The Tattvasangraha [with commentary]

by Ganganatha Jha | 1937 | 699,812 words | ISBN-10: 8120800583 | ISBN-13: 9788120800588

This page contains verse 2617-2618 of the 8th-century Tattvasangraha (English translation) by Shantarakshita, including the commentary (Panjika) by Kamalashila: dealing with Indian philosophy from a Buddhist and non-Buddhist perspective. The Tattvasangraha (Tattvasamgraha) consists of 3646 Sanskrit verses; this is verse 2617-2618.

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation by Ganganath Jha:

तथाहि हस्तकम्पादेर्नैकत्वं बुद्धिभेदतः ।
शीघ्रमन्दादिभेदेन तद्व्यक्तिश्च निराकृता ॥ २६१७ ॥
सामान्यं नच तत्रैकमनुगाम्युपलक्ष्यते ।
सङ्केतात्प्रतिषेधादिगत्यङ्गं च भवत्यसौ ॥ २६१८ ॥

tathāhi hastakampādernaikatvaṃ buddhibhedataḥ |
śīghramandādibhedena tadvyaktiśca nirākṛtā || 2617 ||
sāmānyaṃ naca tatraikamanugāmyupalakṣyate |
saṅketātpratiṣedhādigatyaṅgaṃ ca bhavatyasau || 2618 ||

For instance, the shaking of the hand and such gestures are not regarded as one and the same (and yet they indicate affirmation and denial). The cognitions of the word-sound that are produced have the varying characteristics of length, shortness, etc.—[which also shows that the word is not one];—the idea that the one word is variously ‘manifested’ has been discarded. There is no ‘commonalty’ (common character) perceptible in the several appearances of the word; and it is only through convention that they become aids to the cognition of denial, affirmation and the rest.—(2617-2618)


Kamalaśīla’s commentary (tattvasaṃgrahapañjikā):

The following might be urged—“If the one-ness of the Word is not real,—then how is it that words accomplish the purpose of affirming and denying things,—through mere (illusory) imposition?”

The answer to this is as follows:—[see verses 2617-2618 above]:

Suck gestures’—such as winking of the eyes, etc.

With such varying characteristics as length, etc.’—this has to be construed with ‘huddhibhedataḥ,’ ‘the cognitions, etc.’.

Nor can these characteristics be due to variations in the ‘manifester’; as the very idea of such ‘manifestation’ has been discarded.—‘Tadvyaktiḥ’—manifestation of the eternal thing (Word-Sound).

Nor can the Word serve as the basis of usage through a commonalty; as no such ‘commonalty’ is known; and a ‘commonalty’ that is not known cannot form the basis of usage; as in that case, the usage would go on for all time.

Aids to the cognition of denial, etc. etc.’—The ‘etc.’ includes affirmation, permission, request and so forth.—The ‘gati’ of these is their cognition, comprehension;—the ‘aid’ to this is its cause.—It is the shaking of the hand, etc. that become such aids.—What is meant is that the same would be the case with words also.—(2617-2618)

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