous One; none equal to thee in beauty can be found. (321) Mindful, worshipped by devas, the pre-eminent hero in the world, thou standest at the foot of the tree.

“There is none equal to thee in the world, far less a greater one, whether deva, Nāga or man. Thou dost dominate with thy glory all quarters of the world, like the moon in the sky emerging from a cloud.

“Enjoy now[221] the things that thou shouldst honour, the seven superb and most excellent treasures.[222] Wield sovereignty, dwell on the earth as a king over the four continents, and treat wealth with contempt.[223]

“Viewing the regions thou hast won, proud and of infinite power, thou dost surpass in radiance[224] thousands of devas, as a disk of gold surpasses a burnt-out pillar.

“O Choicest Being, thy body covered with the thirty-two marks glitters. Abiding diligent on thy throne thou shalt shine[225] and rule[226]as fathers over their sons.

“Thou shalt control[227] under thy sovereignty the four continents. But here thou wouldst have no dominion. With the magic power at thy command thou shouldst go forth into the world. I shall be thy disciple, like an only son.

“Sporting with a thousand women, (322) like a king of the devas possessed of glory and magic power, I shall grant thee the seven treasures. O Wise One, become a universal king.

“Thou shalt have a thousand sons, brave, heroic, powerful, comely of limb, routers of the armies of their foes, and thou shalt conquer this world up to the confines of ocean.

“And now behold how these many daughters of Māra[228] carrying flowers of fair sandal-wood stand in the sky in front of us, clothed in pure garments and accomplished in music and the arts.

“With lutes, cymbals, tabours, conch-shells, flutes, trumpets,[229] sambhārikas,[230] nakulakas,[231] and kiṃphalas,[232] they now[233] sing in chorus[234] at the foot of the tree.

“Other (devas) stand floating in the air and shower down powder of the fair sandal-wood and of the precious stone of Jāmbūnada. They are all thine.

“O prince, take thy joy in thy superb palace, amid the sounds of bravoes, of drums, conch-shells and cymbals. Enjoy flowers, perfumes, and ointments, (323) and there I will be thy attendant.

“The wheel, the elephant, the lovely-maned horse, the rare jewel beryl,[235] the excellent woman, the armed treasurer, the counsellor—these treasures are thine.

“O prince, dwelling under thy rule, I shall be eager to listen to thy gentle speech, and when I have hearkened to thy words I shall be happy. In that state I shall not speak untruth.

“Taking my stand on the truth I should win me a lovely body, distinguished, covered with marks of excellence. Then (should I) appear radiant with signs and characteristics, O thou that art covered with the marks of excellence.”

The Bodhisattva, as he looked out at all the regions around, uttered this consummate speech in his entrancing and sweet-sounding voice. “Listen, Yakṣa,”[236] said he, “to the words I speak.

“I shall become a king of the whole world when I have awakened to the enlightenment, which is self-control, peace, and calm. My sons shall be those alert men who will hearken to me and do my bidding.

“And I shall have seven rare treasures (324) when I have awakened to the supreme enlightenment. But they will be the seven bodhyaṅgas[237] taught by former Conquerors. He who has mastered them becomes alert.

“And when I have got to know the four bases of magic power,[238] the right standard of meditation,[239] and have attained[240] the all-knowing truths, I shall he triumphant over the regions of the world.

“The pleasures of the senses are despicable, without happiness, and the discerning man will see no profit[241] therein. For that is the way to the hell of the brutes, to the world of Yama with its many ghosts.

“Those whose desires are wrong, who delight in lust, are utterly sunk in darkness, are without sight and bereft of light—such are the men who pursue sensual desire.

“It is a foul-smelling, fetid, ignoble thing. Pure men take no delight therein. The fool may turn[242] his own peculiar thoughts thereto, but the wise man will not set his heart thereon.[243]

“As when during a thunderstorm[244] the lightning strikes a field of luxuriant ripe rice, (325) so because of sensual pleasures do states of the highest good become fruitless.

Worldlings,[245] indeed, pursue what is base; blind and unawakened they are excited by passion; they are excited because their minds are unawakened. The Bodhisattva will not allow himself to feel[246] the craving of desire.

“As when at the dissolution of a Buddha field,[247] while the sun blazes in the sky, its genial heat turns it to cinders and ashes, so do states of purity destroy desires of sense.

“As when a prince has got rid of his foe he can enjoy freedom, glory and prosperity, so may one who does not pursue the base delights of the senses win the good proclaimed by the Conqueror.

“As when dry excrement burns with a repulsive and most foul smell a king’s son is not happy there, so sensual pleasures are vile to the wise.

“As in the last month of summer salt water may cause thirst in men, so does the wretched man, who pursues the pleasures of sense, (326) in his ignorance weave for himself a net of craving.[248]

“As for the humours in liver, kidneys and lungs[249] and the other secretions that arise in the body and run out through openings on its surface, the wise man will have[250] no joy therein.

“There are mucus, spittle, rheum, phlegm, bile, attended by headache; they flow without ceasing, unclean and vile; the wise man will have no joy therein.

“Because of sensual desire men suffer manifold woes in headlong ruin,[251] in states of ill. As beans and pulse when gathered into a pot, so do men shrivel up in the hells.

“Their bodies are hacked here and there with knives, or, again, cleaved with spears and arrows. The foolish commit undesirable deeds in three ways.[252] Let the Bodhisattva never find his pleasure therein.

“He who through lack of understanding generates a craving for sensual pleasures, is carried away and deluded by forms. Thus he of himself seeks after the source of the disease that brings ill, just as a jackal seeks a corpse in the cemetery.

“(327) O Son of Darkness, do not, in order to delude me, sing the praises of sensual pleasures which are so despised by the wise. As he would a trench full of burning coals, so should the Bodhisattva shun the pleasures of sense.

“For if he had pursued the pleasures of sense he would not have gained this spot which is crowded with birds and full of trees; no more could he, if he had pursued the pleasures of sense have his body covered[253] with the marks of excellence.

“But by guarding virtue and the unblemished holy life and following after the Buddhas, with passion extirpated, and rid of the lusts, and having, after many a koṭi of kalpas, developed forbearance, his person becomes distinguished.

“In former lives I was of flawless virtue and endowed with calm, ever alert, making clean the manifold endless Way, and to-day I will win the noble supreme enlightenment

Then Sārthavāha,[254] Māra’s son, who was well-disposed to the Exalted One, and alert, stood in front of his father and spoke to him. “Listen, father,” said he, “to the words I speak. Do not breed distrustful hate.[255]

“When this peerless, virtuous man was born, the earth with its rocks shook six times (328). The ten quarters of the world were all lit up. Celestial musical instruments gave forth music without anyone playing them.[256]

“Devas held up celestial sunshades, and the Buddha-fìeld was overspread with banners and flags. Throngs of gods[257] and hosts of devas waved their garments. Noble men became alert.

“He will become the eye of the whole world,[258] a light dispelling the darkness. He will scatter the darkness shrouding those who are in misery. Do not, in thy feeble understanding, nurture distrust of him.

“For he will become a shelter for the whole world, a protection, an island,[259] a refuge, and a rest.[260] Those men and devas who put not their trust in him pass to the terrible hell of Avīci.

“He is without a peer in the world, worthy of offerings. He is ever beneficent and compassionate to the world. When all men and women realise this they will become blessed here in all the world.

“But he who nurtures a mind distrustful of him who is endued with merit, who has shed his passions, the Śākyan lion, verily, there will be no prosperous state for him. And when he passes away he will forthwith pass to the bourne of ill.

(329) “He could scatter this brave host[261] and, lifting and tossing thee out of the ocean, he could toss countless fields. In strength there is no army equal[262] to him.

“He, firmly resolute and alert, could dry up all the water of the flowing sea, the ocean home of the Asuras, with all its surrounding splendour. Surely, he can triumph over all Māra’s host.

“He could overcome Brahmā, Śakra, Guhyakas, Nāgas, Suras, men and Mahoragas. As a disk of gold (outshines) a burnt-out post, so could the Conqueror with his massive body eclipse[263] Nārāyaṇa.[264]

“He could grasp a noble mountain of Cakravāḍa in the hollow of his hand and make it so much dust. The hero, firmly resolute and alert, who has gone to the foot of the bodhi tree, can not be swayed.

“The moon would fall from the sky to earth, and the earth of itself stand[265] in the sky; all rivers would flow upstream, sooner than this firmly resolute man could be swayed.

(330) “As a six-tusked Nāga, mighty lord of elephants, sixty years old, and stately of body could with its foot coolly smash a pot of unbaked clay, just so could he, the Bodhisattva, deal with Māra’s army.”

But Māra, discomfited, thus replied to Sārthavāha: “Why fearest thou? Be not as one of little understanding. My host is equipped, mailed and armoured. We will put an obstacle in the way of the firmly resolute one.

“He whom for thousands of years I have brought up, he, my eldest son, now deserts me.[266] Now is he become a follower of Gotama, ready to ruin Māra and his host.”

[Sārthavāha answered:]

“As the beautiful, bright and sweet-smelling flower but rarely[267] grows on the flowering fig-tree, just so do these Buddhas, who have shed their passions and are rid of the lusts, only appear after nayutas of koṭis of kalpas.

“It is out of pity that I would have my unbelieving[268] father who has gone wrong in morals,[269] believe.[270] For it is the nature of sons to act so. I am compassionate, not unfriendly.

“It would be easier[271] for a man who climbed to the summit of Sumeru (331) and thence threw himself down to the ground, to ensure safety for his body when he fell, than it would be for one who showed unkindliness to the Bodhisattva.

“It would be easier for a feeble-minded man who fell into a trench full of glowing coals to ensure safety for his body when he fell, than it would be for one who showed unkindliness to the Bodhisattva.

“It would be easier for a man who should take a sharpened and whetted knife, put it in his mouth and withdraw it, to ensure his safety and win good luck than it would be for one who dealt harshly with the Bodhisattva.

“It would be easier for a man walking on a road set with razors for a thousand or a koṭi of years to ensure his safety and have good luck, than it would be for one who dealt harshly with the Bodhisattva.

“It would be easier for a foolish man who drank molten copper to ensure his safety, though his inwards, his liver, kidneys and lungs were pierced, than it would be for one who dealt harshly with the Bodhisattva.

“It would be easier for a man who swallowed a red-hot ball of iron to ensure his safety, though his stomach were on fire, and his liver, kidneys and lungs pierced, (332) than it would be for one who dealt harshly with the Bodhisattva.

“It would be easier for a man on whom a rock as big as Cakravāḍa was thrown from the sky, falling on his head, to ensure his safety and have good luck, than it would be for one who dealt[272] harshly with the Bodhisattva.

“It would be easier for a man upon whose body glowing embers, knives and axes were thrown from the sky, to ensure his safety and have good luck, than it would be for one who dealt harshly with the Bodhisattva.

“Thou couldst hold this system of the thousand worlds in thy hand for koṭis of kalpas, and know the varied thoughts of men, more easily than[273] thou couldst remove this sage from his couch.

“It would be possible for a mass of fire to blaze in the middle of the flowing ocean of water, with a ruddy column of smoke as high as Sumeru, sooner than it would be possible to remove this sage from his couch.

“Endued with virtue, peerless, having of yore attained perfection[274] in calm, in austerities, and in devotion, the Conqueror, like an impetuous maned king of beasts, roars his roar at Māra’s host.

(333) “As a man blind from birth reels along without vision,[275] ignorant of direction, and falls into a large hole, so, O Māra, will it be with thy army.

“Behold, father, how these devas, comely of form and meritorious of karma, exultantly besprinkled the Bodhisattva with powder of fair sandalwood.

“The whole world is full of devas who have left all their mansions, and gathered here. Standing in the sky they have scattered[276] powder of flowers; joyfully they have besprinkled the Bodhisattva.

“Do not thou, whose intelligence is great, breed evil thoughts. For the great Leaders of Caravans[277] are hard to assail. My father would emerge discomfited, wretched, in misfortune, in ruin from the dust-heap.

“But as for those who beget love and reverence for him and those who go to his refuge, they all, ere long, leaving this plane of woe, will attain agelessness and grieflessness.”

Then Janīsuta,[278] of great understanding, brought bright and charming flowers in his hands and showered them on the choicest Being in the whole world. He said to his father

(334) “He could reduce all thy army to ashes.

“As when a blind man, having got a treasure, would have no joy because he could not see it,[279] so having known[280] him who is greatly worthy of offerings, thou, Son of Sloth, dost breed distrust of him.

“As a foolish man who, when a shower of gold in pieces the size of a dice rains upon him in his house, should be incensed and go out, saying, ‘I’ll be killed,’ just so is my father who will not abide the Great Seer.

“As a man who, having gained a mansion of sandal-wood, sweetly-scented, bright and lovely, should step out of it and fall into a pit, so is my father who will not abide the Great Seer.

“As a man who should rise up from his seat in a bejewelled, bright and radiant mansion and, going out, should fall into a trench of burning coals, so is my father who will not abide the Great Seer.

“As a man who, having got a palace of Jāmbūnada gold, bright and beautiful, should wander forth and fall into the sea, so is my father who will not abide the Great Seer.

“As a man who should take off his necklace of gold (335) from his neck and wear a copper one when he goes abroad, just so, Son of Sloth, having known the Seer who is worthy of offerings, thou dost breed distrust of him.

“As a man who should refuse a goblet of ambrosia and in his folly drink a goblet of poison, just so dost thou, having known him who is greatly worthy of offerings, in thy sloth, breed distrust of him.

“As a man who, having bright dark-blue eyes, should himself pluck them out, so dost thou, Son of Sloth, having known the Sage who is worthy of offerings, breed distrust of him.

“O Māra, guard[281] thy mindfulness. Accept this fair celestial string of pearls,[282] which illumines the quarters of the world with its radiance. Do not, father, breed distrust of him.

“(See) how he with his bright beauty lights up this whole world, pervading Meru and Great Cakravāḍa; how he is like a mighty rock in mid-ocean.

“(See) how he, standing at the foot of the tree has outshone[283] the devas on Sumeru summit. It is not through pursuing sensual pleasures that he stands there. O Son of Darkness, do not breed distrust of him.

“There is, father, no being in the three worlds (336) who can be as virtuous as he. As the lord of light that can not be looked at, so is the Sage seated at the foot of the bodhi tree.

“Like the Conqueror Krakucchanda who sat at the foot of the tree irradiating the four quarters, so is his body covered with the marks of excellence. Do not, father, breed distrust of him “And he, the World-saviour who was named Konāka and who with his clear sight dispelled the darkness and irradiated the quarters with his glory, sat here at the foot of the tree. And he who was named Kāśyapa, all-seeing and worthy, sat here, and woke up[284] a hero to the supreme enlightenment.

“They who in auspicious kalpas were saviours of the world, having attained enlightenment, who were sages, devas of devas, of old sat here at the foot of the tree and woke up as heroes to the blest[285] supreme enlightenment.

“Four thousand Conquerors of old sat here at the foot of the tree, the lord of all that grows. Future beneficent saviours of the world, also, will here attain the noble supreme enlightenment.”

(337) When he had spoken this verse which is well named[286] Mahāsmṛti, he, elated in heart and moved by a good impulse, threw a string of pearls to Gotama.

Then Vidyupratiṣṭha,[287] another son of Māra, holding a celestial, brightly woven garment in his hand, and gazing at the Bodhisattva, the Seer, in elation of heart extolled him on his bodhi throne.

“...[288] There is none equal to thee in the whole world. So, O great Seer, hast thou lived in former lives.

“Thou hast lived in self-denial from of old for infinite kalpas. Thou didst renounce thy distinguished royal city, thy troops of elephants, thy horses, and many a goodly chariot. Therefore, O Choicest of beings, thou dost illumine the quarters[289] of the world.

“Thou didst renounce thy wife, and even thy own flesh, thy sons and daughters, thy own eyes, and once[290] thy own dear head. Therefore thou dost illumine the regions all around.

“Thou didst renounce bright celestial jewels, and divers mansions bright with plentiful gems, glittering like stars in the sky and flashing like lightning. (338) Now thou art all radiant in the eyes of men.”

When he had spoken this verse, Vidyupratiṣṭha, the other son of Māra, moved by a noble impulse, threw to the Lord of men thousands of koṭis of nayutas of garments.

Other well-disposed friends sought to deter Māra[291] from breeding distrust of the High-minded One. “This Magnanimous One of pure radiance,” said they, “the Sage, can no more be moved[292] from his throne.”

But the perverse Son of Darkness heeded not[293] their words, and continued to nourish his jealousy and wrath. Being evil-minded and infatuated he bred his mistrust still more.

Arming hundreds koṭis of his followers,[294] Māra prepared his great host. Eager then to frustrate the enlightenment, in his folly he nourished his evil thoughts.

Thousands of nayutas of koṭis of Yakṣas, Nāgas, Asuras, men and Mahoragas,[295] and sons of Gandharvas, powerful and strong, approached the tree, the lord of all that grows.

With a huge and dreadful rock in his hands (339), armoured and mailed, most frightful of aspect, Māra hurled his lightning and threw a thunderbolt as he advanced to the noble lord of trees.

Carrying swords, arrows, hatchets, knives and sharp-edged razors, with banners flying and with shouts of triumph they advanced against the Lion (and) against the lord of trees.

Lions and tigers, horses and elephants, oxen and bulls, asses and other equine creatures,[296] and serpents stretching out their venomous fangs advanced against the Bodhisattva.

Others carried huge firebrands in their hands; their heads were all lit up, their forms[297] distorted, appearing flat and broken of nose.[298] Māra’s army stood at the foot of the bodhi tree.

There were thousands of chariots near the bodhi tree, with banners and flags and joy-drums,[299] glittering with their network, and making clear music. For there were joy-drums at the top of the standards, too.

Thirty yojanas all around swarmed with thousands of terrible Yakṣas. Above in the sky, too, in all directions (340) were Yakṣas of most frightful aspect.

Grasping his whetted and sharpened knife the Son of Darkness advanced a furrow’s length, and out of his evil heart he thus spoke to the Bodhisattva. “Arise speedily from thy seat” said he.

“Thirty yojanas all around are swarming with thousands of terrible Yakṣas. Thou canst not, monk, escape anywhere. To-day, I shall rend thee as I would a stalk of reed.”

Then did the Bodhisattva give utterance to a speech that was perfect,[300] gentle and sweet-sounding. “Though all these beings be[301] Māra’s creatures, they cannot stir[302] a hair of mine.”

[Māra replied:]

“Thou art all alone, Monk, as thou standest at the foot of the tree. Thou hast no host like this of mine. Through whose power should Māra’s army not be able to stir a hair of thine?”

[The Bodhisattva replied:]

“In charity, in morality, in forbearance, in energy, in meditation, in the highest wisdom, and in infinite becoming for many koṭis of kalpas, there is none equal to me in all the world.

“Abiding in love and in compassion (341), living the life that leads to enlightenment[303] for the sake of men, when I have awakened to enlightenment I shall win a Buddha’s knowledge and I shall set men free.

“In my former lives, O Son of Darkness, I was of flawless virtue for infinite nayutas of koṭis of kalpas, steadfast, unbreakable as a diamond. I am he that to-day will attain the noble supreme enlightenment.

“However great[304] thy army be, O Son of Darkness, and though all of them be under thy control and authority, though they stand in armed ranks like Cakravāḍa’s range, they cannot stir a hair of mine.

“Outward signs are devoid of reality;[305] my vow has been made clear.[306] In me there is no awareness of being...[307] no awareness of Māra, nor of harm, and as I am thus conditioned,[308] thou hast no power over me, thou evil one.

“I have no awareness of form, nor of sound, nor of taste, nor of smell, nor of touch.[309] As I am thus conditioned thou canst not do aught to me, Māra.

“I have no awareness of the skandhas[310] nor of the elements.[311] But I have made clear my awareness of what is within.[312] As the firmament is without existence, so is the nature of all phenomena.”

(342) Then the Bodhisattva with his bright and webbed right hand struck the ground. The whole world quaked six times and there was a fearful roar.

As if a man should take and beat a clear-sounding vessel of metal, just so did the whole world resound when the Bodhisattva struck the earth.

Māra’s host became terrified then, and in their panic they fled for many a yojana, nor cast a look in any direction, when they saw the Buddha like the king of rays.[313]

Some flew over the ground in their chariots, like clouds rumbling in the sky. Like elephants floundering in the sea, so were all Māra’s stricken hosts.

Devas showered celestial flowers and poured down powder of sandal-wood. Spreading over thirty yojanas all around they sprinkled flowers of the coral-tree on the Bodhisattva.

Thousands of devas in the sky waved saffron garments; some threw strings of pearls; (343) others praised him in verse and song, while the discomfited Son of Darkness brooded in silence.

After a full seven-days the ill-starred host of Māra had, blinded and ignorant of direction, with difficulty reached the verge of a wood, while the Buddha shone like the king of rays.

Hundreds of chariots were dashed to pieces against one another, and now they saw[314] the great earth heaving. They fashioned for themselves changed bodies, and assailed the noble lord of trees. But they did not achieve the forms of the heroes of old;[315] they were all forms cowed with fear.

Like a bird with broken wing on the ground, so lay the Son of Darkness on the surface of the earth. For a full seven-days he, with his might and his host, bewildered and dazed, had not the strength to move.

The devas assuming material form,[316] all in harmony and thrilled with joy poured down a stream of sandal-wood powder, the size of a dice, celestial and rare. Devas in the sky raised up thousands of nayutas of koṭis of flags. (344) The Buddha-field was filled with banners and streamers, when the Bodhisattva struck the ground.

Celestial music fell on the air, and there were celestial choruses of devas; devas in the sky poured down a rain of flowers, when the Bodhisattva struck the ground.

And all the trees that grew on the earth blossomed with flowers of an infinitely pervading scent. “Empty are all external signs; my vow has been made clear.”[317] Such was the spontaneous cry he made.

In the deva mansion that stands above the clouds, in the Nāga’s mansion in the sea, and in the strongholds of the A suras there were entrancing sounds when the Bodhisattva struck the ground.

When the Bodhisattva shed forth the rays from the palm of his good and bright hand they fell on the whole world, excepting the hells, the world of the brutes and Yama’s worlds.[318]

When they saw the earth quaking, koṭis of Māra’s followers fell to the ground. They saw the Sage who had achieved enlightenment like a thousand moons in the sky.

(345) One after the other they strove to rise, but all the more were they stretched out on the ground. Like gaily-coloured cloths thrown from the sky, such, then, was Māra’s host.

The noble Bodhisattva, without a tremor, rid of fear, an incomparable field of merit, who had of old practised the noble highest dharma, shone in the world like the king of rays.

“This is ill,” (declared he), “this is the arising of ill. This is the cessation of it and the best Way. When this exists, that appears; when this is destroyed that disappears.

“Ignorance[319] is the cause of the make-up of coming-to-be.[320] This becomes the cause of consciousness.[321] Because of consciousness there will come to be[322] individuality.[323] This becomes the cause of the six faculties of sense.[324]

“These six faculties of sense thus result in contact.[325] And contact will become the cause of the feelings. He who feels becomes avid with craving. Because of craving there comes to be grasping.

“Because of grasping men pass from one life into another.[326] Hence there come to be birth, old age, death and sickness.

(346) Sorrows come to be, and lamentations, troubles,[327] ill, and despair.”

When the Bodhisattva had investigated the dharma of causation,[328] to his perfect omniscience the cessation of these things became clear. Seeing their nature to be so, he attained the peerless, noble, supreme enlightenment.

And when the Conqueror had attained the noble supreme enlightenment, the clear, illimitable vision, there went forth to all the regions from one end of the three worlds to the other the unimpeded shout of those who knew.[329]

Countless drums were beaten, and the roar of them was all-pervading. Men and women won freedom from sorrow, and devas, too, Nāgas, men, and Mahoragas.

Śuddhāvāsa devas came, thousands of koṭis of them, infinite nayutas. Stretching forth their joined hands, they extolled the Daśabala who had won through to the beyond.[330]

“Like the monarch of rocks[331] in mid-ocean, like Indra’s banner, Vaijayanta, on Sumeru’s summit, like a thousand suns in the sky, so shines the Conqueror at the foot of the bodhi tree.

“Thou, O Lord of men, hast attained that enlightenment to win which thou didst give gifts in thy former lives, (347) to win which thou didst keep thy morals unblemished, to win which thou didst ensue the highest wisdom.

“A man of vision, thou art the dispeller of darkness, the repository of what is liable to destruction,[332] the choicest of beings, the winner of self-dependence, the noble caravan-leader for men; there is none equal to thee in the whole world.

“All the universe is illumined by thee, as by the moon when it emerges from a cloud. So does a celestial radiance fall on devas, Nāgas, Suras and Mahoragas.

“It might be possible to raze Sumeru, the monarch of rocks, to the ground, making dust of a hundred like mountains, the fragments made equal to a grain of mustard seed, but it is not possible to dim the Buddha-lustre of the Conquerors.

“One might be able to count the drops in the great ocean of water by taking them in the hand, though there be thousands of koṭis of them, hundreds of nayutas, hut one cannot tell the lustre of the Conquerors.

“It might he possible to know the system of three thousand worlds up to the highest heaven, the whole earth, trees, wind and fire, (348) and count the grasses, creepers, herbs and seeds, hut it is not possible to dim all the lustre[333] of the Buddha.

“It might he possible, by piercing the firmament a hundred or a thousand times, to determine the highest point of the sky and all the hundreds of four-quarters, but it is not possible to dim all the lustre of the Buddha.

“It might be possible to count all beings,[334] the hair on their bodies and the hair on their heads, and their bodies, those which have been and those to come, but it is not possible to dim the lustre of the Conquerors.

“Beings who have heard of such great worth as this, will devoutly remember the Saviour of the world. Ease will be theirs when they have left the spheres of woe, and ere long enlightenment will be honoured of them.”

Again, monks, when the Tathāgata had awakened to the unsurpassed perfect enlightenment, for a full seven-days he sat alone cross-legged. Then devas of earth, devas of sky, Caturmahārājika devas, Trāyastriṃśa devas, Yāma devas, Tuṣita devas, Nirmāṇarati devas, Paranirmitavaśavartin devas, Mahābrahmā devas, Brahmā devas, devas who were priests of Brahmā, Ābhā devas, Parīttābhā devas, Apramāṇābhā devas, Ābhāsvara devas, Śubha devas, (349) Apramāṇaśubha devas, Śubhakṛtsna devas, Vṛhatphala devas, Avṛha devas, Atapa devas, Sudṛśa[335] devas, and the Akaniṣṭha devas, for a full seven-days honoured, revered, worshipped, and adored the Tathāgata on his noble bodhi throne. And for a full seven-days the whole[336] universe of three thousand worlds became one vision of splendour.

On that occasion the Exalted One uttered these verses:—

For a full seven-days the perfect Buddha, the monument of the whole world, after awakening to the supreme enlightenment did not rise from his seat.

Thousands of koṭis of dev as assembled in the sky, and for a full seven-nights poured down a shower of blossoms.

Blue lotuses, red lotuses, campaka,[337] and white lotuses, lovely, thousand-pet ailed and brilliant, did the devas pour down.

And Māra was then confounded and with his staff he wrote on the ground, “Vanquished am I by the deva of devas, by the mighty[338] Sākyan lion.”

The Trāyastriṃśa devas, the Yāma devas, the Tuṣita devas, the Nirmāṇarati[339] devas, the Paranirmitavaśavartin devas, devas who still abide in a world of sensuous delights,

Scattered in the sky celestial showers of blossoms, red sandalwood, celestial aloe, and campaka. The Buddha-field blossomed with a rain of flowers the size of a dice.

Thousands of koṭis of Brahmās assembled in the sky poured down a fine powder of celestial red sandal-wood.

With the devas of earth were self-luminous Śuddhāvāsa devas; every place, from one quarter to another, swarmed with devas.

The air was filled with sunshades, flags and banners, (350) as they paid highest honour to the glorious perfect Buddha.

A rich radiance was shed wherewith the Buddha-field was suffused. The highest parts of the world systems became the colour of fire.

The hells became tranquil everywhere in the Buddha-field; burning coals were cooled, and the denizens became happy.

Those beings in hell who had worked out their hellish penalty of woe were forthwith reborn among the devas.

In Saṃjīva, Kālasūtra, Tapana, Pratāpana and Raurava the fire was quenched by the rays of the Saviour of the world.

In Avīci and in Saṃghāta and in the separate[340] hells, everywhere was the fire quenched by the rays of the Saviour of the world.

In all the separate hells that are in the world-systems, the fire was quenched by the rays of the Saviour of the world.

Those who in the sphere of the brutes were wont to feed on gory flesh were filled with love by the Buddha, and did no harm to one another.

The bodhi tree was adorned with sunshades, banners and flags, and covered with minarets[341] fashioned by devas.

All around on the ground away from[342] the bodhi throne were stumps of trees, thorns, potsherds, gravel and pebbles.

But the bodhi throne was surrounded by bejewelled ground which the devas of the Buddha-field had fashioned here.

(351) Thousands of devas stood on the ground carrying censers,[343] and worshipped the Guide of the world.

All the ground beneath[344] was covered with lotuses, the colour of Jāmbūnada gold, which sprang up[345] through the power of the Buddha.

And the beings who were diseased, afflicted and helpless became whole and happy, bathed in the rays of the Buddha.

Those blind from birth gained sure sight and were able to see things. They spoke to one another of the mighty[346] one who had gained enlightenment.

Passion, hate and folly were allayed when enlightenment was won by the Śākyan Lion, the great Seer.

Palaces and fair mansions, gabled and delightful, all turned towards[347] the mighty Bodhisattva.

All men and women and Kinnaras in the Buddha-field turned towards the mighty Bodhisattva.

Devas, male and female, deva sons and beautiful deva maidens all turned towards the bodhi tree of the great Seer.

Nāgas, Gandharvas, Yakṣas, Kumbhāṇḍas and Rākṣasas all turned towards the bodhi tree of the great Seer.

Young boys and young girls, lying abed or sitting down, all stood and faced Howards the bodhi tree of the great Seer.

All gems of precious stones, celestial and rare, (352) ornaments of devas, turned thitherwards.

The jewels of Nāgas, Yakṣas, Piśācas and Rākṣasas all turned towards the bodhi tree.

Anklets, bracelets and armlets turned towards the place where hung the saffron garments of the Buddha who had won enlightenment.

Men’s strings of pearls, and lovely necklaces worn round the neck, and the adornments of human beings turned towards the immovable bodhi tree.

Strings of pearls, brilliant ornaments, earrings of gems, chains of gold and signet rings turned towards the immovable bodhi tree.

All the inconceivable beings in the Buddha-field,wittingly or unwittingly, turned towards the immovable bodhi tree.

Cool winds, fragrant and delightful, blew all around the Buddha-field of the Mighty One who had gained enlightenment.

All the devas in the Buddha-field, Nāgas, men, Asuras, Kinnaras, and Yakṣas gazed upon their Guide.

Carrying censers, and all made happy by him, they worshipped the Light of the world as he stood on the bodhi throne.

With their joined hands uplifted they adored him and extolled him in verse. (353) They paid worship to the Buddha as they stood near the bodhi throne.

All beheld him seated there, the light-bringing Saviour of the world. No one perceived him standing at a distance, even of a fathom’s length.

No one in the world saw the Buddha from behind, but all the quarters saw him face to face.

No one saw the Guide of the world from the left or from the right, but all saw the great Hero, straight in front.

Forthwith incense was burnt in the Buddha-field, and all the farthest ends of the Buddha-fields[348] were filled with its scent.

It is not possible to count all the koṭis who saw the glory of the Buddha as they stepped towards the bodhi tree.

Grass and wood, herbs and trees, all were turned towards the bodhi tree of the great Seer.

Who, having heard of such marvellous signs[349] displayed by the Guide of the world, would not be glad? Who but a minion of Māra?

All the glory that was the mighty Buddha’s when he won enlightenment, could not be declared, even in the words of one gifted with magical powers of speech.[350]

When those who saw the perfect Buddha, as he stood on the bodhi throne and worshipped him, heard of the signs they were glad because they understood.

And monks who are firmly established in morality[351] will feel a fine rapture when they have heard this sūtra.

(354) There will be joy for those who are endowed with forbearance and a gentle disposition, who are active of body and mind, and are desirous for knowledge of the Buddha.

There will be joy for those who, awake to the supreme enlightenment, comfort men by saying that they will deliver them from liability to re-birth.[352]

There will be joy for those who have honoured previous Buddhas, best of the twice-born,[353] when they hear this sūtra of the great Seer.

Those who refreshed the needy with food and drink will do reverence to the Buddha when they hear this sūtra.

Those who succoured the poor with their wealth will do reverence to the Buddha when they hear this sūtra.

Those who of old reared fine topes to the Buddhas will rejoice when they come to know the fairest palaces[354] of all.

Those who of old[355] maintained the true dharma of the Saviour of the world and renounced gain and reputation will rejoice.

Those whose lives are no more to be re-compounded[356] and who are rid of karma that demands requital, the beloved[357] of the Saviour of the world, will render him honour.

There will be rapture for those who, having seen the benevolent perfect Buddha, the Best of bipeds, will render him great honour.

There will be rapture for those who, having seen the Lion, the great Nāga, the monument of the world, will do him great honour.

(355) There will be rapture for those who, eager for knowledge of the Buddha, will render honour to the banner of the Saviour of the world.

There will be rapture for those who, having seen the Buddha, the light-bringer, the invincible, will render him great honour.

There will be rapture for those who, having seen the good Guide, the Light of the world, will revere him with infinite honour.

There will be rapture for those who, when they see the two Saviours of the world, the Tathāgatas named Kusuma,[358] will revere them.

There will be rapture for those who, when they see Maru, perfect Buddha, Best of bipeds, choicest of speakers, will revere him.

There will be rapture for those who, when they see Puṣpa, supreme Buddha, Best of bipeds, will pay him the highest homage.

There will be terror for those who, being avaricious, setting value on reputation and relying on false knowledge, hear this sūtra with little heed.

There will be no distress for those who, though they delight in society[359] and dwell amid the crowd, have heeded the seclusion of the Buddha.

Even the immoral, when they have heard the Buddha speaking thus, will turn to the Light of the world, and render him eager reverence.

There will be joy for the future valiant and blessed Bodhisattvas who have been proclaimed by the Buddha.

(356) Those who will never lapse from knowledge of the Buddha will be blessed, when they hear this sūtra.

Those who, trained with submissive minds in knowledge of the Buddha, have revered, honoured and worshipped former Buddhas, choice beings and lords of men, will be enraptured when they hear of the beauty[360] of the Best of Men.

And those who are perfectly and entirely pure, endued with hundreds of koṭis of good qualities; those who, rejoicing in the Sugata’s teaching, uphold[361] the dharma when it is breaking up.[362]

And those who are constant and dev out,[363] and are not scurrilous and loose of talk,[364] nor given to pride, will be enraptured when they hear of the beauty of the noble Conqueror.

Those who do not forsake the knowledge of a Buddha; those whose peerless, infinite enlightenment is without a flaw, and those who abide in unremitting devotion, will be enraptured when they hear of the beauty of the noble Conqueror.

Monks, when of old the Tathāgata was living his career as a Bodhisattva, he rose above the world through being endowed with four moral states.[365] What four? Flawless morality,[366] (357)...,[367] a heart benevolent[368] to all beings, and a heart devoted[369] to all beings. Endowed then with these four moral states, monks, the Tathāgata, when he lived his career as a Bodhisattva, attained an omniscience of this kind.

Then, on that occasion, the Exalted One uttered these verses:—

Morality is the best treasure in the teaching of the Saviour of the world. Neither gold nor silver is the wealth extolled by the monk.

Let him who stands faithfully by the Master’s teaching honour morality. The immoral man is driven far away; he is not a disciple of the Buddha.

The Best of bipeds, the Saviours of the world, the great Heroes, who are endowed with the thirty-two marks, look upon those who have kept their morality flawless.[370]

Dwelling in his forest home, zealous[371] for love and morality, valiant and at ease—this is the treasure of the recluse.

Desiring little, and content with little, valiant and self-composed, conscientious and scrupulous[372]—this is the treasure of the recluse.

For all monks are truly moral when they have broken the ensnaring net of craving and developed the seven bodhyaṅgas[373]—this is the treasure of the recluse.

The sage with no passion for existence develops the void and the calm; manifold ills have no reality for him—this is the treasure of the recluse.

Very rich does he become who thus pursues his way; following this course of conduct even a monk is very rich.

(358) The monk who is endowed with morality is accounted wealthy, for it is not on the score of pearls and corals that the monk becomes very rich.

Let the monk be moral, dwelling at ease, and harming none. It is not by acquiring the robe that the monk goes to the heavenly bourne.

By the perfect practice of morality he avoids all inopportune times. The Master does not commend the monk who sets store on birth and possessions.

When he has set his mind on morality, heaven is not hard for him to win. He is dear and pleasant to all wherever he goes.

Guard your morality prudently as you aim at the three happy things—praise, wealth, and, when you have passed on, joy in heaven.[374] Morality is the best garment and a resplendent ornament. The monk who is conspicuous for his morality[375] is not obstructed in his charity.[376]

His body is radiant with pure morality, and when death comes there is no burning[377] for him.

When his morality is pure, the attainment of fruition is not difficult. Then besides there is heaven, and he sees the Saviour of the world.

Conspicuous though he is for his pure morality the monk is withal meek, and he does not get himself known by his loud talk.

Moral and fearless, he is never afraid. Never does he fall[378] into too much affection which leads[379] to the bourne of ill.[380]

(359) The moral man has few desires and few cares, but is content with virtue. He wins concentration quickly and goes on to win serenity.[381]

With his morality guarded the monk becomes confident; nor is he blinded[382] when he has seen the disciples of the Conqueror.

For the monk who has made his morals clean can, being self-possessed and mindful, recollect his former lives during thousands of koṭis of kalpas.

It is as a result of his morality that the great Hero, the monument of the whole world, can observe[383] the Brahmā-world.

Through his pure morality his deva-eye[384] is made clear. No place anywhere in the Buddha-fields is beyond his range of vision.

With morality well attained, the infinite Tathāgata, the Guide, knows the passing away and coming-to-be of all beings.

The moral man will fare through the world alert and energetic; it is not hard for him to get to hear the pleasing sound of the Buddha’s name.[385]

The moral man becomes dear and pleasing to men, everywhere honoured, revered, and esteemed, pure of heart and sinless.

Through his pure morality a man can see one passing away to the highest brilliant mansion, the resort of throngs of Apsarases.

Through his pure morality a man can see one passing away to[386] the bright peak of Sumeru, the abode of the Trāyastriṃśa devas.

Through his pure morality he can see the Yāma devas, and that celestial city which is crowded by Apsarases.

(360) Because of his perfectly pure morality he sees the Tuṣita devas; he sees their bright bejewelled mansions.

Because of his perfectly pure morality he sees the Nirmāṇarati devas, the devas (named) Sunirmita, makers of their own adornments.[387]

Because of his perfectly pure morality he sees the shining Paranirmitavaśavartin devas standing in their own mansions.

Because of his perfectly pure morality he sees the abode of Māra[388], covered with a canopy of jewels and crowded by throngs of Apsarases.

Through fixing his mind on morality he sees the Brahmā devas and their mansion of Jāmbūnada gold begirt with jewels.

The moral monk sees the devas in Brahmā’s train, and the devas who are his priests,[389] standing in their mansions.

The moral monk sees standing in their mansions the devas who are Brahmā’s attendants[390] and the Mahā-Brahmā devas.

Endowed with morality he sees the Ābhā devas and their magnificent bejewelled mansions.

The moral monk sees the powerful Śubha devas, the Śubhakṛtsna and the Apramāṇābhā devas.

Through keeping his morality pure he sees the Parīttaśubha devas, and thousands of devas standing in the material world.

Through his perfectly pure morality he sees the Vṛhatphala devas, the Avṛha devas, the Atapa devas, the Sudṛśa devas and the Sudarśana devas. (361) Through his perfect morality he even sees the Śuddhāvāsa devas.

The monks who have kept their morality shining see those who have passed entirely away[391] there as fire has been quenched by water.

He[392] who has the marks of distinction was always unblemished in morality in his former lives. Thus he comes to be the Daśabala, the Master, and his body sparkles with the marks of excellence.

Always alert in morality and in concentration did the Conqueror fare for countless kalpas in the past. So does he become the lord of dharma in the world, like as the sun is the lord of light.

Thus practising pure morality for infinite countless kalpas, the Sugata is adorned and shining with the marks. From his mouth blows the scent of sandal-wood.

Ever keeping in view these good qualities and guarding the morality commended by the Conqueror, abide in the forest[393] with exultant hearts. Those who honour the excellent Sage are exalted.

The Buddhas seen of old were Caravan-leaders, who had stifled their passions, were revered and honoured and self-dependent. (362) They begat the desire for the noble enlightenment. When they heard of these good qualities the Bodhi-sattvas were exultant.[394]

Again, monks, the Tathāgata is pure in morality, in concentration, in wisdom, in emancipation, in the knowledge of emancipation, in forbearance, in sweetness of disposition,[395] in

love, and in compassion. And, monks,[396] the Tathāgata being thus perfectly pure, it is not possible to determine the merit of him who shall render him honour with flowers, garlands, perfumes, flags and banners, music, and ointments. His body of merit cannot be exhausted otherwise than by one of the three careers[397] until the end of it comes in Nirvana.[398] And why? Because, monks, as the Tathāgata is infinite in all good qualities, so, monks, offerings made to the Tathāgata are infinite, unending, inconceivable, incomparable, immeasurable, illimitable and ineffable. Again, monks, it is all the same if one shall worship the Tathāgata when he is still living and shall revere him, esteem him and honour him with flowers, perfumes, garlands, sunshades, flags, banners, music, incense, ointments, food, drink, carriages and clothes, or if he shall honour him when he has utterly passed away by laying over him a wreath of mustard flowers.[399]

And on that occasion the Exalted One uttered these verses[400]:—

He who, having turned his thoughts to enlightenment for the sake of all living things, reverentially salutes[401] the tope of the Saviour of the world, becomes everywhere in all his lives as he fares on the way to enlightenment, mindful, thoughtful, virtuous and assured.

(363) He becomes everywhere in all his lives honoured of devas, Nāgas, Yakṣas, and Rakṣasas, who reverentially salutes a tope.

He avoids the eight inopportune times which I have pointed out,[402] and achieves[403] that one brilliant time when a Buddha appears.

He becomes endowed with beauty, adorned with marks of excellence, blessed with fair complexion, and high-minded.

He who, on seeing the Light of the world, honours him again and again, becomes rich and wealthy, virtuous, and free from envy.[404]

He is not confounded by appearances[405] as he has perceived the unsubstantiality[406] and emptiness[407] of them. He speedily wins trust and is well versed in the dharma.

He is reborn in wealthy and prosperous merchants’ families. He becomes most charitable, brave, freely generous, and not miserly.

Whatever distinguished magnificent families there be in Jambūdvīpa, amongst them is he reborn as a hero; he avoids base families.

He who has reverentially saluted a tope becomes everywhere an affluent householder, ablaze with splendour and glory, and honoured.

He becomes an affluent brāhman, wise and learned; an affluent noble, wealthy and rich.

He becomes, too, a righteous king, a lord in Jambūdvīpa, governing it and the whole mountain-girt earth besides.

He becomes a mighty universal king, a sovereign possessing the seven treasures. (364) Firmly established in his realm he worships the Buddha again and again.

When he passes away, full of trust in the Buddha’s teaching, he goes to heaven. He even becomes Śakra, king of the devas, a lord on the peak of Meru.

He becomes Suyāma, lord of devas, and also Santuṣita; and Nirmita too, a lord of devas, and Vaśavartin, a sovereign of devas.[408]

He even becomes Brahmā in the Brahmā world, a wise sovereign, honoured by koṭis of devas, who has reverentially saluted a tope.

One cannot complete the tale, even in hundreds of koṭis of kalpas, of those who have reverentially saluted a tope of the Saviour of the world.

Verily, he who, turning his thoughts to enlightenment, adores a monument of the Master, does not, in koṭis of kalpas, become blind either in one eye or both.

He who has reverentially saluted a monument of the Saviour of the world wins clear-seeing eyes, large, blue and lustrous.

He who has reverentially saluted a tope becomes endued with strength and energy; he does not fall into indolence, but is ever alert.

He who has reverentially saluted a tope, firm in energy, firm in strength, enduring, and firm in courage, quickly wins good fortune.

Verily he does not perish by fire or by poison or by weapon, but dies, a wise man, at the end of his full term of life.

He who has reverentially saluted a tope becomes renowned in capital cities, kingdoms and towns, for his beauty, prosperity and wealth.

He becomes clean of body, clean of garment, and established in pure righteousness. Hence he does not follow after sensuous delights as he fares on the way of enlightenment.

(365) Verily, he who, turning his thoughts to enlightenment, makes a garland of flowers and places it on a tope, is not destroyed.

For when he passes hence and dies, he goes to the Trāyastriṃśa devas, and there speedily obtains a brilliant bejewelled mansion.

He who places garlands on a tope enjoys among the Trāyastriṃśa devas gabled palaces thronged by Apsarases.

He shall have a celestial lotus-pond full of perfect[409] water, with a floor of golden sand bestrewn with beryl and crystal.

And when, full of wisdom, he has completed his enjoyment of celestial prosperity, he passes away from the deva world and becomes a man of wealth.

In virtue of his root of merit he wins[410] the favour of the Tathāgata. Ardent and watchful he worships the Best of bipeds.

He who has worshipped the Highest of bipeds is not overcome by passion, nor yet carried away by hatred; nor does he ever become infatuated.

When he has worshipped the Saviour of the world he becomes in all his lives free of passion, hatred and folly, and has his faculties under control.

He who has placed garlands on a monument, becomes at all times honoured, for thousands of koṭis of lives, for hundreds of nayutas of lives.

He who has placed garlands on a monument, becomes even a universal king, and the lord Śakra; and a Brahmā in the Brahmā world.

He who has placed a festoon of fine silk on a monument of the Saviour of the world, (366) prospers in all his aims, both among dev as and among men.

He avoids base families and is not reborn among them. But he becomes wealthy and affluent, a sovereign in Jambūdvīpa.

He who has rendered worship to a Tathāgata becomes everywhere distinguished in beauty, in riches, in complexion and in magic power.

He has a memory of former lives and is not carried away by passion. He understands the depravity of sensuous desires and takes to the holy life.

He who has worshipped the Best of bipeds is not overcome by forms, by sounds or by tastes, and does not commit a wicked deed.

Neither is he carried away by smell and touch, but becomes mindful and thoughtful, if he has worshipped the Guide.

Robber kings do not seize the wealth of one who has worshipped the Tathāgata, nor does fire destroy it.

He who has given the Guide of the world a festoon of fine silk and flowers, does not experience grief and the sting of grief.[411]

He who has worshipped the Light of the world becomes everywhere in all his lives immune from grief and oppression, a powerful universal king.

He has well-knit[412] hands and feet and wins splendour of frame; he is endowed with beauty, who has worshipped the Saviour of the world.

He eschews the evil deed as he fares on the way to enlightenment. He beholds the Best of Men who are so very rare in the world.

(367) Having enjoyed well-being for thousands of koṭis of kalpas, for hundreds of nayutas of kalpas, full of wisdom he awakens to the supreme enlightenment.

Having made a booth of festoons over the relics[413] of the Saviour of the world he becomes a powerful king with a loyal retinue.

He renounces those evil states which are renounced by Āryans, and ensues the good states which are commended by Buddhas.

He becomes beloved and cherished, honoured and esteemed, by dev as and Nāgas and all the wise men in the world.

Powerful, with a great and brilliant retinue, he honours the Best of bipeds, the invincible perfect Buddha.

Whatever household he, glorious with the glory of merit, is born in, that family becomes honoured[414] in kingdom and town.

Whosoever turns his thoughts towards enlightenment and makes a booth of garlands, his becomes the good fortune which has been extolled by Buddhas.

He does not become hunchbacked, nor lame and bald; but he walks steadily, adorned with the thirty-two marks, wherever he is reborn.

When he sees needy folk he succours them with his wealth, and inviolable he fares on the way of enlightenment.

In his highmindedness having renounced the earth he becomes sublime of heart, and never is he cast down.

He who has stepped towards enlightenment goes on his way renouncing sons, daughters and lovely and good wives.

Not forward of speech,[415] but handsome of face and good to look on (368) he is not assailed by jealousy or conceit at any time.

He who has stepped towards enlightenment is free from envy, kindly disposed, perfect in forbearance, benevolent and endued with good qualities.

A rare treasure is he in the world. Blameless is he and worthy of offerings who has stepped towards enlightenment.

It would be easier for an infant to count the stars in the twinkling sky than it would be to tell in words the limit of this man’s virtues.

It would be easier to know the thoughts, past, present and future,[416] of all creatures, than to tell in words the limit of this man’s virtue.

It would be easier for an infant to tell the number of the grains of sand and the thousands of koṭis of Nāgas in the four great oceans, than it would be to tell this man’s virtue.

It would be easier to count in a moment the hairs of all creatures in the six realms in the universe,[417] than to tell this man’s virtue.

It would be easier for an infant to measure this whole earth that stands in the waste of waters, than it would be to tell this man’s virtue.

It would be easier for a learned man to count the trees, beginning with those growing for a kalpa in the home of the devas, then those which are here on earth in the meantime and those in the future, their flowers and their fruits, than it would be to tell the limit of the virtue of this son of the Buddha.

It would be easier to count the pleasant, golden rays of this sun (369) than to tell the limit of the virtue of a son of the Buddha.

Whosoever in the course of a hundred lives does him[418] an unkindness is banned from the company of devas and men; hell is his bourne.

He becomes blind and sightless, wretched and helpless, who in his folly[419] maltreats Bodhisattvas.

When he passes away he shall go to the terrible and fearful Avīci, where with his huge body[420] he undergoes bitter sufferings.

He is reborn there with a body a yojana in length, and in all his vast extent he is tormented by fire.

There are five thousand heads on his body, and in each head fully five hundred tongues.

On each tongue’s tip hundreds of sword-blades[421] are fixed. This is the terrible torment he undergoes; this is the fruit of his karma.

When he passes away from Avīci he goes to Tapana and Pratāpana, and there the witless man suffers for his former misdeeds.

Verily, it is not easy for him who, in his folly, maltreats the sons of Buddha, to recover birth as a human.

For hundreds of thousands, for hundreds of nayutas of lives he undergoes bitter sufferings. And that is the cause of his torment.

There is a terrible poison, corrosive and devouring the marrow, awaiting him (370) who has maltreated the mighty sons of Buddha.

He suffers hunger and thirst; this is the fruit of evil karma. And even when he has got something to eat he does not ever enjoy it to his satisfaction.

Passing thence, in Yama’s world he is devoured by huge carrion. No refuge does he ever win who has maltreated monks.

Passing thence, again, when his time is done, and coming to the world of men, he is blind from birth, witless, mad and insane.

His speech is unintelligible, untruthful, and evil in sound. And when he passes away from the world of men he forthwith goes to a sphere of woe.

He who, in his folly, has maltreated the sons of Buddha, never sees a Buddha for thousands of koṭis of kalpas.

He who affords the sons of Buddha just protection[422] in his home, avoids every sphere of woe and quickly passes to the heavenly bourne.

He becomes rich and affluent, powerful and assured, endued with mindfulness and wisdom, blessed and free from distress.

And when the Lights of the world have passed to Nirvana, he[423] adores the Buddha’s topes again and again whenever he sees them.

Who, hearing such truths[424] spoken by the Buddha will not again and again show trust in the sons of the Buddha?

Whoso will honour thousands of Buddhas, yea, hundreds of nayutas of them, for as many kalpas as there are grains of sand in the Ganges,

And whoso will support the true dharma preached by the Saviour of the world, when it is breaking up,[425] (371) for even one night or day, will be distinguished in merit.

He[426] becomes honoured and established in knowledge of the Buddha; and the Buddhas, too, are honoured when the dharma which is breaking up, is supported.

Whoso guards the teaching of the Master when the true dharma is breaking up, never comes to harm for thousands of koṭis of kalpas.

He is at ease in his body and does not succumb to illness. He will never be destroyed even by thousands of misfortunes.

He who has guarded the teaching of the Master becomes endued with forbearance, gentle, kind, meek, and friendly to others.

Serene and joyful he accepts the scorn[427] evinced hitherto whenever the dharma has been suppressed.[428] Whoso supports the dharma of the noble Conqueror when it is breaking up escapes all inopportune times.[429]

Whoso supports the dharma of the noble Conqueror when it is breaking up, always becomes arrayed in marks of excellence as the sky is bespangled with stars.

Whoso supports the dharma of the noble Conqueror when it is breaking up, escapes birth in base families among whom there is no blessed ease. He becomes wealthy, happy and prosperous.

(372) Whoso supports the dharma of the noble Conqueror when it is breaking up, through his energy attains excellent strength, and proudly moves over the whole earth, honouring hundreds of thousands of Buddhas.

Whoso supports the dharma of the noble Conqueror when it is breaking up, comporting himself mindful and virtuous, becomes most highly revered among men and immortals, a wise man most highly extolled in Jambūdvīpa.

Whoso supports the dharma of the noble Conqueror when it is breaking up, becomes most beautiful of form and dear to men, women and devas, brilliant, praised and virtuous.[430]

Whoso supports the dharma of the noble Conqueror when it is breaking up, for all of a hundred thousand koṭis of kalpas is endued with the strength of virtue, and all-knowing. Nor does he lose all this esteem.[431]

Those men to whom the Master, the Daśabala,[432] the deva of devas, has disclosed this sūtra will have unshakable joy when their last death is come.

They[433] shall tell of the dharma of the noble Conqueror to those in Nirvana.[434] (373) They uphold it with faith out of respect for them, and lay their gifts on countless monuments and honour the Saṅgha out of respect for the Exalted One.

When the teaching of the noble Conqueror is breaking up they uphold the way of the noble dharma[435] of the Master. He who neglects to perform this fair and noblest deed shall not come to a fair end.[436]

All beings shall become saviours of the world, all-seeing, with passions stifled and the lusts destroyed. For thousands of nayutas of koṭis they shall tell the praise of an offering of flowers[437] to the noble Conqueror.

At all times he eschews the wicked deed and exultantly practises[438] the excellent dharma. And when he has for a very long time pursued the good in his various lives, he becomes a peerless Buddha in the world.

Serene of heart and abandoning lusts, hear me as I tell the praise of him who takes a speck of incense finer than a grain of mustard and burns it at the shrines of the Blessed One.

He walks in virtue through the regions of the world, immune from sickness, firmly devout, and alert. As he goes his ways he guides the worlds and becomes dear to and beloved of men.

(374) When he has attained a kingdom, as a powerful and wise universal ruler, of golden beauty, adorned[439] with the marks of excellence, he worships the Conqueror. And at all times he receives fragrant perfumes.

For him there is no physical or mental pain. In his various lives he escapes lowly fortunes. He becomes rich, prosperous, and affluent. He fares through all the worlds successful in everything.

He comes to the people when he is asked about the preeminent dharma taught by the Conqueror. He dispels doubts as he utters his words, and he who hearkens to the dharma shall win joy.

He committs no sin through defect of wisdom, but is distinguished for knowing the highest knowledge. His behaviour is divinely pure, fair and kind. He clears the sight and blows away the darkness.

In the world of men he does not become fierce in passion, hatred and folly. But living the pure, untarnished holy life he works infinite endless good.

He does not become malevolent to anyone, nor does he ever suffer loss of wealth. No evil[440] comes to man through him who has burnt incense at the Conqueror’s shrines.

(375) Pure, untarnished, rid of sin, calm, serene, perfectly tranquil, after faring through hundreds of nayutas of koṭis of kalpas, exalted in heart he attains the incomparable enlightenment.

Having established in the perfect griefless way thousands of nayutas of koṭis of beings and set rolling in all the world the matchless wheel, he afterwards passes away, his passions quelled and his lusts destroyed.

He who has put a flag on monuments of the Exalted One shall beget the resolution to become a Buddha[441] in the world. He becomes honoured of men as he most nobly fares along in the way of the Conqueror.

He gains great reputation and becomes wise and laudable. He shall win a clean and pure body. He becomes an object of men’s high regard, and revered of devas and Nāgas.

His body is ever golden-coloured, and he becomes the possessor of brilliant robes of cotton, wool, flax, jute[442] and silk.

Whatever noble families there be in Jambūdvīpa, wealthy, high-minded and possessing great riches, amongst them is his rebirth.[443] (376) He escapes birth in low families which are poor.

No being who acknowledges his sovereignty becomes depraved of heart. He censures[444] the evil deeds of others and becomes pure in morality and always alert. He is not miserly nor avaricious.[445] He becomes freely generous and wins grieflessness. He does not induce others to live for profit.[446] He becomes of good repute and is always praised.

When he sees the Buddha, the great Caravan-leader, glad at heart he ever honours him with sunshades, flags and banners, incense and garlands, always living the untarnished holy life.

Revered and honoured in the world of men, among the devas he wins a celestial noble mansion, charming, bright and beautiful, bedecked with jewels, precious stones and crystals.

He wins bright sovereignty on Meru’s summit. All devas become his pupils and bow before him. By teaching the dharma he fills them with joy. Never does he become in the least negligent.[447]

Passing away thence he will, in the world of men, become a noble universal ruler, the foremost of kings. No man whatsoever nourishes evil against him. (377) He becomes dear to and beloved of men.

After he has for thousands of nayutas of koṭis of kalpas experienced lasting happiness in the world of mortals he goes to the old[448] place of former Conquerors, and there he awakens to ageless, deathless and griefless enlightenment.

When a man has given a flag to the Choicest of beings whose passion is quelled, it is not long before he wins the reward for it. He becomes rich in treasure and incomparably wise, and his retinue will be proud.

Having won wealth he shares it and makes use of it. He knows no fear or dejection of spirits. He progresses through his villages and realm a contented king, and never does he harbour a wicked thought against them.

He becomes a distinguished wealthy merchant, a householder owning wonderful treasures, a king’s son, a minister, or even a powerful universal ruler.

He avoids all base families, achieving birth in the very best family,[449] which is distinguished for wealth. He becomes ever alert and his heart is rid of attachments.[450] He shuns sensuous delights as he would a pot of excrement.

(378) He wins pre-eminent beauty and the opportune times,[451] and becomes a lord in the foremost family. His following becomes loyal, and he is honoured of men.

He does not occasion a sting of grief in the hearts of others, but is always serene and alert. Neither fire nor weapon has any effect on him. He is always looked up to, and virtuous.

Being virtuous he does not live in indolence. As a man he is always mindful and becomes well-controlled and heart-free...[452]

Active of body, he becomes distinguished, pure of heart, exalted, and truthful. He shall bring joy to those beset by fear, and he shall live as a refuge and a haven for others.

Established in the body of the great knowledge and having rendered great service to mankind,[453] verily he shall go to the bodhi throne at the tree which is the lord of all that grows, and there, without a peer, he shall awaken to the excellent supreme enlightenment.

If this Buddha-field[454] up from its very foundation were entirely filled with Jāmbūnada gold (379), it would be easier to destroy all such glory than it would be to destroy the glory of one who has held even one light over the Buddha’s tope.

His body does not become lustreless. He sits[455] on a firm throne of crystal[456]. He who has put one light on shrines of the Exalted One shall fare through all the world himself endued with light.

And when a Conqueror appears in the world, he wins access to the Tathāgata, and so do his son, his brother, his father and his kinsfolk. Ere long he shall attain the body of knowledge.

If countless thousands of nayutas of Buddha-fields became full of mustard seed, it would be easier to count or weigh them than it would be to tell the glory of one who has held one light over the Buddha’s tope.

Most worthy is the Buddha, most worthy of offerings, who has fared along the noblest pre-eminent way. He who has done honour to him, an ocean of good qualities, will have the highest, unequalled reward.

If all this habitable universe[457] were full of precious gems of beryl, it would be easier to destroy all such glory than the glory of one who has held one light over the Buddha’s tope.

(380) If all this habitable universe from its very foundation were entirely filled with money,[458] it would be easier to destroy all such glory than the glory of one who has held one light over the Buddha’s tope.

If thousands of Buddha-fields from their very foundations were entirely filled with fine sandal-wood, it would be easier to destroy all such glory than the glory of one who has held one light over the Buddha’s tope.

If thousands of Buddha-fields were filled with garments made of the cloth that is found in the bright deva-world, it would be easier to destroy all such glory than the glory of one who has held one light over the Buddha’s tope.

Among the devas there are celestial and wondrous jewels, and also among Nāgas, A suras, men and Mahoragas; it would be easier to destroy all such glory than the glory of one who has held one light over the Buddha’s tope.

If the earth[459] were full of all the divine perfumes that are to be found in the world of men and devas, it would be easier to destroy all such glory than the glory of one who has held one light over the Buddha’s tope.

It would be easier to know the limits of the points of the compass and of the intermediate points[460] and say “So great is the sphere of space,” (381) than it would be to tell the limit of the body of merit of one who has held one light over the Buddha’s tope.

A sunshade was given by one who had put his trust in the Best of Men, to him the exalted among the devas, the supreme Buddha, the devout, the Valiant Man, lest the sun should scorch the body of the Buddha.

I am he who performed that noblest duty.[461] A hundred thousand times have I been[462] Śakra among the devas. A hundred thousand times, too, have I been Brahmā in the Brahmā-world, for that I gave a sunshade to a Conqueror.

A hundred thousand times and more have I been a universal ruler, exercising sway over all the regions of the world. I have been a wealthy merchant with abundant stores, and a rich and virtuous householder.

Twenty koṭis of supreme Sugatas did I study.[463] I revered them and honoured them with beds and couches....[464] I sprinkled their dwelling-places[465] with perfumes. I dispelled all foul scents and warded off from them heat and cold.

I was[466] glad and most elated in heart as I did them honour with bright and lovely adornments, and (382) placed a sunshade over the shrines of the Conquerors.

Bright does the person of him become and covered with the thirty-two marks of excellence. His body always sparkles with these as a magnificent pillar of gold. His body is also covered with the lesser characteristics[467] and is lovely as a body of Jāmbūnada gold.

He becomes possessed of the super-knowledges, and a foremost physician,[468] as he fares on the courses of the Conqueror. Never does his wealth fail. He becomes revered and honoured of devas.

Never does he delight in the enjoyment of sensual pleasures. Pure in morality, he always lives the holy life. He wanders forth and takes up life in the forest. He is assiduous in meditation and attains distinction.[469]

Never is there any falling off in meditation,[470] and never does he abandon the thought of enlightenment. Abiding in love and always elated of heart is he who has placed a sunshade on the Conqueror’s shrines.

The stings of grief do not prevail over him who has honoured the Valiant Man with music. He becomes pleasant-voiced in the world of men, and his tones become pure.

He becomes keen of hearing and exalted of heart, (383) clear of sight and thoughtful. He becomes gifted with a good sense of smell,[471] who has played on an instrument of music at the Conqueror’s shrines.

The slender beauty of his tongue becomes lily-like, as a crimson and red[472] lotus, like that of the devas, as it utters its lovely sound.

He does not become stupid,[473] nor a creature without tongue,[474] nor hunchbacked, nor lame, nor crippled of limb. He who has played on an instrument of music at the Conqueror’s shrines becomes outstanding, most excellent of soul and most excellent of body.

No one shall be malevolent towards him, either deva, Nāga, man or Mahoraga. Endued with confidence shall he fare through all the world, who has played on an instrument of music at the Conqueror’s shrines.

Never shall he become faint and wan and sick, or leprous either, or blotched of skin. He who has played on an instrument of music at the Conqueror’s shrines shall have a body extolled by all.

Large of heart and straight of limb, radiant in beauty like the golden amaranth, firm in concentration and unshaken, does he become (384) who has played on an instrument of music at the Conqueror’s shrines.

He who has played on an instrument of music at the Conqueror’s shrines [shall win][475] sovereignty among the devas. And when he has come[476] to the world of men he becomes honoured, brilliant of energy and invincible.

Never does he speak an unpleasant word to anyone, nor a harsh word. He who has played on an instrument of music at the Conqueror’s shrines, eschews all slander and speaks the truth.

Whoso has put adornments on the Conqueror’s shrines and cleansed the topes of Tathāgatas, whoso, clean of speech, has cleansed a tope and washed away the dust in remembrance of him who was without stain.[477]

When he has performed this duty, the due deed of service,[478] he shall fare through all the world enjoying freedom from

sickness. He who has offered kārīṣi[479] at the Conqueror’s shrines becomes extolled of men.

He becomes flawless in morality, firm in meditation, enjoying the service (of others and) influential[480] wealth. He who has offered kārīṣi at the Conqueror’s shrines exercises great command over men.

When he sees agreeable women he bethinks him of the cemetery.[481] (385) He is not agitated by desires of sense

nor is he excited in heart. He who has offered kārīṣi at the Conqueror’s shrines utterly abandons all wish for gain.

He shall not cause distress in the hearts of others. He shall not find his joy in the enjoyment of food. He who has offered kārīṣi at the Conqueror’s shrines does not become poor nor diseased.

No faction becomes unfriendly to him. He always loyally adores the Buddhas, the Buddha, the dharma and the Conqueror’s disciples, who has offered kārīṣi at the Conqueror’s shrines.

If many thousands of boundless Buddha-fields were entirely filled with Jāmbūnada gold, it would be easier to destroy all such glory than the glory of one who has offered but one drop of oil at the Conqueror’s tope.

At all times he becomes self-controlled and never does he wander about a creature of impulse. Whole of hand and whole of foot does he become who has offered kārīṣi at the Conqueror’s shrines.

He abandons every wrong way which leads to the bournes of manifold ill. For him who has offered kārīṣi at the Conqueror’s shrines the way to heaven shall be made clear.

It is not possible to destroy the body of merit of him who, turning his thought to the Saviour of the world,[482] (386) shall offer at the Conqueror’s shrines a single drop of oil, even a hundredth part of a drop.

If a man should, to win merit, take bricks and carry them to the shrines of the Exalted One, never will the smell of him be unpleasant; his body shall have the fragrance of sandalwood.

He who has cleansed a tope of the Supreme Man, becomes for thousands of nayutas of koṭis of kalpas magnificent of frame and clean of limb, clear of voice, and possessing the marks of excellence.

He who has cleansed a tope of the Supreme Man wins a noble fragrant mansion, celestial, charming, of fair sandalwood, and there he never experiences craving.

He who has cleansed a tope of the Supreme Man wins thousands of koṭis of Apsarases, lovely and sweet-scented, but never does he feel lust for them.

He who has cleansed a tope of the Supreme Man wins the noblest perfect gardens, gleaming with the water of lotus-pools and gay with celestial lotuses.

(387) He who has cleansed a tope of the Supreme Man wins a retinue that befits him. He hears the clear, celestial voices, the sounds of the choirs of Suras and A suras.

He who has cleansed a tope of the Supreme Man shall hear the devas talk of dharma, (as they say) “All the components of life[483] are ill and unstable. The gift[484] of the noble Benefactors must be accepted.”

Overcoming old age he goes to heaven, and no more does he pass thence to a bourne of ill. He who has cleansed a tope of the Supreme Man sees the Buddha in the world of mortals,

He who has cleansed a tope of the Supreme Man adjudges the talk of the devas to be good,[485] and, as a deva,[486] sets up many a tope for the Buddha. And then when he has fulfilled his time he arises in the world of mortals.

He who has cleansed a tope of the Supreme Man, remembers, as soon as he is born, the Buddhas whom of yore he worshipped and honoured for infinite kalpas. He remembers their names, their number[487] and their dharma.

He who with an anointing offers distinguished, sweetly-fragrant[488] worship to the Exalted One fares successful in all the world, receiving the best, for that he has given the best of perfumes.[489]

(388) And when the Conqueror’s teaching is breaking up he does not arise here in Jambudvīpa. But at that time he who has anointed a tope with perfume walks about in heaven.

He eschews all the foul and disgusting pleasures of sense, being permanently established in the body of morality. He who has anointed a tope with perfume, ever here lives the holy life.

When he passes hence to heaven, he counts[490] his immense gains in thousands. He who has anointed a tope with perfume does good to many devas.

And when men become prosperous, benevolent, gentle and kind, then he who has anointed a tope with perfume stands again in Jambudvīpa.

Escaping all ways of desolation, he wins access to the Conqueror. Joyful does he become, happy and amiable, who has anointed a tope with perfume.

Distinguished in speech does he become, and pleasant of tone, dear to, beloved and revered of men. (389) Tranquil is the well-being of him who has anointed a tope with perfume.

Whoso has anointed a tope with perfume becomes, too, a noble universal ruler, a merchant, a king’s minister, a virtuous householder, and even a Buddha, light-bringer, lord of dharma.

He who, exultant, joyful and eager, has placed a necklace of gems on the shrines of the Conqueror, becomes a king, with the marks of excellence, a powerful, honoured universal ruler.

He shall receive a mansion of gems, bright and pleasant, of wondrous beauty, and fair to behold, the very best of palaces, made of precious stones, and studded with costly cornices.[491]

He wins a magnificent royal city full of women and of men, level, well built and well laid out, with abundant wealth in the deep country around.[492]

Well supplied with food, peaceful, cleared of rough stones, strewn with flowers, covered with festoons of bright cloth, full of charming sounds, lovely to behold, (390) well guarded within, and standing among fields of thriving rice;

(A city having) pleasant parks echoing with sweet cries, sparkling with net-work, with spacious entrances, gaily hung with flags and banners, and covered with sunshades, altogether a lovely sight.

Therein are no thieves, no knaves and no rogues. In that realm people do not tamper with the wealth of others. Gifted[493] with the right deportment[494] they are always friendly disposed towards their domain.[495]

Then the virtuous man goes to the devas, and in the heavens he is thus questioned: “What fair deed shall we perform, and how shall we lead our lives when we go hence to the world of mortals?”

Quickly he shall reach the Buddhas who are worthy of offerings, and when he sees them he adores the Saviours of the world. When he has performed his act of adoration he begets the wish for enlightenment, and so the Buddhas, who are rid of passion,[496] proclaim of him:—

“He becomes possessed of great knowledge and great power, established in a state of distinction, the foremost of beings. He who has given one trustful thought to the Exalted One shall for a thousand kalpas escape the bournes of ill.

“This[497] is what I announce and speak. Let none harbour doubt of what I say, (391) lest, losing his knowledge of the Buddha, afterwards in Avīci he become wretched and miserable.”

He who brings network coverings to the shrines of the Light of the world who is a great field of merit,[498] in his alertness escapes the net of Māra and becomes a king of men, a Daśabala, free of the lusts.

In his alertness he escapes states of desolation, and always reveres the Buddha, who is rid of passion.[499] He always becomes a strong universal ruler. To all the world around he goes as a virtuous man.

Among the devas he becomes an honoured lord of devas. Quickly he shall win there the span of life of devas, their glory, their beauty, their ease and matchless sovereignty.

He shall win the sight, the hearing, the smell and the touch which the devas have.[500] He shall be looked up to, and mighty, and will not feel a craving for pleasure with the Apsarases.

Passing away thence he comes to the world of men, where he becomes fragrant of body and distinguished in beauty. He who has spread[501] a net on the Conqueror’s shrines never experiences loss.

(392) He becomes valiant, firmly devout, alert, and takes no delight in the enjoyment of pleasures of sense. He who has spread a net over the Conqueror’s shrines, withdrawing from the world[502] becomes high-minded.

He escapes all inopportune times; for him are the special opportune times. He who has spread a net over the Conqueror’s shrines pays incomparable worship to the Buddhas.

Never does he give up the thought of enlightenment. He never becomes corrupt of morals nor dissolute. He who has spread a net over the Conqueror’s shrines attains the passionless, pure dharma.

He shall always avoid ill-favoured complexion and all want of understanding. He who has spread a net over the Conqueror’s shrines fares with distinction through all the world.

He who has spread a net over the Conqueror’s shrines comes to have pure food. He shall have magnificent and bright garments, well-coloured and beautiful to look on.

He who gladly, joyfully and eagerly removes withered flowers from the Conqueror’s shrines, detesting evil and harsh speech (393) shall win the favour of the Daśabala, the Caravan-leader.

He becomes amiable, clean of body, looked up to and honoured by the people. His king does not become incensed with him who removes faded flowers from a shrine.

A Bodhisattva who, established in the body of morality, shall take and throw away from the Conqueror’s shrines faded flowers put there long ago, shall abandon all the wrong ways.

He shall always escape grief and hate. He shall utterly avoid all passions in his body. For infinite kalpas he who shall remove faded flowers from a shrine, shall enjoy confidence.

He becomes a Buddha, a Caravan-leader in the world,[503] to be honoured by dev as with infinite splendour. He who shall remove faded flowers from a shrine becomes adorned and pure in body.

There is a splendid reward[504] for him who shall remove faded flowers from shrines and put in their place the five fair celestial flowers, the coral-tree flower and the trumpet-flower.[505]

Neither poison nor weapon assails him, nor fire or the blazing brand. (394) Wicked thieves do not prevail over him who shall remove faded flowers from shrines.

It is not easy to relate the very great merit won by him who, gladly, joyfully and eagerly has thrown away[506] drooping flowers from the Conqueror’s tope.

He becomes tall[507] and stately of body, always performing the noblest fair deeds. The noble supreme enlightenment is not far off for him who throws away withered flowers from the Conqueror’s tope.

He who, begetting a wish for enlightenment into the highest truth, shall sprinkle sandal-wood powder on the Guide, becomes ever worthy of honour in the world, and amiable, happy and glorious.

All the world bows to him as to its king, devas, Nāgas, men and Mahoragas. Henceforth, a hero, he rules all the thousands of flourishing worlds under his sovereignty.

Those who dwell in the world under his rule abide in knowledge of the excellent wisdom. Passing beyond all sins, they practise the dharma among devas and men.

His retinue becomes loyal, (395) virtuous, mindful and intelligent. He fares through the whole world enjoying confidence. He brings people joy, for that is his wish.

His rich voice becomes resonant and clear. In giving his commands to men he is friendly and gentle in tone. No one shall think of lording it over him.[508] He becomes looked up to by the multitude.

He has affability, generosity, beneficence, and a sense of the common good of the people.[509] He who shall reverently bow before a tope of the Conqueror does not shout out and give way to rage.

No more does he fall into a desolate way. He avoids base families in all the world. He who reverently salutes a tope of the Buddha becomes rich with abundant stores.

And when he is gone to the deva-world he becomes a lord of devas. When he becomes a man, he is a king. He never suffers loss who reverently salutes a tope of the Buddha.

Never shall he speak an irrelevant word, but he always utters the well-spoken speech. People cannot have enough[510] of his speaking, (but are eager) that he should utter even but one fair word.

(396) When he has fulfilled his time he sees[511] the Conqueror. He shall dwell in a royal city that is full of pleasant sounds. Standing on Indra’s column with flowers in his hands, he shall eagerly shower them on the Saviour of the world.

He sees the Conqueror in his own home, eating his food and speaking of the dharma. Full of faith he reveres the Conqueror. Taking a bowl he approaches the Guide.

The Conqueror, knowing his thoughts and his noble conduct, accepts the bowl from him. In the deva-world glory shall be his, and in the world of men he shall be distinguished, without a peer and worthy of offerings.

Knowing that the bowl has been accepted[512] by the Sugata, he is thrilled and filled with joy. Then looking to the deva-world he forms this resolution:—

“May I set free beings who are in great misery. May I be an eye to the blind in all the world. Having won the light may I dispel the gloom and darkness. May I lead across the beings who have not crossed.

“May I in my emancipated[513] state set free the unfree. Having attained the calm, the noble supreme enlightenment, may I fare without a tremor through the whole world. Having awakened to the knowledge may I release those in misery.”[514]

(397) Aware of this vow, for what was in his heart was known to him, the Conqueror smiled, and proclaimed “Thou wilt become a Buddha, a Saviour of the world.”

So spoke the Exalted One, and Viśuddhamati, the monk, and the world of devas, men and Asuras were elated, and rejoiced at his words.

Here ends the sūtra called Avalokita, a supplement[515] of the Mahāvastu.

Footnotes and references:


See Vol. I, p. 208, n. 2.


Ib., p. 216, n. 3.


This definitely marks the sūtra as a Mahāyānist work.


Apparently not mentioned elsewhere.


Bodhimaṇḍa, “the essence of enlightenment,” but possibly maṇḍa here is for maṇḍala.


The text has simply avalokitam... nirdiśatu—“disclose what was surveyed.” The sūtra obviously derives its title from avalokita in this primary sense of “to survey” or “to look out upon.” There are several allusions in the Mhvu. to this action on the part of the Buddha or Bodhisattva. It is, also, expressly alluded to at the beginning of the first Avalokita-sūtra (see p. 244, n. 3). Subsequently the word became part of the name of the great Bodhisattva of Northern Buddhism, Avalokiteśvara, and the latter by a process of fanciful interpretation became the Chinese Kuan Yin. (For discussion and references see E. J. Thomas: The History of Buddhist Thought, p. 189, n., and Har Dayal, op. cit., pp. 47-8.)




Literally “made,” kṛta.


Literally “given,” datto bhavati.


Lokapradyota. See Vol. I, p. 37, n. 1.


Lokasya cetiya.


Kṛṣṇabandhu, i.e. Māra.


See Vol. I, pp. 126-7.




Viśuddhamati’s eulogy continued in prose.




Referring to the family of haṃsas, “swans” or “geese” to which belonged Dhṛtarāṣtra (Dhataraṭṭha), king of the haṃsas (see D.P.N.).


Yathaiva dagdhāṃ sthūṇāṃ suvarṇabimbaṃ abhibhavati. The simile is obscure.


Koṭi parā na vidyati, see Vol. I, p. 98, n. 2.


October-November. Here spelt Kārtika.


This sentence is so corrupt that it could justifiably be omitted in translation. The translation offered is based on Senart’s attempt at restoration, which he admits is far from satisfactory. His correction of pañcapurā into pañcaguṇo seems to be justified by the allusion in Vol. I, p. 315 (text) to the five qualities of the Buddha’s voice.


See Vol. I, p. 95 ff.


Literally “allays,” sameti = śameti.


Khila, emended into khilā, or, better perhaps, joined into a compound khiladoṣamosham. For this use of khila, literally “fallow-land,” cf. its similar use in Pali, e.g. 5. 5. 57, where the khilas are three in number, rāga, “passion” being added to the above two, and M. 1. 101, where allusion is made to the five cetokhilā.




These epithets are vocative case in the text.


Tvā for tvām.


Kṣapetum, causative of kṣip, an extension of the use of this form to denote “to pass, to spend” of time.


Reading śuddhām, etc., accusative, for the nominative in the text, and asaṅgām for asaṅgatitā, which Senart naturally prints with a (?).


Jihmavarṇa, “of crooked colour.”


Literally “pleasure-producing,” sukhajanana, sc. for those who behold them.


Saṃrocate, “choose,” “find pleasure in.” Cf. Pali saṃrocate.


Grīvā... śobhe yathā suvarṇakambu. Cf. Thig. 262 (p. 148), saṇhakampurī va (to be emended into—kambu-r-iva, see J.P.T.S. 184, p. 76) śobhate... gīvā.


The text here cannot be correct. It reads yathā ovāhā (v.l. ovāhāya) ca jina samā, which might be rendered, “it (thy neck), O Conqueror, is like the ovāhā” But no substantive ovāhā is known. Dr. W. Stede, who very kindly allowed the translator to consult him on this passage, made the ingenious suggestion that ovāhā (ovāhāya) should be read ovahā (ovahāya) and interpreted as

“a contaminated samprasāraṇa of vyavadhāya (vava = vo, combined vova-, and then ova) from root dhā, ‘to divide’. With the insertion of kāyaṃ, dropped through the influence of -hāya (or better, perhaps, with the substitution of it for samā), we get the rendering, ‘(the neck) as though dividing the Conqueror’s body.’”

Dr. Stede, of course, does not claim that this emendation is absolutely certain. But it would definitely seem to be on the right lines, for we need with the second yathā in this sentence a verbal expression corresponding more or less to śobhe with the first. (See preceding note.)


Siṃhārdhapūrva. One of the “32 marks,” see Vol. I, p. 182, n. 5, where the corresponding Pali is sīha-pūbbaddhdkāyo. The word for body here, as several times in our text, is ātmabhāva.


Literally “split,” abhedya.


Āvarjita BSk. = Pali āvajjita


Reading pratibhāyati = °bhāti, impersonal, for °bhāsi, “to appear” (to the mind), “seem good.” Cf. the substantive pratibhāna.


Pratibhāyanti, the personal use of the same verb.


Or “clansmen,” kūlaputra.


Avatāra, see p. 228, n. 4.


Literally, “lived,” carita.


Sphuṭa BSk. = Pali phuṭa (from pharati), “pervaded,” “permeated,” “filled with.” In the same sense in Vol. I, pp. 240, 270 (text).


There is a lacuna in the text here, representing the subject of the verb pravarṣi, “ rained or showered down.”


Name for the gold said to be found in the river Jambu (Jambū), a fabulous river rising in Mount Meru. (M.W.)






Paripācayitvā. Causative for radical.


I.e. of a universal king or Cakravartin. See Vol. I, p. 41.


I.e. Sujātā. For this episode see p. 126.


Aṣṭāṅgupeta, “having eight parts or corners,” i.e. being complete. Cf. use of aṭṭhaṃsa in Pali, “having perfect symmetry.”


Chanda. For examples of women, after, of course, a change of sex, becoming Buddhas, see Lotus c. 11 and the Karaṇḍavyuha, both cited by E. J. Thomas, op. cit., pp. 183, 193.




? Parivṛṃhitājña. Parivriṃhitā must be an abstract from pari-vṛh (bṛh or barh). Cf. Pali paribrūhaṇa.


Sphuṭa. See p. 279, n. 1.


Smaresi, Pali-Prakrit 3rd pers.


Samehi pādatalehi. One of the thirty-two characteristics (lakṣanāni) of a Mahāpuruṣa. See Vol. I, p. 180.


Generally Meru in Vol. I (q.v. Index), a mountain in the centre of the world. In Pali also called Sineru, Hemameru and Mahāmeru (D.P.N.). Each Cakravāḍa has its own Sineru surrounded by the seven mountain ranges named here. These names are also given in Divy. 217, and are practically identical with the Pali names.


See Vol. I, p. 7, n. 2.


Or, “Mountains of time,” mythical mountains, located, in Pali texts, in Himavā. (D.P.N.) The term is rendered by Kern (S.B.E. xxi, p 33), “Kāla-mountain,” but on page 386, “elevations at the cardinal points,” the explanation being, according to him (footnote ibid.), that “the points of rising and setting are called parvata, giri, etc., in Sanskrit.”


Literally, “were stirred (and) were perceived,” saṃkṣubdhā abhūṣi... prajñāyensu.


Sphuṭa, see p. 279, n. 1. This word occurs frequently in the remainder of this passage.


Or, “reddish-brown,” reading piṅgalehi for piñjalehi.


For śrīgarbha, name of a precious stone, see BR. But see p. 283, n. 6.


I.e. “arranged in eight compartments,” astāpadavinibaddha. Senart compares the expression suvarṇasūtrāṣṭāpadanibaddha which occurs several times in the Lotus, and which Burnouf (p. 363-4) renders “qui contient des enceintes tracées en forme de damiers avec des cordes d’or,” and Kern (S.B.E. xxi, p. 233), “showing a checkerboard divided by gold threads into eight compartments.” Cf. aṭṭhapada, V. 3. 180; D. 1. 6.




See vol. 1, p. 165, n. 2.


Literally, “one radiance (though they were) were without radiance,” ekobhāsābhāsā abhūṣi.


Literally, “of the attained personality of the Bodhisattva,” bodhisatvasya ātmabhāvatāmanuprāptām.


Or, “great serpents,” and therefore practically identical with Nāgas.




The text here has śirīṣagarbhapañjarehi which Senart renders “qui torment des cages contenants des śirīṣas” (= acacias), but has to confess that this presents no clear picture. The translation above has been made on the assumption that pañjarehi should be emended into piṅgalehi, when the whole compound could be rendered “yellow (like) the śirīṣagarbha,” which latter may be itself the name of a precious stone (garbha often entering into the composition of such names), like sirīsapuppha at Miln. 118, or, alternatively, may be a mistake for the śirigarbha mentioned on p. 282. Śirīṣagarbha can hardly mean “acacia” simply, but without garbha the rest of the compound would, of course, give the quite appropriate sense of “yellow like the acacia.”


? Hastigarbha. This and other compound names of precious stones are analytically rendered when the corresponding English name cannot be ascertained.


Not the verses immediately following, which are a traditional account of the marvels attending the attainment of bodhi. The appearance of Kāla is, of course, an incident in this episode.

The whole passage is remarkable for the Dumber of verbal forms in -e, which the context shows must be taken as aorist. They are interspersed with normal aorist forms. This verbal form is used indifferently as singular and plural.




Reading Ādītyabandhūnām for vāditya°, either figuratively, as above, or literally “kinsmen of Āditya” (= the sun), Pali Ādicca, clan name of the Śākyans. The epithet is often applied to the Buddha, cf. p. 19.


Mahāraha, Pali = mahārgha.


Ghoṣesi amānuṣam.


Literally, “became of crooked light,” jihmavarṇā abhūd.




Yādṛṣā, the correlative is missing, and hence the apparent irregularity of a stanza of six pādas, that is, one line is wanting to make two stanzas.


The “marks” here alluded to are taken some from the 32 lakṣaṇāni (see Vol. I, pp. 180 ff.) and some from the anuvyañjanāni or 80 lesser characteristics (see Vol. 2, pp. 40f).


These names are locative, “marks on.”


Jālāvanaddha. But see Vol. I, p. 180.


Sughaṭṭita may be reminiscent of Pali ugghaṭṭa in the expression ugghaṭṭapādo, “footsore,” at Sn. 980, J. 4. 20, 5.69, though Fausböll (S.B.E. x) and Hare (Woven Cadences) both render at Sn. 980 by “swollen feet.” P.E.D. remarks that ugghaṭṭa should be referred to ugghaṃsati from ghaṃsati, Sk. gharṣati, “to rub,” although Buddhaghosa explains the form as participle or adjective from ghaṭṭeti, “to knock”; the Mhvu. form shows the same derivation. The whole sentence is obscure. It is possible that there is an allusion to the previous line, that is, ankles and toes rubbed together do not shine, because there are no metal ferters on them to cause them to do so.


“Shine forth,” ujjotana from ud-dyut.


Utsada. See Vol. I, p. 6, n. 1; p. 50, n. 3.


Odātaṃ ācāram. As it is physical characteristics that are being described here we might expect some word like udaraṃ, “belly,” here instead of ācāraṃ, especially as odāta, “white,” “clean,” is generally applied to physical things. But it must be noted that śucisamācāra, “pure conduct,” is found among the anuvyañjanāni, above p. 44 (text).


Reading brahmārju for prahvārju, which is a contradiction in terms, prahva, “bending,” and ṛju, “straight.” Brahmārjugātra (Pali brahmujjugatto) is one of the “32 marks.” See Vol. I, p. 181.


I.e. of fairly even thickness.


Literally, “raised or rising gradually,” anupūrvaṃ anuddhata (= anuddhṛta). Below p. 306 (text) the word used in a similar context is samudgata, “arisen.”


Nārāyaṇa, son of Nāra, the original man, often identified with Brahmā, Viṣṇu or Kṛṣṇa, must here be nothing more than a conventional honorific epithet.


See p. 30, n. 3.


Samudgata, see n. 3.


Rasarasāgrin, cf. Pali rasaggasaggita and rasaggasaggin. See P.E.D. for references.


Cf. Sn. 1022.


Aṣṭāṅga. See Vol. I, p. 264, n. 1.


Or “like Brahmā’s,” brahmasvara.


Premaṇīya, BSk., Pali pemanīya.


Jaleruha, “growing in water.” Jaleruhā is the name of a plant = kuṭumbinī, “a small shrub used in medicine, a kind of moon plant.” (M.W.)


Literally, “at the full month,” pūrṇamāsiye.


Literally, “shone because of it,” tāya, Pali instrumental and abative of , though there is no feminine substantive in the sentence to which the pronoun can be referred.


See p. 246, n. 14.


Uṣnīṣaśīrṣa, the translation at Vol. I, p. 182, “their heads were shaped like a turban,” would not, in view of the next sentence, seem appropriate here.


Sc. the devas.


I.e. Kāla.




Literally, “covered in the lusts,” kilesapariveṣṭita.


Saṃghāṭī, Pali and BSk.






An extract from another version of the story of Kāla.


Añjaliṃ pragṛhītvāna daśapūrṇāṅgulin, i.e. the añjali consisting of the full ten fingers, which is meant to be a description of this form of salutation, i.e. the ten fingers put together and raised to the head. See VvA. 7, dasanakhasamodhāna-samujjalaṃ añjaliṃ paggayha.


Yathā with future to express wish. Cf. Greek ὅπως.


Yathā with aorist pravarṣensu in optative sense, expressing wish. If it were not for the ca correlating this with the preceding yathā clause, it would be possible to take yathā here as meaning “as” or “since,” and, as below, introducing reasons for Kāla’s conclusions that the Bodhisattva will become a Buddha.


Unless we read sugatam for sugata and render “thy solitude will be blessed.”


Sphuṭam (see p. 279, n. 1.) should, in sense, agree with the locative nabhasmi. As it stands it can be explained only as an adverbial accusative.


Bhāyi, aorist or a Prakrit present. The next clause has pracalate, a historic present.


Jihmavarṇa, see p. 277, n. 3.


Literally, “making the añjalī,” kariya añjaliṃ. Kariya (= ), present participle from kṛ. One MS. has kariyaṃ.


Literally, “holding,” parigṛhīta.


Text repeats °parigṛhītā namasyanti.


Svakāye adhimuktīye.


Parasparasya vāñcchitaratnamayam.


? Rasacandana.


Girisāracandana. B.R. and M.W. give girisāra as meaning “iron.”


Hastigarbha. See p. 284, n. 1.


Lacuna in text.


“Brilliantly effulgent,” but this is applicable to any precious stone.




Samantacandra, a stone in which one is supposed to see the full moon.


? Sucandra.




? Sūryavikrānta, but it is possible that this is a mistake for sūryakānta “sun-loved,” the name for a certain crystal which gave out heat when exposed to the sun. See p. 297.


Candrobhāsa. Perhaps another name for candrakānta, analogous with sūryakrānta. Cf. also candropala, śaśimaṇi, and śaśikānta.


? Jyotiprabhāsa.


? Vidyuprabhāsa.


Samanta-āloka, “with light all round.”


Muktāprabhehi maṇiratnehi.


Apratihataprabhehi maṇiratanehi.


Samucchraya, “body,” Pali samussaya. See Vol. I, p. 134, n. 1.


The name of a precious stone in Mvyut. 134. See B.R.




Or, “sandal-wood-bright stones.”




“Keeper of elephants,” “stately elephant.” Cf. hastigarbha, 284, n. 1.


“The lord’s tooth.”


An inexplicable name. Rasaka ordinarily means “broth”!


Cf. Pali gomattaka, “a precious stone of light red colour.”


Śaśa, “hare.”


Lālāṭikā is an “ornament worn on the forehead” (M.W.); possibly this precious stone was so called because of its use in or as such an ornament.


See p. 282, w. 7.


Tālaka is “a kind of ornament” (B.R.). Cf. tālapatra (ibid.), “a kind of ear-ornament.” Tālika, of the text, may, or may not, be connected with this word.


Paripacciṣyati, from Pali pass, paripaccati.


Sañjānensu, “perceived,” “saw,” the aorist of the present historic sañjānanti, translated “saw” in the preceding passage.


? Mudrāhastika.


? Āvāpa.


Haṃsadāma and siṃhalatā. Such ornaments are often found depicted in Buddhist architecture.


Literally, “(as) adorned by themselves,” svalaṃkṛtam for svālaṃkṛtam.


Literally, “they saw the bodhi tree at a height in accordance with their knowledge,” yathāsvakasvakena jñānena bodhivṛkṣamuccatvena sañjānanti.


Abhisañjātakuśalamūlaniryātā. Niryāta is here connected with (mārga) niryānika (niyyānika), “(the way) leading out” sc. from rebirth.


Bhavāgra, Pali bhavagga.


Aḍḍhatiyayojanaśatāni. Aḍḍha-tiya (Pali), “the third less half.”


Lūkhādhimuktika. For lūkha, see p. 63, n. 1.


“Because of broken beauty, colour or light,” jihmavarṇa. See p. 277, n. 3.




Bhūmyā devā. See Vol. I, p. 34, n. 2.


For these devas see Vol. I, p. 28 and notes; also D.P.N. and W. Kirfel’s Kosmographie.


Brahmapurohitā devā, devas inhabiting the lowest but one of the Brahmā worlds. See D.P.N.


Those occupying the highest place in the Brahmā worlds. See D.P.N.


‘Brilliant’ devas in general.


See Vol. I, p. 44, n. 1.


A group of Brahmā devas, including the Parīttaśubhā, the Apramāṇa- (Appamāṇa-) śubhā, and Śubhakṛtsnā (Subhakiṇhā).


Pali Vehapphala, “one of the Brahmā worlds of the Rūpaloka plane.” (D.P.N.)


Pali Avihā. ‘Their world ranks among the five foremost of the Rūpa-worlds, the Suddhāvāsā.” (D.P.N.)


Pali Atappā, “a class of devas belonging to the Suddhāvāsā. (D.P.N.)


Cf. Pali Sudassā, “a Brahmā-world, one of the Suddhāvāsā.” (D.P.N.)


Avaruptakuśalamūla. The participle avarupta, which recurs in the same connexion at 3. 406 (text) is a hybrid form. The sense demands that it be referred to the root ruh, “to grow,” caus. ropayati (Pali ropeti), “to plant,” but formally it has been confused with another Pali ropeti, caus. of the pass. rūhati, “to be broken.” In form the latter is referable to rundh, rumbh or rudh, and its causative may be an indirect formation from one of these forms, or more likely a direct representative of tup = lup (lump). (See P.E.D.) It is instructive to note that two MSS. of the Mhvu. have here avalupta. Avarupta must, therefore, be regarded as a restoration of the past participle of the radical verb underlying ropeti, but the wrong ropeti was chosen. In Vol. I, p. 1, the correct form of the past part, caus., avaropita is used with kuśalamūla. The ava is not easy to explain. Perhaps it is due to the frequent occurrence of oropeti (o = ava) in Pali, and sometimes in contexts which make it difficult to decide whether the form ropeti is the first or the second of the two referred to above. On p. 270 (text) of Vol. 1 we have āropita, “made to grow,” applied to kuśalamūla.




Dhyāma. See Vol. I, p. 36, n. 1.


Pratisaṃśikṣati, Pali paṭisañcikkhati (from khyā), in same sense.


Imam, neut., for idam.


Literally, “may not be a thing of no wonder,” mā bhaveyā anāścaryam.


Ṛddhiprātihārya, Pali iddhipāṭihāriya.


Literally, “caused an awareness of a rival king to be present in the Bodhisattva,” pratirājasaṃjñāṃ bodhisatve upasthāpetvā. The translation follows Senart’s interpretation of the phrase, but it might, perhaps, be equally well rendered by “showed himself to the Bodhisattva as a rival king.”


Haritvā. It does not seem necessary to regard this as a Prakrit form of bharitvā, as Senart does.




Āgameti, “wait,” “stay (from),” causative of āgacchati. Cf. Pali.


Not the verse (or verses) following, which is rather yet another account of the incidents attending enlightenment, including the assault by Māra.




Mā cyaviṣyam. with fut. indic, to express negative wish, an extension of its use to express negative purpose. Cyaviṣyaṃ is either for cyaviṣyāmi with the “i” elided before the following ito, or a Prakrit form, cf. Pali Atm. ending -ssam. It can hardly be the conditional tense.


Vyome vimānā. Sc. the sun and moon. The figure is somewhat obscure, but apparently the allusion is to the distortion of light as reflected by gold.


Kṛtajihmavarṇa. The frequency of the expression jihmavarṇa, “of crooked beauty or light,” in these verses is remarkable.


Jihma, here, perhaps, for jihmavarṇa. Otherwise, “awry” simply.


Siṃhīlatā. See p. 292, n. 17.


? Vidyuprabhā. Cf. vidyuprabhāsa, p. 291, n. 14.


Candraprabhā. Cf. p. 291, n. 12.


Sūryakānta. Seep. 291, n. 11.




? Samantacandra. Cf. p. 291, n. 8.


See p. 292, n. 8.


Lohitākṣa. Cf. p. 294, n. 2.


See p. 282, n. 7.




Raktāṅgī. Senart supports his reading here by citing raktāgī given in B.R. as meaning “coral.”


Cf. maheśvaradanta, p. 296. n. 6.


Cf. Sk. karka, Pali kakka, “a precious stone of a yellowish colour.” (.P.E.D.)


Cf. jyotiprabhāsa, p. 291, n. 13.


Meaning something like “(a stone) of distinction.”


Reading gṛhya for guhyā of the text. Although the latter could be explained as another form of the name of the Guhyakas who are mentioned a little later on, a verb is required here to govern nāgamaṇīm in the acc. As for the short second syllable resulting, there are other instances of it in this verse passage. Our text also has many instances of the gerund in -ya when the verb is uncompounded.


? “Elephant-stone.” Cf. p. 284, n. 1.


See Vol. I, p. 84, n. 2.




Reading sahasrāṃ for sahāṃ.


Pramattabandhu, i.e. Māra. Cf. BudvA. 288.


I.e. the vimānas were temporary sojourning places until the Nirvana described in the next clause was attained.


Utsadaprāpta. For this sense of utsada, see Vol. I, p. 6, n. 1.


I.e. Māra’s followers.


Saṃyojayanto, active participle for passive.


Sc. of dharma.


Reading tāva for tavā of the text which is inconstruable, even if it is for tava. Cf. use of tāva in Pali to convey an emphatic command.


I.e. the seven treasures of a Cakravartin.


Ratnā paribhavāhi. If this sense of the verb is the right one here, we would at first sight expect the negative , “do not disdain”; as it stands the meaning must be that as a king the Bodhisattva would have so much wealth that he would not need to desire more. But, perhaps, the verb is to be taken in another of its senses, “to encompass.”


Ābhā, instrumental for ābhayā.


Sobhāsi, subjunctive.


Praśāsi, optative.


Vasi, optative. These three verbs express a “wish” or “modified command,” which in English can be rendered by the future indicative.


As Senart remarks in his Introduction (p. xxxii, note) the appearance of Māra’s daughters here is not appropriate to the context; it is an interpolation, badly placed, from the story of the Buddha’s temptation by Māra’s daughters after their father had failed.


Sughoṣaka. See Vol. I, p. 183, n. 3.


A conjecture by Senart, the only merit of which, he says, is that it fits the metre. He has given it the same form at its occurrence on p. 159 (text) as the name of some unidentified musical instrument.


For nakula, see p. 154, where its occurrence in Lal. Vist. 252 is referred to.


There does not seem to be any reference elsewhere to a musical instrument of this name.


The text has tadatadā, “then,” which is further proof that the passage is interpolated. The context requires “now.”


Upagīyamāna, pass, in mid. sense.


The “jewel,” which was the fourth of the Cakravartin’s “seven treasures,” does not seem to be specified elsewhere.


I.e., Māra.


See p. 142, n. 3.


Ṛddhipāda, Pali iddhipāda. “They are the making determination in respect of concentration on purpose, on will, on thoughts and on investigation.” (.P.E.D.)




Abhiprāpto, the past part. pass, must here be taken in an active sense, unless we read °prāptvā. The participle in tvā with compounded verbs, though against classical Sk. usage, is found in Pali.


Ānisaṃsa. On the score of metre Senart prefers this Pali form to the BSk. distortion anuśaṃsa found in the MSS. But see p. 337, n. 5.


Naye. Although there seems to be no parallel for such a use of the verb , “to lead," Senart says that, on the evidence of the MSS., this is the most probable reading, and he therefore prefers it to some form of the verb janayati, “to beget.”


Literally, will not beget a “will” or “wish” for, na jānayi cchandam. Jānayi is aor., in opt. sense, of jāneti (= janeti, as often in Pali).


Aśanivaracakram, adv. acc., “(during) the wheel of a thunderbolt.” Vara is rather out of place here. Assuming hiatus instead of an elision in the line, we could read aśanivicakram, which would correspond to Pali asanivicakkam, apparently used in the sense of “fall of the thunderbolt” at S. 2. 229, D. 3. 44, 47. (See P.E.D.)


Pṛthagjanā. Śee Vol. I, p. 28, n. 8.


Literally, “will (may) not beget,” jane, opt. of janeti.


Saṃvartanīye buddhakṣetre. Cf. saṃvartamāna kalpa, Vol. I, p. 43, n, 3.


Jālatṛṣṇā, cf. Pali jālataṇhā, Dhs. 1059, 1136.


Phuṣphasa for regular Sk. phupphasa.


“Will beget,” jana (? sic) for jane, as immediately below in the same verse repeated.


Prapatiṣu. Senart assumes here and below (p. 333 text) a stem prapati, “falling forward,” as synonymous with durgati.


Trividham, sc. in act, thought, and word.


Reading sphuṭaṃ for sphuṭa.


The introduction of this name, known also in Lal. Vist. as Māra’s son, unduly prolongs the pāda, and it is likely that, as Senart says, it is a later interpolation, the subject of the sentence being originally merely the sa kṛṣṇabandhu of the next pāda. The latter is usually an epithet of Māra himself, but as Kṛṣna by itself often stands for Māra, in this context Kṛṣṇabandhu must be taken as Māra’s son.


Doṣaṃ aprasādaṃ.


“Unstruck,” aghaṭṭita.




Cakṣur.. . sarvaloke. See Vol. I, p. 37, n. 1.


Dvīpa. See Vol. I, p. 280, n. 1.


Parāyaṇa (and parāyana), Pali and BSk. With this passage cf. S. 4. 315f.


Camū. This word is used of Māra’s army on p. 260 (text), see p. 246, n. 3. But Senart says that his restoration of the word here is wholly conjectural.


Samo (sic) with neuter sainyam.




See p. 287, n. 4.


Sthihi aor. (in pot. sense) of sthihati, a Prakrit form of sthā often found in our text.


Uccajati = uttyajati. Cf. Pali cajati.


“Rarely” is not in the text here, but is supplied from the frequent comparison between the rarity of the flowering of this tree (udumbara) and the rarity of the appearance of Buddhas. See e.g. Vol. I, p. go.


Aśraddadhanta. Cf. p. 310, n. 8.


Vipannaśīla, cf. Pali vipannasīla. V. 1. 63; 2. 4; J. 3. 138.


Literally, “I would make him take faith,” grāheya śraddhām (for śuddham of the text. So Senart).


The comparison in the text is expressed by the simple expedient of setting the two statements side by side, and negativing the second. Thus ātmānaṃ muñceya... saukhyaṃ labheya, “he could throw himself and win safety”... na ahitāni kṛtvā, “(but) not having done unkind things.” At first sight the negative clause would seem to be conditional in force, i.e. that a man could perform dangerous deeds in safety if he had not been unkind to the Buddha. But the interpretation offered in the translation is more appropriate to the context than to see here an allusion to the miracle-working power of faith. His son is concerned with warning Māra of the dangers consequent upon attacking the Bodhisatva.


Phṛtva (sic) for kṛtvā.


Na, simply, see p. 306, n. 5.


Pāraprāpta, cf. pāramīprāpta, Pali pāramippatta.


Reading akṣī asamprāpto for samprāpto of text.


Okiri (avakiri) aorist sg. for pi., the verb is repeated in the next clause in the (historic) present, okiranti.


Sārthavāhā, sc. Buddhas.


Another son of Māra, apparently mentioned only here.


“There would not be joy in it not being seen,” opaśyamāne na bhaveya toṣa. It is strange that Senart should have read doṣa here for toṣa, which suits the context and is the reading of at least one MS.


“Received” labdhvā.


Apacinohi. Cf. Pali apacināti in the second of its two senses, when it = apacayati.


I.e. the Bodhisattva.


“Surpassed,” abhibhavi, aor.


Budhyasi, aor. 3rd. sg. Cf, budhyansu in the next verse.




Varanāmadheyo. We should expect °dheyām to agree with gāthām. No work of this title, “Great Mindfulness,” is otherwise known. Senart in his Index refers to Vol. I, p. 199 (text), but the word mahāsmṛti there would seem to be a common substantive, simply “great mindfulness” (Vol. I, p. 157), and not necessarily any particular embodiment of “dogma.”


Apparently mentioned only here.


Lacuna of the second pāda, and the first being left an imperfect sentence or clause is left untranslated.


Diśa for diśā or diśāṃ.


? pūrvam.


Tam = him, sc. Māra.


Cāletum, act. (caus.) inf. in pass, sense. But munim, which is in apposition to mahatmā, is acc., or else the m is an insertion to avoid hiatus.


Asaddadhāna, “unbelieving,” a half-Pali, half-Sk. formation from śraddhā, cf. Pali pres. part, sadddhāna. On p. 330 (text) occurs the Sk. form aśraddadhanta.


Literally, “of Māras,” mārāṇa.


See p. 283, n. 4.


? gardābhāśvānyarūpā.


Or “natures,” vikṛīta-svabhāvā.


This is a tentative interpretation of an obscure line, which reads kṣurapracārī ca vibhagnanāsā. Kṣura has been taken in the sense of “hoof” or “foot,” and, associated as it is with vibhagnanāsā, it may stand for kṣuranāsā. The latter is an expression for “sharp-nosed,” i.e. “with a nose like a razor,” as at J. 4. 139. But in view of the other epithet, vibhagnanāsā, it is more probably to be taken in the sense of “hoof-nosed,” i.e. flat-nosed, especially as one MS. reads °nāsād (for nāsā (?) ) yathā hastapādā. This appears to be a gloss explaining that the noses were “like hands and feet,” i.e. flat. Pracārī, “appearing” or “manifesting” continues the idea that such features were apparent only, and the result of distortion in the fitful glow of the firebrands.


Sa-nandighoṣa, taken as equivalent to nandī, Pali nandi. (V. 3. 108.) See P.E.D. Otherwise “merrily rattling” (of the chariots).




Siyu, pot. 3rd pl., for syus. Cf. Pali siyuṃ.


Injitum, Pali injati, Sk. iṅgati.




Yavanti.? for yavatī.


Śūnyā nimittā.


? praṇidhī vibhāvitā.




Sthitasya, “placed.”


Praṣṭavya. See Vol. I, p. 284, n. 3.


See Vol. I, p. n. 3.




Adhyātmasañjñā vibhāvitā.


Sc. the sun.


Paśyitu i.e. paśyi, aor. 3rd sg. for pi., + tu. One MS. has paśyantu, which is impossible here.


Purāṇāṃ rūpām.


Rūpadhāto upagātā. The first word seems an impossible form from °dhātu; one MS. has °dhātu. Read °dhātum. For the expression, cf. na rūpaṃ gaccheyam, Vol. I, p. 243 (text).


See p. 313, n. 1.


Senart seems to misunderstand this passage. He takes sthapetva, “excepting,” to mean “leaving,” and supplies as the subject of prapati, “fell on,” sattvā, “beings.” Hence his translation, “alors quittant les enfers ou la condition animale, les êtres, du monde de Yama, revinrent dans tout l’univers.”


The Pratītya-samutpāda (paṭicca-samuppāda) formula shows some interesting variations here when compared with the expression of it in other texts, including the Mhvu. itself (see p. 267f.) Instead of avidyāpratyayā saṃskārā (avijjā-paccayā saṃkhārā) we have avidyā hetu bhavasaṃskṛtasya. Similarly sparśa (phassa) is the hetu of the vedanā. The causal relation is expressed in other instances by pratyaya (paccaya), and in two instances this is used substantially as a predicate, whence it appears to be regarded as a synonym of hetu. In another instance pratyaya in the acc. is used as the final member of a compound, with adverbial force, “because of,” “as a result of,” “conditioned by,” etc., as also hetu is in two instances.


Bhavasaṃskṛtasya, a synonym for saṃskārā. (See Vol. I, p. 99, n. 1.)


Jānana, a synonym for vijñāna, which is used to resume the “chain” in the next line. The use of this synonym would seem to emphasise that vijñāna, although rendered by “consciousness,” is not a merely passive condition but represents the activity of the embryo life in getting acquainted with things. But this activity is too elemental, as yet, to be called “cognition,” which is sometimes used to render vijñāna.




Nāmarūpa, “name-and-form.”


Ṣaḍindriya, “the six controls (of the senses)” for the usual ṣaḍāyatana, see p. 268, n. 2.


Bhavati sparśajātam.


Bhavaṃ saṃsaranti.


The text has āyāsā, which Senart prints with a (?). It leaves the line one syllable short. Read upāyāsā, the usual term in this formula.




Literally “the shout the knowledge of which was fixed” or “knowledge able shout,” śabda pravṛttajñāna.


Pāraprāpta, or, “had won perfection.” See p. 307, n. 3.


I.e. Śumeru, cf. below.


? vināśadharmanidhāna.


Reading varṇam for varṇo, and so in the next stanza.


Literally “the element of being,” satvadhātu.


Pali Sudassā. Cf. Sudarśana, p. 295, n. 2.


Sarvāvati, fem. of sarvāvant, BSk. = Pali sabbāvant.


See Vol. I, p. 172, n. 4.


Tāpin, in the text. But the reading of one MS., tāyi(ta), would seem to confirm Kern’s statement (S.B.E., xxi, p. 25, n. 1) that “the form tāpin given in the dictionaries as an epithet of Buddha is but a misread tāyin, and further that this is radically the same with Pāli tādī (tādin).” Burnouf derives it from a supposed Sanskrit trāyin, and translates it by “protector” (ibid.). But the identification with Pali tādin, “such,” “of such good qualities “easily explains the use of BSk. tāyin, in the sense of “so great,” “mighty,” etc. The word tāyin occurs elsewhere in the Mhvu., three times, for example, immediately below (p. 351, text). It is especially frequent in the Lotus.


Here denoted by the quasi-synonym Nirmitā, as the next are denoted by Paranirmitā.




Kūṭāgarehi, or “by gabled buildings.” Nirmitā, “fashioned,” is for nirmitehi.


Heṣṭā, “below,” but it must have here the modified meaning given in the translation.




Heṭṭhā. Pali for heṣṭā.


Udgatā for udgatehi. Cf. n. 1.


Tāyin. See p. 318, n. 2.




The plural is remarkable here. It can only be a touch of poetic exaggeration. For each Buddha had one, and only one, Buddha-field. See Vol. I, pp. 95 ff.




Or “of one speaking with magic,” ṛddhi bhāṣatas.


Literally, “body of morality,” śīlaskandha, Pali sīlakkhandha, “all that belongs to moral practices, body of morality as forming the first constituent of the five khandhas.” (P.E.D.) These khandhas, which the Pali texts enumerate as three, sīlakkhandha, samādhi-, paññā-, or as five, by adding vimutti- and vimuttiñāṇadassana-, are to be distinguished from the five khandhas (skandhas) or “elements of sensory existence.” (See Vol. I, p. 58, n. 3.)


Mociṣyi upapadyatām, following the suggestion of Senart’s that by supplying iti (understood) these words will be the actual words spoken by each, “I shall deliver,” etc.


Dvijasattama, a strange epithet of the Buddhas. Possibly it should be emended into the more usual dvipaduttama, “best of bipeds.”


Reading, with one MS., prāsādā for prasādā. “Palaces” here, of course, denoting the truths of Buddhism, much in the same way as ratana, “jewel,” is used. Besides, prasādā seems required to form an antithesis to cetiyā.


Puluvan = pūrvam.


Asaṃskṛtāyus, “whose life is uncompounded,” i.e. with no saṃskāras to condition or cause another rebirth. Cf. ayu: samṣkāras, Vol. I, p. 99, n. 1.


Orasa, Pali, Sk. aurasa, “being in the breast” (uras.).


These future Buddhas seem to be alluded to only here.


Saṅgaṇikā, BSk. and Pali.


Reading, with the MSS., varṇam for varṇo; and so twice below on the same page.


Dharesi, “habitual” aorist, 3rd sg. for pl.


Lujyamāna, pres. part. pass, of luj = ruj. Cf. pralujyati, p. 370 (text) = Pali palujjati, pass, of palujati.


There is a lacuna before anubaddhā, which is evidently the final member of a compound word. The translation adopts Senart’s suggestion that the compound can be restored by reading vratānubaddhā.


Vikīrṇavācā. Cf. Vol. I, p. 229, n. 2.


Caturhi dharmehi samanvāgata.


Śīlaskhandha. See p. 321, n. 4.


The second is lost in a lacuna, though one MS. retains the ending citratāya (sic for cittatāya).




Ohita, Pali. BSk. generally has avahita or apahita, but the Mhvu. has ohita. Both hita and ohita are, of course, from the same root dhā.


The construction here is awkward. The words paśyanti rakṣitvā do not readily give the above translation, although the context seems to demand it. Senart can only construe by taking paśyanti to be passive. But even then the construing into “they are seen to have kept” (or “as having kept”) is by no means certain.


Utsuka, Pali ussuka.


hirī-ottappasampanna. For ottappa see Vol. I, p. 87, n. 1. Hirī and ottappa are often associated. See P.E.D. for references.


See p. 142, n. 3.


This stanza is identical, word for word, with one at It. 67, except that the latter has vittalābha for citta°, and this reading has been adopted here also. Cf. S. 1.126, where cittam is probably to be emended into vittam.


Literally, “made bright by morality,” śīlena śobhito.


Dadanto na vihanyati. But the correctness of the text may be doubted, especially as, by strict monastic rules, a monk would have nothing to give. Apart from dadanto, it might be possible to render “the monk is made to shine by his morality (and his light) is not dimmed” (vihanyati). Miss I. B. Horner, however, makes the interesting suggestion that the virtuous monk’s charity or gift is that of dharma. She cites A. 1.91 and It. p. 98, where two kinds of gifts are specified, that of material things and that of dhamma.


Dāgha, a Prakrit form, according to Senart, for dāha, Pali ḍāha. See his note Vol. I, p. 388.


“Goes to,” gacchati.


“Is,” bhūta.


This pāda must be regarded as very doubtful. The MS. evidence, to judge by the two MSS. quoted in the apparatus, is very confusing, and it is difficult to see how the reading in the text was reached by Senart. He, however, makes no remarks on the passage. His text reads na kadācidyutāgasaṃ gacchati bhūtadurgatim, which would seem to mean, literally, “never does he go to what is joined with sin, which is the bourne of ill.” Āgasaṃ would be a vocalic declension of āgas, “sin,” but its composition with yuta is very perplexing. The two MSS. referred to read, respectively, na yuvo snigdhasaṃbhūtaḥ kadāciṣu sudurgatiṃ and °d yutogasaṃ kadācid bhūṣu durgatim. Taking a clue from the former the translator has made the very tentative restoration —na kadācidatisnehaṃ gacchati, etc. For atisneha and the sentiment generally cf. some verses of the Khaḍgaviṣāṇa sūtra in Vol. I, p. 358f. text (p. 304f., trans.).


Prasādaṃ gacchati.


Literally “his eye is not destroyed,” na tasya hanyate cakṣum. The explanation is obscure, unless the allusion is, as the sequel would seem to show, to his being able to see more than the objects immediately around him.


Literally, “goes observing,” nirīkṣīya gacchati.


See Vol. I, p. 125.


Literally, “the Buddha-sound is not hard for him to win,” na tasya dullabho bhoti buddhaghoṣa. Cf. V. 2. 155, ghoso pi kho eso dullabho lokasmiṃ yad idaṃ buddho buddho ti.


Literally, “on,” loc. case.


With allusion to the meaning of the name Nirmāṇarati, “delighting in their own creations.” Sunirmita was the name of a king of these devas (see Vol. I, p. 165, n. 4). He is here, as usually, styled devaputra, “deva-son.” But the distinction between deva and devaputra seems hardly worth while making, as even the highest devas are sometimes called devaputras. The distinction has been generally ignored throughout this translation. The pluralising of the names and persons of devas is a feature of Buddhist literature.


Māra here is not so much the “Evil One” of Buddhist theology as one of the sammutidevā of the conventional religion.


See p. 294, n. 5.




Or “passed to Nirvana,” parinirvāyi, aor. 3rd sg. for pl.


The perfect or good monk and the Buddha himself are disconcertingly mixed up throughout this passage.


Pavane, which Senart takes to mean “in purifying yourselves.” But more likely the word is not pavana, “winnowing,” but Pali pavana (= Sk. pravaṇa), which is used elsewhere in the Mhvu. in the sense of “wood,” “woodland.” Cf. p. 382 (text). See authorities cited in P.E.D.


This last sentence should not really be part of the verses, as it is a comment on the reception by the Bodhisattvas, who were the Buddha’s audience, of the verses recited by him. The whole stanza is remarkable for the number of substantival forms in ă (for ā) mingled with the regular plural form.




Bhikṣo, not voc. sg. for pl., but more likely a Prakrit form of the plural bhikṣavaḥ. The form is used four times in this short prose passage, among about an equal number of the regular plural form.


I.e. the three yānas of Mahāyāna Buddhism—śrāvakayāna, pratyekabuddhayāna and Buddhayāna.


Literally, “as long as Nirvana the end of it is not,” yāvanna parinirvāṇaṃ tasya paryantaḥ.


Reading sarṣapaphulla for °phala “mustard-fruit”.


These verses contain some passages practically identical with passages in the Avalokana-sūtra quoted by Śāntideva in Śikṣā-samuccaya (pp. 298 ff. ed. Bendall, pp. 270 ft. trans. Bendall and Rouse). This fact coupled with the similarity of the subject shows that both Śāntideva and the Mhvu. were quoting from a work which at one time circulated under some title like Avalokita-sūtra or Avalokana-sūtra. But the Mhvu. shows far greater elaboration of detail, and we may accordingly go further than Winternitz (History of Indian literature), who says (Vol. 2, p. 245 n.) “though the text in the Śikṣāsamuccaya agrees in the main with that of the Mahāvastu, there are nevertheless such striking divergencies of particular passages, that it cannot possibly be an extract from the Mahāvastu,” and say, rather, that in the Mhvu. we have a much enlarged version of a work which retains more of its original character and scope in the version quoted by Śāntideva. The other two extracts in the Mhvu., (that called here “the first Avalokita-sūtra”) and in the Śikṣāsamuccaya (pp. 89 ff.), respectively, have nothing in common.


Abhipradakṣinaṃ karoti, lit. “keep to one’s right in going round, approaching, or leaving,” a form of reverential salutation.


See p. 358, text (p. 325. The eight inopportune or unseasonable times, akṣaṇa (Pali akkhaṇa), are enumerated at D. 3. 263. On p. 287 ibid, they are given as nine.


Ārāgeti, elsewhere in the Mhvu., as in BSk. generally, ārāgayati, a distortion of Pali ārādheti. In Vol. I, p. 132 (text, p. 104, trans.) Senart prefers the form ārādheti in spite of the evidence of the MSS. for the BSk. form. There and elsewhere in the Mhvu. the verb has the correct Pali meaning of “to win the favour of.” Here, however, it follows the second meaning of the Pali verb, viz. “to attain,” a meaning due to confusion of ārādheti with ārabhati.


Anīrṣuka, partially assimilated to Pali anissukin (Sk. anirṣyu-ka).




Nairātmya, “soullessness.”




For these four see Vol. I, p. 165, n. 4-7.


Reading aṣṭāṅgavārisaṃpūrṇām for aṣṭaṅgavara° of the text. A substantive is required as the second element of the compound. Two MSS. have °jala°, “water.” Cf. also Śikṣāsamuccaya translation (p. 271) “full of eight qualities of water.” (The Sanskrit text is not available.) Aṣṭāṅga, however, does not necessarily imply eight actual qualities, but is, as often, used in the general sense of “complete” or “perfect.” See p. 280, n. 6.


Ārāgeti. See p. 330, n. 2.


Reading śokaśalākām (= the usual śokaśalya) instead of śokavairāgyām of the text, which would give the inappropriate sense “(he does not go to grief) and freedom from the passion of grief.” The reading śailānyam of two MSS. would seem to suggest the above emendation readily.


Su-ghaṭṭita. This past part, must be referred to granth (grath), “to fasten together,” etc., and not to ghaṭṭ, “to rub,” “touch,” “shake,” “strike,” etc. Cf. Pali ghaṭṭana (i) “combining,” (2) “striking,” which is thus referable to both stems.




Satkṛto (sic) for satkṛtam (kulam).


Pūrvālāpin, “allowing others to speak first.” See p. 62, n. 3.




Jage—vocalic declension of jagat.


Se = asya.


Aviddasu, Pali.


An echo of the primitive belief that “shades” of the dead were larger than the bodies of the living. Here it is also implied that the greater the size of the victim the more numerous the torments to which he could be submitted.


Reading phalānām for halānām, “ploughshares,” though the monstrous size of the victim does make it possible that the latter is correct. Still, one MS. has phalā°. The latter, of course, can itself mean “ploughshare” (= phāla) as well as a “blade” or “point” of a weapon.


Rakṣa for rakṣāṃ, metri causa.


The text has the plural in this stanza.


Dharmā, pl.






Pratikrośa, “shouting against.”


Literally, “seen in former annihilation or suppression,” purimanirodhadṛṣṭa.


See p. 330, n. 1.


Praśastu, for praśasta.


Ānuśaṃsa; so also on next page. Either a mistake or a different BSk. version of Pali ānisaṃsa, the usual one being anuśaṃsa. See p. 302, n. 2.


Here Daśabaladhārin, “possessor of the ten powers.”


The subject becomes singular again here.


“To those passed away,” nirvṛtānām.


Dharmanetrī for -īm. Cf. Pali dhammanetti.


Kālakarma, a substantive corresponding to kālaṃ kṛ, “to die.”


Reading puṣpadāne for puṣpadinne.


Prakari—aorist (habitual); this form frequently occurs in the following stanzas.


To judge from the translation (p. 271) these adjectives are accusative in agreement with jinam, “conqueror,” in the corresponding passage of the Śikṣā-samuccaya (p. 301).


Nīgha, Pali nigha, and, compounded, sometimes anīgha. According to the P.E.D. the form nigha “is invented by Com. and scholiasts to explain anigha,” which they wrongly analysed into a-nigha, instead of into an-īgho, from Sk. ṛgh, “to tremble,” etc. The Com. explain anīgha by niddukkha (see P.E.D. for references), while the Com. on Ś. 5. 57 explains the three nighas there enumerated (rāga, dosa, moha), as “pains that destroy him.” In the translation above the word is taken as = duḥkha.


Literally, “the resolution (desire, will) how I am a Buddha,” chandaṃ kathamasmi buddha.


? Dukūla.


Tasya bhavatopapatti. The latter word can only be interpreted as a corrupt abbreviation of bhavati upapatti. Two MSS. have bhagavato°, which is neither metrical nor agreeable to the context.


Garahati, Pali id., Sk. garhati.


The text has anāgṛhīta, and the MS. evidence seems to be decisive on this reading. But the word gives no appropriate sense. Anugṛhīta, the word which first suggests itself as an alternative, is not suitable, on the score either of metre or of meaning. A better reading, which has been adopted for translation, is anānugṛdhra, on the analogy of Pali anānugiddha, “not greedy after.” This word fits in well with the other adjective in the clause, amatsarin.


Na jīvikārthaṃ janayati so pareṣām.


Na... paramapramatta.


Vuḍḍha, Pali id., Sk. vṛddha. The allusion is to the belief that all Buddhas attain enlightenment in the same place.


Literally, “gem of a family,” kularatna. Cf. Miln. 262, dussaratana “a very fine garment.”




Kṣaṇa. See note on akṣaṇa, p. 330, n. 1.


There is a lacuna here which prevents a certain interpretation of the remainder, na tasya... dharmasya anto, “there is no end of his dharma” (?) One MS. has dhanasya, “of his wealth.”


? Karitvā bahukāmanuṣyam. One MS. has caritvā, which makes one think; that the correct reading here should be caritvā bahu- (or jana-) kāyasyārtham, “having fared for the sake of the multitude.” But the metre is against this.


See Vol. I, pp. 95 ff.


Acchati, Pali id., Sk., āsyati, āste.


Senart admits a lacuna in the text, the MS. reading being pholikamtubhu) jo. He suggests that the first part of this may be for phalika, “crystal” Śk. sphaṭika, but the rest remains obscure.


Sahālokadhātu, so interpreted in BR., where Mvyut. 81 and Lotus 400 are cited. According to the same authority sahā is “die Erde die Alles ertragende.” The same word appears in Sahāmpati, a name of Brahmā or Mahā-Brahmā, see p. 60, n. 9.


Or “coins,” kārṣāpaṇa, Pali kahāpaṇa. See Vol. I, p. 32, n. 1.


Sahā. See p. 342, n. 4.


Literally, “in the point of the compass and the intermediate points,” diśi vidiśāsu.


In these stanzas the Buddha cites his own past deeds as examples of meritorious actions.


Āhu, must, as Senart says, here be equivalent to āsim (or āsi, the form in the next line). This, he says, is hardly probable, but the Mhvu. form may be due to metrical lengthening of the Pali (Prakrit) form ahu, which is sometimes a variant for the 1st pers. ahum.


Literally, “were studied by me,” āgamita for āgamitā, which is the reading of one MS.






Hosi in text, to be emended into homi (historic present), and so with karoṣi below in the same stanza.


Vyañjana. See p. 40.


Bhisa for bhisaj.


Suviśeṣaprāpta. Cf. viśeṣādhigama, p. 125, n. 2.


Dhyānahāni. Śikṣāsamuccaya seems to read jñāna°. See translation, P. 273.


Śrotendriyeṇa. Śrota here must be understood as a wrong Sanskritisation of Pali sota (Sk. srotas), “channel,” “passage,” “aperture,” etc., from sru, “to flow,” taken as equal to nāsasota, “nostril.” We thus have the “faculties” (indriyas) in their usual order, sight, hearing, smell, to be followed by taste (tongue).


Pravāḍa = prabāla, e.g. in prabālapadma, “red lotus flower.”


Jaḍa, but Śikṣāsamuccaya has a word for “serpent” here. See translation p. 273.


“Said, for example, of a frog,” footnote ibid.


Lacuna in text.


Gatu for gata.


Rajas (Pali rajo and raja), “dust” in its figurative or moral sense.


Dharmaṃ karitvā karikāradharmam. Karikāra is inexplicable, although the MSS. seem to be agreed on the reading. The second element of the compound could be taken as kāra, “service,” but kari remains inconstruable. Perhaps the whole compound is synonymous with karaṇīya, or even to be emended into it. Karaṇīyadharma would mean “a duty to be done.” The translation given is tentative only, but it seems to suit the context.


An unknown word, though the MSS. seem to be agreed on the form both here and in the immediate sequel, where it recurs several times. It is very likely a foreign word and so left apparently undeclined, for it should be accusative case. Senart suggests a connection with kārṣāpana (see Vol. I, p. 32, n. 1). One is also reminded of Pali karīsa, a loan word from Tamil denoting a certain measure.


Aprasahya, “irresistible.”


“From (in) women he begets an awareness of the cemetery,” śmasānasaṃjñāṃ janayati iṣṭikāsu. Iṣṭikā is here taken as a BSk. from (fem, pl.) for iṣṭa, “desirable,” etc., which seems to suit the context better than iṣṭikā (= iṣṭakā) “brick (for the sacrificial altar)”; this latter word occurs on p. 386 (text).


Sahaloka = sahāloka. See p. 60, n. 9.


Saṃskārā. See Vol. I, p. 99, n. 1.


Sc. the teaching of the Buddhas.


Kathāṃ kṛtvā śubha (for śubhām).


Reading devo for devā. So Senart.


Gaṇam, unless we read guṇam, “good qualities.”


Reading, with one MS., sumanojñagandhām, for °ghoṣām of the text.


Varagandha for varagandham.


Literally, “weights,” tulayati. But this reading necessitates the emendation of artha into arthām, since an accusative substantive is required to go with aprameyām. The sentiment thus agrees with Śiksāsamuccaya, p. 305 (p. 273-4, trans.). Senart, however, rejects tulayati as unintelligible here and substitutes tārayati, which would give the translation “he leads across infinite thousands.” This would certainly seem to accord better with the following sentence.


Sphuṭa vedikāhi, or “surrounded by railings,” but sphuṭa is “filled with” or “covered with” rather than “surrounded by.” For vedikā see Vol. 1, p. 153, n. 2.


prabhūtabhogām bahuśo samantā.


Upapeta = upapanna in meaning. See Senart’s note in Vol. I, p. 628, on this form which is also found in Lal. Vist., and has an analogous form in Māgadhi.


Īryāpatha. See Vol. I, p. 18, n. 5.


Literally “in their domain,” vijite.


Hataraja for hatarajā.


Imu for imam, which is the reading of one MS.


Cf. Vol. I, p. 276, n. 2.


Hataraja, for hatarajam.


For these attributes of the devas cf. Vol. I, p. 25.


Choretvā, from chorayati (caus. of chur), “to inlay,” “veneer,” “set with mosaic ornaments” (MW.). Senart cites Lal. Vist. 153, 284 (cf. Divy. 6), where the verb means “to leave,” and assumes that the idea conveyed by the verb here is that of bringing a net and “leaving” it as a pious offering. But it is more likely that the verb is meant to convey the mosaic-like effect of a net spread on a monument. The past part, churita has the meaning of “coated” or “spread.” There certainly must be more implied in the use of the verb than the simple idea of “giving,” which Senart says should be the translation of it. It is to be noted that on some of its occurrences in this passage the v.l. is chādetvā, “having covered.”


Naiṣkramyato, a participial form corresponding to the adjectival naiṣkramyin. The use of naiṣkramya and its related forms in the Mhvu. (e.g. pp. 107, 173 text) shows that it was felt to be a formation from nis-kramati, “to go away from” sc. the world (Pali nikkhamati) rather than from nis-kāma, “freedom from desire.” See Senart’s notes pp. 443, 591 of Vol. I, and cf. P.E.D. s.v. nekkhamma.


Saha = sahā. See p. 60, n. 9.


Vipāku for vipāka.


Pāṭala, Sk. and Pali pāṭalī, Bignonia suaveolens. Only two of the five celestial trees are named here.


The text has choretvā, but this can hardly be the right reading. The context definitely requires a verb of the sense given in the translation, and neither the literal sense of chorayati nor the derived one assumed by Senart above (see p. 350, n. 4) fits here. For there can be no merit in either spreading or placing (giving) faded flowers. It seems necessary, therefore, to read chardetvā from chardayati, Pali chaḍḍeti, “vomit,” “throw away.”


Udviddha, cf. udvedha, “height.” See Vol. I, p. 154, n. 10.


Literally, “no one shall beget (the wish of) sovereignty over him,” na tasya kopi jane īśvarīyam (Pali issariya).


These are the four saṅgrahavastūni (Pali saṅgahavatthūni). See Vol. I, p. 4, n. 5. In Vol. 1 the fourth term is samānasukhaduḥkhatā, which was translated as “equanimity in prosperity and adversity.” In the present instance, however, it is samānārthatā, and thus identical with the fourth term in Pali texts. It is also found in Lal. Vist. 30. The meaning given to this word in the P.E.D. “sensus communis or feeling of common good” seems to be confirmed here by its being qualified by bahujanasya, “of the multitude.”


Literally, “are unsatisfied with,” atṛpta (for atṛptā).


Adṛśāsi aorist (habitual). See Senart’s note in Vol. I, p. 377 on the form adṛśā. Cf. addaśāsi, immediately below.


Gṛhīta for gṛhītam.


Or “unconditioned,” asaṃskrita, Pali asamkhata, i.e. free of the saṃskāras, or the components of life producing re-birth.


Compare this with the usual Mhvu. formula expressing the mission of the Buddha. See Vol. I, p. 34, etc., and cf. M. 1.235, D. 3. 54f.


Parivāra, cf. the use of the same term to denote “the last book of the Vinaya Piṭaka (the “Accessory the Appendix, a sort of résumé ana index of the preceding books” (P.E.D.). Only, in the present instance the supplement is foisted into the middle of the work.

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