Reverberations of Dharmakirti’s Philosophy

by Birgit Kellner | 2020 | 264,305 words

This page relates ‘Reinterpretation of the Compound svabhava-pratibandha’ of the study on the philosophy of Dharmakirti (6th century) and his predecessor Dignaga (5th century). This collection of articles reflects philosophical currents in India, China and Tibet during their time and investigates the Buddhist theories of Pramana (“instruments of trustworthy awareness”).

Reinterpretation of the Compound svabhāva-pratibandha

(By Yoichi Fukuda)

[Full title: Reinterpretation of the Compound svabhāva-pratibandha in Dharmakīrti’s Logical Theory by Yoichi Fukuda]

Introduction

Many scholars agree that svabhāva-pratibandha forms the actual basis of Dharmakīrti’s logical theory. However, there are different opinions about what svabhāva-pratibandha means.[1]

In his article “Svabhāvapratibandha Again,” Steinkellner wrote that “since the word pratibandha has only a formal meaning, the word svabhāva is responsible for connecting the reality needed” (1984: 458). He does not distinguish the meaning of sambandha from that of pratibandha, understanding both as having only the formal meaning of “connection.”

Before examining the usage of the word svabhāva-pratibandha in Dharmakīrti’s texts, I would like to consult how pratibandha/pratibaddha is presented in the Mahāvyutpatti and Abhidharmakośa, two authoritative texts on Buddhist terminology. As the Tibetan equivalents for pratibandha, the Mahāvyutpatti lists phyir’jil ba’am bgegs byed pa’am bar chad byed pa, which mean hindrance or obstruction (Mahāvyutpatti, 6483). The same is the case in the Abhidharmakośa, where pratibandha is translated into Tibetan as gegs byed pa / bgegs su gyur pa and into Chinese as 障, 障礙, 遮 (Index to the Abhidharmakośa, p. 248).

On the other hand, in Mahāvyutpatti 6481, rag lus pa’am’brel ba’am bgegs su gyur pa are given as the Tibetan equivalents of pratibandha, while in the Abhidharmakośa (Index, p. 248) in four cases “X-pratibaddha” is translated into Tibetan as “X la rag lus/las pa,” and in one case as “X dang’brel ba.” In five cases, it is translated into Chinese as 繋属,属, 随. These translations in the Abhidharmakośa all mean “dependence upon.” Thus, in these traditional texts, pratibandha is never used to mean connection, but is rather chiefly used to mean dependence.

In one-third of the cases where pratibandha is used in Dharmakīrti’s Pramāṇavārttika-svavṛtti (hereinafter referred to as PVSV), the word means “obstruction,” translated into Tibetan as gegs/gags byed (pa). However, in two-thirds of the cases pratibandha is translated as ’brel ba or rag las/lus pa. I have collected fifty-one passages that use the latter meaning for pratibandha/pratibaddha (List C). There is no distinction between pratibandha and pratibaddha in these Tibetan translations. The only difference between them is the syntactic difference in Sanskrit.[2] In twenty-seven of these passages, pratibandha/pratibaddha is ex-plicitly related to expressions of the logical nexus, for example, gamya, gamaka, gamayate, gamyate, avyabhicāra, avisaṃvāda, vyāpti, anvaya, vyatireka, ekanivṛttyānyanivṛtti, and so on.[3] Another eighteen passages mention pratibandha/pratibaddha without svabhāva. From these usages I could conclude that pratibandha has a more important role than svabhāva as the basis of the logical nexus.

Of these fifty-one examples of pratibandha/pratibaddha in the PVSV, I believe that none conflicts with the meaning of dependence, which is the traditional meaning of pratibaddha as seen above. Later I would like to return to this point and add another piece of indirect evidence.

Analysis of the compound svabhāva-pratibandha

To understand the meaning of the compound svabhāva-pratibandha, I will discuss the assumptions regarding the syntactical value of svabhāva in this compound. Until now, there have been three interpretations of this compound, namely as instrumental tatpuruṣa, genitive tatpuruṣa, and locative tatpuruṣa. The first interpretation is the most common and the one used by Dharmottara in paraphrasing the compound in the Nyāyabinduṭīkā: svabhāvena pratibandhaḥ svabhāvapratibandhaḥ (NBṬ 110,1). However, I could not find any textual evidence in Dharmakīrti confirming that pratibandha is used with words in the instrumental case. Dharmakīrti mentions pratibandha with one word in the genitive case and another in the locative case; the former indicates a possessor of pratibandha and the latter indicates an object upon which the possessor of pratibandha is dependent. A similar situation can be seen in the example of pratibaddha, which is used with a word in the locative case indicating the object of dependence and a notional subject in the appositional case.

In order to explain the usage of related words used with pratibandha, I would like to consult the Nyāyabindu (NB) instead of the PVSV for reasons of simplicity.

NB 2.19: svabhāvapratibandhe hi saty artho(X) arthaṃ(Y) gamayet /[4] NB 2.20: tad(Y)-apratibaddhasya(X) tad(Y)-avyabhicāraniyamābhāvāt /[5] NB 2.21: sa ca pratibandhaḥ sādhye arthe(Y) liṅgasya(X) /

NB 2.22: [liṅgasya(X)] vastutas tād(Y)-ātmyāt tad(Y)-utpatteś ca /

NB 2.23: a-tad(Y)-svabhāvasya(X) a-tad(Y)-utpatteś(X) ca tatra(Y) aprati-baddha-svabhāvatvāt /

In these statements, X (= hetu or liṅga) is the object that infers another thing, and Y (=sādhya) is the object to be inferred.

According to NB 2.21, X (liṅga) in the genitive case is a notional subject of pratibandha, which is the repetition of svabhāva-pratibandha in NB 2.19. In other words, X (liṅga) is a possessor of pratibandha. sādhye arthe (= Y) of the locative case in NB 2.21 and its substitute pronoun tatra in NB 2.23 represent the object, which is connected to or dependent upon X (liṅga). In other words, Y (sādhya) is an object upon which X (liṅga) is dependent. According to NB 2.23, X (liṅga), which is implicitly assumed to be in the same case (genitive) as tatsvabhāvasya or tadutpatteś, is a notional subject of the bahuvrīhi compound pratibaddha-svabhāva. The same usage of pratibaddha-svabhāva is found in PVSV: apratibaddha-svabhāvasyāvinābhāvaniyamābhāvāt (8,12f), or na ca tadapratibaddhasvabhāvo bhāvo anyaṃ gamayati (107,25). In both cases, X (liṅga or hetu) is supplemented in the appositional case.

One could naturally interpret this compound as meaning that something (X = liṅga) has its svabhāva, which is dependent upon another thing (Y = sādhya); in other words, this would mean that the svabhāva of X (liṅga) is dependent upon Y (sādhya). From these usages of pratibaddha-svabhāva, one could conclude that the first component of the compound svabhāva-pratibandha is the svabhāva of X (liṅga) and that the compound is a genitive tatpuruṣa.

However, and inconveniently, one exceptional passage exists that possibly suggests that svabhāva expresses the dependent object.[6] In this case svabhāva-pratibandha must be interpreted as a locative tatpuruṣa. These examples show that Dharmakīrti was not particularly rigorous in his interpretation of the compound, but that he generally considered svabhāva to be a liṅga and the compound thus a genitive tatpuruṣa.

The meaning of pratibandha

Next, I would like to return to the investigation into the meaning of the dependence of X (liṅga) upon Y (sādhya). Because Dharmakīrti does not explain the meaning of pratibandha explicitly, we must try to understand it from its context. The word is very closely related to ekanivṛttyānyanivṛtti (PVSV 10,23; PV I.24), which is an improved version of avinābhāva, itself a traditional expression for a logical nexus. While avinābhāva means the inevitable absence of one thing (X = hetu) in the sphere of the absence of another thing (Y = sādhya), ekanivṛttiyānyanivṛtti means that the disappearance of one thing (X) is caused by the disappearance of another thing (Y).[7] This causality of disappearance is expressed by the instrumental case or the causative verb, while the inclusive relation of the absence of two things is expressed by the locative case. Dharmakīrti introduces this causality of disappearance as a condition of an inevitable logical nexus, and insists that the causality of disappearance necessarily requires the pratibandha relation, meaning the dependence of the existence of one thing (X = hetu) upon another thing (Y = sādhya). If X is dependent in this way upon Y, the disappearance of Y will inevitably cause the disappearance of X.

Such dependence is, in itself, a connection between real objects and therefore to express this meaning Dharmakīrti does not need to mention svabhāva.

tasmād ekanivṛttyā’nyanivṛttim icchatā tayoḥ kaścit svabhāvapratibandho’py eṣṭavyaḥ / anyathā’gamako hetuḥ syāt / (PVSV 10,23–25)

This passage shows that the logical reason (= hetu) is based on the relation of ekanivṛ-ttyānyanivṛtti and, in turn, this relation is based on svabhāva-pratibandha. Conversely, if svabhāva-pratibandha exists between two objects, the disappearance of one object causes the disappearance of the other and thus one can infer the existence of the former object from the existence of the latter.

One can find this used in a similar way several times in the PVSV, as detailed below.

PVSV 16,28f: tanmātrasambandhaḥ svabhāvo (= sādhya) bhāvam (= liṅga)

eva nivartayet (k.23a–c) /.

PVSV 17,5: kāraṇaṃ nivartamānaṃ kāryaṃ nivartayati /.

PVSV 17,7f: ubhayathā (= tādātmyena tadutpattyā vā)[8] svabhāvapratiba-ndhād eva nivṛttiḥ / anyathā ekanivṛttyānyavinivṛttiḥ kathaṃ bhavet (k.24ab) /

.

PVSV 19,25: tāv (= kāraṇa and vyāpaka) eva hi nivartamānau svapratiba-ddhaṃ (= kārya and vyāpya) nivartayata iti /.

PVSV 20,1f: apratibandhe hi katham ekasya nivṛttir anyasya nivṛttiṃ sādha-yet /.

This nivartaka power does not represent a kind of logical nexus, but rather the power to affect another object existentially. Based on these expressions, I would like to suggest that pratibandha, or existential dependence,[9] is confirmed by means of the realization of the causality between the disappearances of two objects. If svabhāva-pratibandha does not exist, then it is not possible to confirm the causality between the two disappearances. Conversely, if one can find causality between the two disappearances, then svabhāva-pratibandha must exist.

This is the very idea evoked by Dar ma rin chen (1364–1432) when he said

byas pa mi rtag pa la’brel ba’i don ldog gi phyogs gcig de gnyis tha dad mngon sum gyis grub cing / mi rtag pa log pa’i stobs kyis byas pa ldog pa’i tshul ni mi rtag pa log pa’i gzhi la byas pa’gog pa’i gnod pa can gyi rtags la brten nas bsgrub pa yin …[10] don ldog is an equivalent of mtshan nyid, that is, the “defining character.” Therefore in this passage Dar ma rin chen is postulating that there are two conditions that define the character of the dependence of the produced object upon an impermanent object: (1) the two objects must be different, and (2) the disappearance of the former object is caused by force of the disappearance of the latter object.

It is obvious that the second condition is based on ekanivṛttyānyanivṛtti. don ldog literally means the distinguishing character in the object, and therefore this ekanivṛttyānya-nivṛtti is a distinguishing character of pratibandha. This is indirect evidence of the close relationship between pratibandha and ekanivṛttyānyanivṛtti.

Problems in the Tibetan translation of the PVSV and the commentaries on Dharmakīrti

As shown above, there is little that remains speculative about the meaning of pratibandha in the texts of Dharmakīrti. Now I would like to point out some interesting matters that can be drawn from the Tibetan translation of the PVSV and its commentary.

I have already mentioned that in the Abhidharmakośa and Mahāvyutpatti, pratibaddha is in most cases translated as rag las pa. In passages no. 1 to no. 25 of fifty-one citations in List C, below with the exception of no. 5, pratibandha/pratibaddha is translated as ’bral ba/pa and in the rest of the passages, with the exception of nos. 27 and 34, it is translated as rag las/lus pa. The same situation is found in the Tibetan translation of the commentary on the PVSV by Śākyabuddhi (PVṬ). In half of the cases translated into rag las/lus pa, pratibandha/pratibaddha is used in the context of the basis for the logical nexus. For example, svabhāva-pratibandha in passages nos. 44 and 46 is translated as rang bzhin la/gyi rag lus pa, not as rang bzhin (dang) ’brel ba, which is the translation in the first half of the cases of svabhāva-pratibandha/pratibaddha-svabhāva. In passage no. 40, tadapratibaddhasvabhāva is properly translated as de la rag lus pa med pa’i rang bzhin can gyi, with the meaning of the bahuvrīhi compound. As mentioned above, there is no distinction made between svabhāva-pratibandha and pratibaddha-svabhāva in the Tibetan translation. This transition of the Tibetan translation of the PVSV and PVṬ might mean that the translator(s)[11] of these two texts realized Dharmakīrti’s intentions behind this term in the process of their translation work, and changed their translation of pratibandha/pratibaddha halfway through.

But other Tibetan scholars who did not consult the Sanskrit texts must not have noticed that rag las/lus pa was the translation of pratibandha. Amazingly, they properly recorded the defining character of ’brel pa as I have mentioned above, even in such a restricted or incomplete situation. I cannot but concede that they had a very profound ability to understand Dharmakīrti’s intentions.

This change in the Tibetan translation of pratibandha/pratibaddha may have been influenced by an annotation of Śākyabuddhi, which paraphrases pratibaddha as āyatta and pratibandha as āyattatva on several occasions (passages nos. 1,[12] 5, 24, 32, 35, 38, 39, 41, 42, 46).

In the midst of paraphrasing pratibandha in NB II.21: sa ca pratibandhaḥ sādhye’rthe liṅgasya, Dharmottara comments that liṅgam parāyattatvāt pratibaddham / sādhyas tv artho’parāyattatvāt pratibandhaviṣayo na tu pratibaddha ity arthaḥ / (NBṬ 112,1f); “liṅga is pratibaddha because it is dependent upon another [object], while on the other hand sādhya artha –because it is not dependent upon the other [namely the liṅga]–is an object of pratibandha, [but] it is not pratibaddha.” Dharmottara clearly interprets pratibaddha as āyatta and pratibandha as āyattatva. He also puts liṅga and pratibaddha in the appositional case and explains that sādhya is pratibandhaviṣaya. Moreover, Durvekamiśra annotates pratibandha three times with pratibandhaḥ pratibaddhatvam āyattatvam (NBṬ 96,21; 110,20; 115,15f). These explanations correspond with what I have explicated above in this paper.

Conclusion

To summarize my arguments in this paper:

1. pratibandha is more significant than svabhāva in the compound svabhāva-pratibandha.

2. Generally svabhāva-pratibandha is interpreted as pratibaddha-svabhāvatva, which is an abstract noun of a bahuvrīhi compound. Therefore, svabhāva stands for the liṅga’s svabhāva and svabhāva-pratibandha should be understood as a genitive tatpuruṣa com-pound.

3. pratibandha/pratibaddha is closely related to the causality of the dual disappearance of two objects (ekanivṛttyānyanivṛtti).

4. Therefore, pratibandha/pratibaddha express the existential dependence of one object upon another, of which the former is liṅga or hetu and the latter is sādhya.

References and abbreviations

AKBh Vasubandhu, Abhidharmakośabhāṣya: Abhidharmakośabhāṣyam of Vasubandhu, ed. P. Pradhan. Patna 1967.

AKBhT Vasubandhu, Abhidharmakośabhāṣya: chos mngon pa’i mdzod kyi bshad pa. Derge ed. Tohoku No. 4090. mNgon pa’i bstan bcos, gu 27b6–ngu 109a8.

Choi 2013 Choi Kyeon-jin, rGyal tshab’s Understanding of Svabhāvapratibandha. Paper presented at the Conference of the International Association of Tibetan Studies, 2013, Ulaanbaatar.

Dar ma rin chen rGyal tshab rje Dar ma rin chen, tshad ma rnam’grel gyi tshig le’ur byas pa’i rnam bshad thar lam phyin ci ma log par gsal bar byed pa. Zhol ed.

Fukuda 1987 Y. Fukuda, An Inquiry into the Structure of Dharmakīrti’s Logic. Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies 33-1 (1987) 347–345.

Fukuda 1989 Y. Fukuda, On the meaning of svabhāvapratibandha in Dharmakīrti’s Logic. Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies 35-2 (1989) 888–885.

Fukuda 2012a Y. Fukuda, On the Interpretation of the Compound svabhāvapratibandha. Indian Logic 4 (2012) 205–222.

Fukuda 2012b Y. Fukuda, On the Meaning of pratibandha in Pramāṇavārttikasvavṛtti. Indian Logic 5 (2012) 73–107. Index to the Abhidharmakośabhāṣya Index to the Abhidharmakośabhāṣya. Pt. 1: Sanskrit-Tibetan-Chinese, ed. Akira Hirakawa et al. Tokyo 1973.

Kataoka 2012 K. Kataoka, A Sketch of Svabhāvapratibandha Studies. Indian Logic 5 (2012) 163–204.

KG Karṇakagomin, Pramāṇavārttikasvavṛttiṭīkā: Ācārya-Dharmakīrteḥ Pramāṇavārtti-kaṃ (svārthānumānaparicchedaḥ) svopajñavṛttyā Karṇakagomiviracitayā taṭṭīkayā ca sahitam, ed. Rāhula Sāṃkṛtyāyana. Allahabad 1943.

Mahāvyutpatti A New Critical Edition of the Mahāvyutpatti: Sanskrit-Tibetan-Mongolian Dictionary of Buddhist Terminology, ed. Yoichi Fukuda and Yumiko Ishihama. Tokyo 1989.

NB Dharmakīrti, Nyāyabindu. See NBṬ.

NBṬ Dharmottara, Nyāyabinduṭīkā: Paṇḍita Durveka Miśras Dharmottarapradīpa, ed.

D. Malvania. Patna[13] 1971.

PV Dharmakīrti, Pramāṇavārttika. See PVSV.

PVSV Dharmakīrti, Pramāṇavārttikasvavṛtti: The Pramāṇavārttikam of Dharmakīrti, the First Chapter with the Autocommentary, ed. R. Gnoli. Roma 1960.

PVṬ Śākyabuddhi, Pramāṇavārttikaṭīkā: tshad ma rnam’grel gyi’grel bshad, tr. rma dge ba’i bo gros. Derge ed. Tohoku No. 4220. Tshad ma je 1–328a7, nye 1–282a7.

Stcherbatsky 1930 F. Th. Stcherbatsky, Buddhist Logic: In Two Volumes. Vol. II Con-taining a Translation of the Short Treatise of Logic by Dharmakīrti, and of Its Commentary by Dharmottara, with Notes Appendices and Indices. Leningrad 1930. Steinkellner 1984 E. Steinkellner, Svabhāvapratibandha Again. Acta Indologica 6 (1984) 457–476.

SVTib Dharmakīrti, Pramāṇavārttikavṛtti: tshad ma rnam’grel gyi’grel pa. Derge ed. Tohoku No. 4216. Tshad ma ce 261b1–365a7.

List A: Abhidharmakośabhāṣya

1. AKBh icchāmātrapratibaddho hi teṣāṃ sarvaguṇasampatsaṃmukhībhāvaḥ / (Ch.2, 70.23)

AKBhT de dag gi yon tan’byor ba mngon sum du’gyur ba thams cad ni bzhed pa tsam la rag lus pa yin pas … (Ku, 76a7)

一切圓德,隨樂而起故。

2. AKBh yasya yatpratibaddha utpādaḥ sa tasyānantaram utpadyate / (Ch.2, 99.13)

AKBhT gang zhig gang la rag las te skye ba de ni de’i’jug thogs su skye ste / (Ku 100a5)

若此法生,繫屬彼法,要彼無間,此乃得生。如芽等生,要藉種等。

3. AKBh tatra pañcavidhamanaskārānantaram āryamārgasammukhībhāvo’nyatropapa-ttipratilambhikebhyaḥ / prayogapratibaddhatvāt / (Ch.2, 109.1f)

AKBhT de la skyes nas thob pa dag ma gtogs pa yid la byed pa rnam pa lnga’i mjug thogs su’phags pa’i lam mngon du’gyur te / sbyor ba la rag lus pa’i phyir ro // (Ku 107b5f)

此中五種,作意無間,聖道現前。除生所得聖道。繫屬加行心故。

4. AKBh yadā cāsyāśrayo vipariṇantum ārabhate tadāvaśyam asya tadāśrayapratiba-ddhaṃ cittaṃ saṃmukhībhūya paścāt pracyavet nānyathā / (Ch.3, 156.6f)

AKBhT gang gi tshe de’i lus yongs su’jug par rtsom pa de’i tshe yang de las gdon mi za bar de’i lus dang’brel pa’i sems mngon du gyur nas phyis’chi’pho bar’gyur gyi gzhan du ni ma yin no // (Ku, 143a1f)

若所依身將欲變壞。必定還起屬所依心。然後命終。更無餘理。

5. AKBh icchāmātrapratibaddhaḥ sarvaguṇasaṃpatsaṃmukhībhāvaḥ / (Ch.7, 421.3)

AKBhT de dag gi yon tan’byor pa thams cad mngon du’gyur ba ni bzhed pa tsam la rag lus so // (Khu, 122b5)

諸佛功德・・・隨欲能引現前。

List B: Mahāvyutpatti

6483 pratibandhaḥ / phyir’jil ba’am bgegs byed pa’am bar chad byed pa /

6481 pratibaddhaḥ / rag lus pa’am’brel ba’am bgegs su gyur pa /

List C: PVSV, commentaries of Śākyabuddhi and Karṇakagomin

1. PVSV svabhāvapratibandhe hi saty artho’rthaṃ na vyabhicarati / (2,19) SVTib rang bzhin dang’brel pa yod pa don gyis don’khrul pa med de / (262a6f)

KG svabhāvena pratibandhaḥ sādhanaṃ kṛteti samāsaḥ / svabhāvena pratiba-ddhatvaṃ / pratibaddha-svabhāvatvam iti yāvat / (23,16f)

PVṬ (≠) rang bzhin bsgrub par bya ba’i dngos po dang’brel pa ni de la rag las pa nyid de de yod na’o // (10a7)

2. PVSV kāryasyāpi svabhāvapratibandhaḥ / (3,3f)

SVTib’bras bu yang rang bzhin dang’brel pa yin te / (262b2) KG–(24,25); PVṬ:–(11a2)

3. PVSV tatrānubhayasyāpratibandhāt tadabhāve anyena na bhavitavyam iti kuta etat / (5,19f)

SVTib de la gnyis ka ma yin pa ni ’brel pa med pa’i phyir te / de med na gzhan med par’gyur ro // zhes bya ba der lta ga la’gyur // (263b7)

KG anubhayasyākāryakāraṇātmakasya niṣedhyena saha pratibandhābhāvāt tada-bhāve’pratibaddhasyābhāve / (38,17f)

PVṬ gnyi ga ma yin pa ste rgyu yang ma yin la’bras bu yang ma yin pa’i bdag nyid ni dgag par bya ba dang lhan cig ’brel pa med pa’i phyir de med na ste ’brel pa med pa med na … (16b2)

4. PVSV apratibaddhasvabhāvasyāvinābhāvaniyamābhāvāt / (8,12f)

SVTib rang bzhin ma’brel pa ni med na mi’byung bar nges pa med pa’i phyir ro // (265a6)

KG tādātmyatadutpattibhyāṃ liṅginy apratibaddhasvabhāvasyāvinābhāvaniyamā-bhāvāt / (49,12)

PVṬ de’i bdag nyid dang de las byung ba dag gi rtags can dang / rang bzhin ma’brel pa ni med na ma’byung bar nges pa med pa’i phyir ro // (22b2f)

5. PVSV nāntarīyakam eva kāryaṃ kāraṇam anumāpayati / tatpratibandhāt / (10,5f)

SVTib med na mi’byung ba’i’bras bu kho nas rgyu rjes su dpog par byed do // de la rag las pa yin pa’i phyir ro // (266a6)

KG tatpratibandhāt / tatra kāraṇe āyattatvāt / (55,4f)

PVṬ med na mi’byung ba’i’bras bu kho nas zhes bya ba ni rgyu med na mi’byung ba kho nas so // de la rag las pa yin pa’i phyir zhes bya ba ni rgyu de la rag las pa yin pa’i phyir ro // (26b2f)

6. PVSV ekanivṛttyā’nyanivṛttim icchatā tayoḥ kaścit svabhāvapratibandho ’py eṣṭa-vyaḥ / anyathā’gamako hetuḥ syāt / (10,23f)

SVTib gcig log pas gzhan ldog par’dod pas ni de gnyis rang bzhin’brel pa ’ga’ zhig kyang’dod par bya dgos so // de lta ma yin na gtan tshigs go bar byed pa ma yin par’gyur ro // (266b6)

KG tayoḥ sādhyasādhanayoḥ kaścit svabhāvena pratibandhas tādātmyatadutpatti-lakṣaṇo [’]py eṣṭavyaḥ / (57,7f)

PVṬ (;) bsgrub par bya ba dang sgrub pa de gnyis de’i bdag nyid dang / de las byung ba’i mtshan nyid kyis ’brel pa ’ga’ zhig kyang’dod par bya dgos te / (28a2f)

7. PVSV na hy asati pratibandhe ’nvayavyatirekaniścayo’sti / (10,28)

SVTib ’brel pa med par ni rjes su’gro ba dang ldog pa nges pa med de / (266b7) KG–(59,27); PVṬ:–(28a6)

8. PVSV anyathā hy asati pratibandhe ’darśanamātreṇa vyatireke / (11,5)

SVTib de lta ma yin te / ’brel pa med par ma mthong ba tsam gyis ldog na / (267a2) KG–(58,23); PVṬ:–(28b6)

9.PVSV anupalambhāt tu kvacid abhāvasiddhāv apy apratibaddhasya tadabhāve sarva-trābhāvāsiddheḥ / (12,23f)

SVTib mi dmigs pa’i sgo nas ni’ga’ zhig la med pa grub tu zin kyang ’brel pa med pa ni de med kyang thams cad la med pa mi grub pas / (267b4f)

KG apratibaddhasya hetoḥ sādhye / tadabhāve sādhyābhāve sarvatra vipakṣe’bhā-vāsiddheḥ… (62,9f)

PVṬ gtan tshigs bsgrub par bya ba dang’brel pa med pa ni sgrub par byed pa de med kyang mi mthun pa’i phyogs su gyur ba’i dngos po thams cad la med par mi’grub pa’i gtan tshigs kyis na the tshom za ba yin no // (31a5)

10. PVSV tannivṛttau kvacin nivṛttāv api prāṇādīnām apratibandhāt / sarvatra nivṛttya-siddher agamakatvam / (13,10f)

SVTib ’ga’ zhig la de log ste / srog la sogs pa log kyang ’brel pa med pa’i phyir / thams cad las ldog pa mi’grub pas rtogs par byed pa ma yin pa nyid do // (268a2)

KG nivṛttāv api prāṇādīnām apratibandhād ātmanā saha sambandhābhāvāt / (63,23f)

PVṬ srog la sogs pa log kyang ’brel pa med pa’i phyir / bdag dang lhan cig’brel pa med pa’i phyir … (32a4)

11. PVSV yadi kathaṃcid vipakṣe’darśanamātreṇa apratibaddhasyāpi tadavyabhicāraḥ / (15,11)

SVTib gal te ji zhig ltar mi mthun pa’i phyogs la ma mthong ba tsam gyis ’brel pa med pa yang de’khrul pa med do zhe na / (269a1)

KG yadi vipakṣe hetor adarśanamātreṇāpratibaddhasya svasādhye tadavyabhicā-raḥ sādhyāvyabhicāra iṣyate / (69,2f)

PVṬ gal te mi mthun pa’i phyogs la gtan tshigs ma mthong ba tsam gyis bsgrub par bya ba dang’brel pa med pa’i yang bsgrub par bya ba der’khrul pa med par’dod na ni … (35a6f)

12. PVSV svaṃ ca svabhāvaṃ parityajya kathaṃ bhāvo bhavet / svabhāvasyaiva bhāva-tvād iti tasya svabhāva-pratibandhād avyabhicāraḥ / (17,1f)

SVTib rang gi ngo bo yongs su bor nas kyang ji ltar yod par’gyur te / rang gi ngo bo kho na ngo bo yin pa’i phyir ro // de’i phyir de ni rang bzhin’brel pa’i phyir ’khrul pa med do // (270a3)

KG tasyātmabhūtasya sādhanasya śiṃśapādeḥ svabhāvapratibandhād eva sva-bhāve sādhyābhimate vṛkṣādau yathoktena prakāreṇa pratibandhād evāvyabhi-cāraḥ / (75,3f)

PVṬ sgrub pa shing sha pa la sogs pa bdag nyid du gyur pa de ni rang bzhin’brel pa kho na’i phyir te / rang bzhin bsgrub par bya bar’dod pa shing la sogs pa dang ji skad bshad pa’i rnam pas ’brel pa kho nas’khrul pa med do // (39b7f)

13. PVSV ubhayathā svabhāvapratibandhād eva nivṛttiḥ / (17,7) SVTib gnyis ga rang bzhin’brel pa kho nas ldog go // (270a4f)

KG ubhayatheti tādātmyena tadutpattyā vā yaḥ svabhāvapratibandhas tasmād eva / sādhyanivṛttyā hetor nivṛttiḥ / anyatheti yadi pratibandho neṣyate / ekasyāpra-tibandhakasya sādhyasya nivṛttyānyanivṛttiḥ / apratibaddhasya sādhanadhar-masya nivṛtiḥ katham bhavet / (75,11f)

PVṬ (;) gnyi gar zhes bya ba ni de’i bdag nyid dang / de las byung ba’i mtshan nyid kyis rang bzhin’brel pa kho nas bsgrub par bya ba log pas gtan tshigs ldog go // de lta min na gcig log pas zhes bya ba ni bsgrub par bya ba ma’brel pa log pas / ji ltar gzhan mi ldog par’gyur sgrub pa’i chos ma’brel pa ldog par’gyur mi’gyur ba kho na ste / (40a3f)

14. PVSV svabhāvapratibandhād eva hetuḥ sādhyaṃ gamayati / sa ca tadbhāvalakṣaṇas tadutpattilakṣaṇo vā / (17,12f)

SVTib rang bzhin’brel pa kho nas gtan tshigs kyis bsgrub par bya ba go bar byed de // de’i ngo bo’i mtshan nyid dam // de las byung ba’i mtshan nyid yin no // (270a6)

KG svabhāvapratibandhād eva sādhyābhimate vastuni pratibaddhatvād eva hetuḥ svasādhyaṅ gamayati / (76,1f)

PVṬ rang bzhin’brel pa kho nas bsgrub par bya bar’dod pa’i dngos po dang’brel pa kho nas gtan tshigs kyis bsgrub par bya ba go bar byed do // (40a6)

15. PVSV yadā punar dṛṣṭāntena nāgnidhūmayoḥ kāryakāraṇabhāvaḥ pradarśyate / tadā yatra dhūmas tratrāgnir ity eva na syāt / pratibandhābhāvāt / (19,16f)

SVTib gang gi tshe dpes me dang du ba dag rgyu dang’bras bu’i dngos por mi ston pa de’i tshe ni ’brel pa med pa’i phyir / gang na du ba yod pa de na me yod do zhes bya ba nyid du yang mi’gyur na / (271a7)

KG–(85,5f); PVṬ:–(44a2f)

16. PVSV dṛṣṭāntenāyam eva yathoktasvabhāvapratibandhaḥ pradarśyate / (19,21f)

SVTib dpes ji skad bshad pa’i rang bzhin’brel pa ’di kho na rab tu ston pa / (271b1f) KG–(85,8f);

PVṬ:–(44a4)

17. PVSV tāv eva hi nivartamānau svapratibaddhaṃ nivartayata iti / (19,25) SVTib de dag kho na ldog pa na rang gi ’brel pa zlog par byed pas … (271b2)

KG tāv eva hi kāraṇavyāpakau nivarttamānau svapratibaddhaṃ kāryaṃ vyāpyaṃ ca svabhāvaṃ nivarttayata … (85,14f)

PVṬ rgyu dang khyab par byed pa de dag kho na ldog pa na / rang dang’brel pa ’bras bu dang rang bzhin khyab par bya ba zlog par byed pas / (44a5f)

18. PVSV apratibandhe hi katham ekasya nivṛttir anyasya nivṛttiṃ sādhayet / (20,1f)

SVTib ma’brel na ni ji ltar gcig log pas gzhan ldog pa sgrub par byed / (271b3)

KG–(85,18f);

PVṬ:–(44a7)

19. PVSV yadi nāmaite śabdāḥ puruṣaiḥ kvacit praṇinīṣitā api na śakyante praṇetuṃ vastupratibandhād dhūmādivat / (35,20f)

SVTib gal te sgra’di dag skyes bu rnams kyis’ga’ zhig la bya bar’dod du zin kyang du ba la sogs pa bzhin du dngos po dang’brel pa’i phyir bya bar mi nus na … (280b4f)

KG vastupratibandhāt / vastvāyattatvāt / dhūmādivat / na hy agnipratibaddho dhūmo vahnipratyāyanasamarthas tadvaiparītyena jalapratyāyane niyoktuṃ pāryate / tadā vastupratibaddhatve śabdānām ayam upālambhaḥ syād asati vyatireke kathaṃ ṣaṣṭhyādaya iti // (157,14f)

PVṬ (;) dngos po dang’brel pa’i phyir dngos po tha dad pa la rag las pa’i phyir bya bar mi nus na / sgra rnams dngos po dang’brel pa de’i tshe / tha dad pa med na ji ltar drug pa la sogs par’gyur zhes bya ba’i klan ka’di’gyur ba zhig na / (80a1f)

20. PVSV sarvaś cāyaṃ svalakṣaṇānām eva darśanāhitavāsanākṛto viplava iti tatpra-tibaddhajanmanāṃ vikalpānām atatpratibhāsitve’pi vastuny avisaṃvādo … (43,2f)

SVTib’di thams cad rang gi mtshan nyid dag kho na mthong bas gzhag pa’i bag chags kyis byas pa’i bslad pa yin pa las de dang’brel pa las skye ba’i rnam par rtog pa rnams ni de snang ba nyid ma yin yang dngos po la mi bslu ste / (285a2f)

KG sarvaś cāyam ityādi / sarvo viplava iti sambandhaḥ / viplavo bhrāntiḥ / ayam iti sāmānyādirūpaḥ / svalakṣaṇānām eva yad darśanan tenāhitā yā vāsanā ta-tkṛtaḥ / paramparayā sarvavikalpānām vastudarśanadvārāyātatvāt / tathā hi nityādivikalpā api vastudarśanenaivotpannāḥ sadṛśāparāparotpattidarśanā-yātatvāt / tatra tulye sarvavikalpānām vastudarśanadvārāyātatve / tatpratiba-ddhajanmanām anityādivikalpānām atatpratibhāsitve [’]pi svalakṣaṇāpratibhā-sitve [’]pi vastuny avisamvādaḥ /(183,4f)

PVṬ’di thams cad ces bya ba la sogs pa smos te /’di zhes bya ba ni rtag pa la sogs pa’i rnam par rtog pa’o // thams cad bslad pa yin no zhes bya bar sbyar te / bslad pa’i rnam par rtog pa’o // rang gi mtshan nyid dag kho na mthong ba gang yin pa des gzhag pa’i bag chags des byas pa yin te / rnam par rtog pa thams cad ni dngos po mthong ba’i sgo nas brgyud de’ongs pa’i phyir ro //’di ltar rtag pa la sogs pa’i rnam par rtog pa yang dngos po mthong ba kho na las byung ba yin te /’dra ba gzhan’byung ba la sogs pas’khrul ba’ba’ zhig tu zad do // de la rnam par rtog pa thams cad dngos po mthong ba’i sgo nas’ongs pa nyid du’dra ba las de dang’brel pa las skye ba mi rtag pa la sogs pa’i rnam par rtog pa rnams ni de snang ba nyid ma yin yang / rang gi mtshan nyid snang ba nyid ma yin yang mi rtag pa nyid la sogs pa’i ngo bo de dngos po la yod pa’i phyir dngos po la mi slu ste / (95b4f)

21. PVSV vastusaṃvādas tu vastūtpattyā tatpratibandhe sati bhavati / (49,2)

SVTib dngos po’thob pa ni dngos po las skye bas de dang’brel pa yin na’gyur gyi … (288b6f)

KG tasmin sādhye pratibandhe sati (/) pratibandha eva kutaḥ / vastūtpattyā sādhya-vastūtpattyā hetubhūtayā anyathety asati pratibandhe / (204,8f)

PVṬ (≠) brgyud de dngos po las skye ba’i rgyur gyur pas dngos po dngos po de dang’brel te / de lta yin na dgnos po’thob par’gyur gyi zhes bya bar sbyar ro / (110a1)

22. PVSV vikalpānām arthapratibandhaniyamābhāvāt / na hi vikalpā yathārtham eva jāyante / (51,8f)

SVTib rnam par rtog pa rnams don dang’brel par nges pa med pa’i phyir te / rnam par rtog pa rnams ni don ji lta ba bzhin skye ba med pa nyid do // (290a4f)

KG arthapratibaddho ’rthākārānuvidhānenaotpattiḥ / (212,10)

PVṬ don dang’brel pa ni don gyi rnam pa’i rjes su byed par skye ba’o // (116a2)

23. PVSV upakāre’pi tatraiva tatpratibandha iti kim anyas tatkaraṇāt tadupakārī / (53,24f)

SVTib phan’dogs na yang de kho na la de ’brel pas de byed pa’i phyir de la phan par byed pa gzhan ci dgos / (291b1)

KG upakāre vā sāmānyakṛte upakārasyābhyupagamyamāne / tatraiva sāmānye tasyopakārasya pratibandha iti kim anyo vyaktibhedas tasyopakārasya karaṇāt tasya sāmānyasyopakārī … (218,15f)

PVṬ phan’dogs na yang zhes bya ba ni spyis byas pa’i phan pa khas len na spyi de kho na la phan pa de ’brel pas de byed pa’i phyir spyi de la phan par byed pa gsal ba’i khyad par gzhan ci dgos te … (120a1f)

24. PVSV tadutpattidharmā bhāvaḥ svabhāvapratibandhād apekṣate nāma / (53,26f)

SVTib de las skye ba’i chos can ni rang bzhin’brel pa’i phyir ltos pa zhes bya’o // (291b2)

KG tasmād apekṣaṇīyād utpattiḥdharmaḥ svabhāvo yasya sa tadutpattidharmma-bhāvaḥ / svabhāvasya pratibandhād āyattatvād apekṣate nāma upakāriṇaṃ … (218,20f)

PVṬ gang la chos de’i ngo bo nyid yod pa de ni de las skyes ba’i chos can gyi dngos po’o // rang bzhin’brel cing rag las pa’i phyir phan par byed pa la ltos pa zhes bya ste / (120a3f)

25. PVSV yaḥ kaścit kasyacit kvacit pratibandhaḥ sa sarvo janyatāyām evāntarbhavati / (54,1f)

SVTib gang cung zad’ga’ zhig la lar’brel pa de thams cad ni bskyed par bya ba’i khongs su gtogs so // (291b3)

KG yaḥ kaścid bhāvaḥ pratibandhaḥ kasyacid vastunaḥ kvacid āśraye sa sarvo janyatāyāṃ kāryatāyām evodbhavati / (219,3f)

PVṬ gang cung zad dngos po’ga’ zhig rten la lar’brel pa dngos po las gyur pa de thams cad ni bskyed par bya ba ste /’bras bu kho na’i khongs su gtogs so // (120a6f)

26. PVSV katham anyonyasya sāmyam / tatsaṃbandhād iti cet / na / apratibaddhasya saṃbandhāyogāt / (55,18f)

SVTib ji ltar gzhan dang gzhan du mtshungs pa yin / gal te de dag dang’brel pa’i phyir ro // zhe na ma yin te / rag ma las pa la ’brel par mi rung ba’i phyir dang / (292b1f)

KG apratibaddhasya vyaktāv anāyattasya tābhir anupakṛtasyety arthaḥ / (224,21f)

PVṬ rag ma las pa la gsal ba la rag ma las pa la ste / de dag gis phan ma btags pa la zhes bya ba’i tha tshig go // (125a1f)

27. PVSV tathābhūtārthadarśanadvāreṇāyaṃ nānaikadharmabhedābhedapratibhāsavi-plavānusārī vyavahāra iti tasya tatpratibandhe sati tadavyabhicāraḥ / (65,3f)

SVTib tha snyad’di ni yang dag pa’i don de bzhin du mthong ba’i sgo nas chos du ma dang / gcig dang / tha dad pa dang / tha dad pa ma yin par snang ba’khrul pa’i rjes su’brang ba’i phyir / de dang der’brel par’gyur ba la de (DN: las du) ma’khrul pa yin no // (297a5f)

KG tasya vyavahārasya tatpratibandhe tasmiṃs tathābhūte svalakṣaṇe pārampa-ryeṇotpattipratibandhe sati tadavyabhicāraḥ / vastvavyabhicāraḥ / (260,12f)

PVṬ de ste tha snyad der’brel par gyur pa de lta bur gyur pa’i rang gi mtshan nyid der brgyud pas’byung ba’i ’brel pa yod na de ma’khrul te / dngos po la ma’khrul pa yin no // (153b3f)

28. PVSV samavāyasaṃyogāv ekārthasamavāyādayo’pi vastusaṃbandhāḥ kāryakāraṇa-bhāvān na vyatiricyante / parasparam anyato vānupakāriṇām apratibandhāt / apratibaddhasya ca asambandhāt (70,3f)

SVTib phrod pa’du ba dang ldan pa dang / don gcig la’du ba zhes bya ba la sogs pa dngos po’i’brel pa dag kyang rgyu dang’bras bu’i dngos po las tha dad pa ma yin no // gcig la gcig gam gzhan dag gis phan’dogs pa med pa ni rag lus pa med pa’i phyir dang / rag lus pa med pa yang’brel pa med pa’i phyir ro // (300a6f)

KG parasparam anyonyam upakāriṇām anyato vā’śrayābhimatād anupakāriṇām apratibandhād anāyattatvāt / apratibadhannasya [=apratibandhasya] cāsa-mbandhāt kāraṇāt … (278,1f)

PVṬ gcig la gcig te / phan tshun nam rten du mngon par’dod pa gzhan gyis phan btags pa med pa’o // phan btags pa med pa ni rag lus pa med pa’i phyir te / ltos pa med pa’i rgyu’i phyir … (167a5)

29. PVSV tatrāpi kāryakāraṇabhāvakṛta eva pratibandhaḥ / (70,9f)

SVTib de la yang rgyu dang’bras bu’i dngos por byas pa kho na rag lus pa yin no // (300b1)

KG tatrāpy ekārthasamavāyini kāryakāraṇabhāvakṛta evāśrayeṇa saha yaḥ kārya-kāraṇabhāvas tatkṛta eva yaddvāreṇāropita eva sambandhaḥ / (278,15f)

PVṬ (;) don gcig dang’phrod pa’du ba de la yang rgyu dang’bras bu’i dngos por byas pa kho na ste / rten dang bcas pa’i rgyu dang’bras bu’i dngos po gang yin pa des byas shing des sbyar ba kho na rag lus pa’i ’brel pa yin no // (167b4f)

30. PVSV tām eva sa āśrayaḥ karoti / sā cāpratibaddhā sāmānya iti kim sāmānyasyāśra-yeṇa / (72,2f)

SVTib de nyid de’i rten byed pa yin la / de yang spyi la rag ma lus pa’i phyir / spyi’i rten gyis ci zhig byed / (301b2)

KG sety arthāntarabhūtā sthitiḥ / na hi tasyāḥ sāmānye pratibandhakāraṇaṃ kiṃcid asti … (285,18)

PVṬ de zhes bya ba ni gnas pa don gzhan du’gyur pa’o // de la spyi la rag lus pa’i rgyu cung zhig kyang yod pa ma yin no // (172a1f)

31. PVSV pratibaddhe vā kaḥ pratibandha iti vācyam / (72,3f)

SVTib rag las pa kho na la rag las pa zhes ji ltar brjod par bya / (301b2)

KG abhyupagamyata eva sthiteḥ sāmānye pratibandha iti ced āha / (285,10)

PVṬ gal te gnas pa ni spyi la rag lus par khas blangs pa kno na yin no zhe na / (172a2)

32. PVSV apekṣeti hi tatpratibandhaḥ sa cānādheyaviśeṣasya sāmānyasyāyukta iti / (72,7f)

SVTib ltos pa zhes bya ba ni de la rag lus pa yin na de yang spyi khyad par med pa la mi rigs pa dang … (301b3f)

KG asmin vastuny asyāpekṣeti yeyam apekṣā sā tasminn apekṣye pratibandhas tadāyattatā / (286,2f)

PVṬ dngos po’di la’di ltos pa zhes bya ba la ltos pa gang yin pa de ni ltos par bya ba’di dang’brel cing de la rag lus pa nyid de // (172b3)

33. PVSV nāpi vyatirekiṇas tasya kvacid anāśrayād anyasyāpi vyaṅgyavyañjakabhāvādeḥ saṃbandhasya kenacid anupakāryasyāpratibandhenābhāvāt / (75,27f)

SVTib tha dad pa las kyang ma yin te / de’ga’ zhig la yang brten pa med pa’i phyir ro //’ga’ zhig gis phan btags pa med par rag lus pa med pas na bsal bar bya ba dang / bsal bar byed pa’i ngo bo la sogs pa las’brel pa gzhan yang med pa’i phyir (303b6f)

KG kiṅ kāraṇaṃ / nityatvāt kenacid vyaktibhedenānupakāryasya sāmānyasyāprati-bandhena / na hy apratibandhasya kaścit sambandho’stīty uktaṃ / (297,8f)

PVṬ ci’i phyir zhe na / rtag pa nyid kyis gsal ba’i khyad par’ga’ zhig gis phan btags pa med pa’i spyi rag lus pa med pa’i phyir ro // rag lus pa med pa’i ’brel pa’ga’ zhig kyang yod pa ma yin no // (180b3f)

34. PVSV kvacid avisaṃvādo’syā vastuni kāryakāraṇabhāvapratibandhān … (76,20f)

SVTib ’ga’ zhig la’di’i mi slu ba ni dngos po la rgyu dang’bras bu’i ngo bo’i (D adds ’bras bu’i) ’brel pa las yin gyi / (304a6)

KG kvacid vastuny asya buddheḥ sakāśād avisamvādo yasmāt kāryakāraṇasamba-ddhād … (300,4f)

PVṬ dgnos po’ga’ zhig la’di la blo las mi bslu ba gang yin pa de ni / rgyu dang’bras bu’i’brel pa las yin te / (182b6)

35. PVSV tad dhi kiṃcid upalīyeta na vā yasya yatra kiṃcit pratibaddham apratibaddhaṃ vā / (99,27f)

SVTib de ni cung zhig’ga’ zhig la ’brel pa ma yin te / (D: no //) gang gang la cung zhig rag las pa ma yin no // (317a6f)

KG tad dhi vastu / kiṃcid upalīyet āśrayet / yasya yatra kiṃcid utpādādikaṃ prati-baddham āyattaṃ / na copalīyeta yasya yatrāpratibaddhaṃ / (366,2f)

PVṬ dngos po de ni rten du gyur pa’ga’ zhig la’brel ba ste brten par’gyur ba’am / gang gang la skyed par byed pa po la sogs pa la cung zhig rag lus pa ste ltos pa’am /’brel pa med pa ma yin zhing gang gang la rag lus pa ma yin no // (226b1f)

36. PVSV seyaṃ sattā apratibandhinī cet / niyamavatī na syāt / (99,28f)

SVTib gal te yod pa nyid de’di ni’ga’ zhig la rag lus pa can ma yin no zhe na / nges pa can du mi’gyur ro // (317a7)

KG seyaṃ sattā kvacid apratibandhinī cet / dravyakālāpekṣayā na niyamavatī syāt / (366,4)

PVṬ gal te yod pa nyid de’di ni’ga’ zhig la rag lus pa can ma yin no zhe na / rdzas dang yul dang dus la ltos par nges pa can du mi’gyur te / (226b2)

37. PVSV yathāsvaṃ vyāpini sādhye tayor eva pratibandhāt liṅgayor liṅgini / (101,1f)

SVTib bdag nyid ji lta ba bzhin du khyab (D: khyad) par byed pa bsgrub par bya ba’i rtags can la rtags de dag rag lus pa’i phyir … (318a1f)

KG kāryasya kāraṇaṃ vyāpakaṃ sādhyaṃ (/) svabhāvasyāpi svabhāvo vyāpakaḥ sādhyas tasmin sādhye liṅgini tayor eva kāryasvabhāvayor liṅgayoḥ pratiba-ndhāt / (370,5f)

PVṬ’bras bu’i rgyu khyab par byed pa bsgrub par bya ba yin la / rang bzhin gyi yang rang bzhin khyab par byed pa bsgrub par bya ba yin te / bsgrub par bya ba rtags can de la’bras bu dang / rang bzhin gyi rtags de dag de nyid rag lus pa’i phyir ro // (228a2f)

38. PVSV sadasatpakṣabhedena śabdārthānapavādibhiḥ // vastv eva cintyate hy atra prati-baddhaḥ phalaodayaḥ // (106,27f)

SVTib sgra don bsnyon pa med rnams kyis // yod med phyogs kyi bye brag gis // dngos po nyid ni dpyad bya ste //’di la’bras’byung rag las phyir // (321b1f)

KG yasmād atra vastuni pratibaddhaḥ phalodayaḥ / (387,11)

PVṬ ci’i phyir zhe na /’di ltar dngos po’di la’bras bu rag las phyir sgra’i don la ni ma yin no // (240b7f)

39. PVSV tad ayaṃ pravartamānaḥ sarvadā sadasaccintāyām avadhīritavikalpaprati-bhāso vastv evādhiṣṭhānīkaroti / yatrāyaṃ puruṣārthaḥ pratibaddho … (107,3f)

SVTib de bas na’di’jug pa na thams cad du yod pa dang med pa dpyod pa na rnam par rtog pa’i snang ba la ltos pa med par gang la skyes bu’i don’di rag lus pa’i dngos po nyid la dmigs par byed de … (321b3f)

KG vastv evādhiṣṭhānīkaroti viṣayīkaroti yatra vastuny ayaṃ puruṣārthaḥ prati-baddhaḥ / (388,4f)

PVṬ dngos po gang la skyes bu’i don’di rag lus pa’i dngos po nyid la dmigs par byed cing yul du byed de / (241a5)

40. PVSV na ca tadapratibaddhasvabhāvo bhāvo’nyaṃ gamayati / (107,25)

SVTib de la rag lus pa med pa’i rang bzhin can gyi dngos po ni gzhan go bar byed pa ma yin no // (322a3)

KG tasmin vastuny apratibaddhaḥ svabhāvo yasya śabdalakṣaṇasya / anyaṃ ya-trāsau na pratibaddhaḥ / (390,7f)

PVṬ (;) dngos po de la rag lus pa med pa’i rang bzhin gyi sgra’i bdag nyid can gyi dngos po gang la yod pa zhes bya bar tshig rnam par sbyar ro // gang la rag lus pa med pa ni gzhan de’i go bar byed pa ma yin no zhes bya bar sbyar ro // (242b2f)

41. PVSV paryavasthānajanmapratibaddhaduḥkavivekāt / (111,5)

SVTib kun nas dkris pa dang skye ba la rag lus pa’i sdug bsngal dang bral ba’i phyir dang / (324a3)

KG tayor yat pratibaddhan duḥkhan tasya vivekāt / rāgādyutpattikāle yad duḥkhaṃ kāyacittaparidāhalakṣaṇan tat paryavasthānapratibaddhaṃ jātijarāvyādhyādi-duḥkhan tu janmapratibaddhaṃ / (400,18f)

PVṬ de dag la rag lus pa’i sdug bsngal gang yin pa de dang bral ba’i phyir ro //’dod chags la sogs pa’i skye ba’i tshe lus dang sems yongs su gdung ba’i mtshan nyid can gyi sdug bsnagl gang yin pa de ni kun nas dkris pa la rag lus pa’o // skye ba dang rga ba dang na ba’i sdug bsngal ni skye ba la rag lus pa’o // (251b3f)

42. PVSV tataḥ katham idānīṃ tatpratiniyamasaṃsādhyaṃ tadanvayaṃ sādhayeyuḥ / na hy apratibaddhas tatsādhana iti / (114,28f)

SVTib de bas na de la so sor nges par bsgrub par bya ba de’i rjes su’gro ba ji ltar sgrub par byed par’gyur te / rag las pa med pa de’i (D adds ni) sgrub par byed pa ma yin no // (326a7)

KG bāhye’rthe ’pratibandhena niyamābhāvāt / (417,5)

PVṬ (;) don gang la rag las pa med pa de ni sgrub par byed pa’i rigs pa ma yin no // (260b2)

43. PVSV parāśrayo hi sambandho ’pratibandhe tayoḥ sambandhitā’yogāt / (115,14)

SVTib gzhan la (D adds /) rten pa can’brel pa yin na ni rag las pa med pa la de dag gi’brel pa nyid mi rung ba’i phyir ro // (326b4)

KG parāśraya iti parassambandhī āśrayo [’]syeti kṛtvā / sambandhini sambandha-syāpratibandhe sati tayoḥ sambandhinos sambandhitāyā’yogāt / na hy aprati-baddhena kenacit kaścit tadvān bhavati gaur ivāśvena / (418,15f)

PVṬ (;) gzhan la brten pa can’brel pa yin te / ’brel pa’di la gzhan la brten pa yod pa’i phyir ro // ni’i sgras (D adds ni) nges par gzung ba’o // ci’i phyir zhe na /’brel pa can la’brel pa rag las pa med pa yin na’brel pa can de dag gi’brel pa nyid mi rung ba’i phyir ro // rta ba lang dang’dra bar ltos pa med pas don’ga’ zhig de dang ldan par mi’gyur ro // (261b3f)

44. PVSV svabhāvāpratibandho ’nyattvam iti cet / (147,3f)

SVTib gal te rang bzhin la rag lus pa med pa ni gzhan nyid yin no zhe na / (346b5f)

KG nanv atatsvabhāvatve’pi parasparaṃ svabhāvāpratibandho [’]nyattvam iti cet / sa ca pratibandhaḥ pudgalasya skandheṣv asti tato tatsvabhāvatve [’]pi nānyattvaṃ skandhebhyaḥ pudgalasyeti / (527,16f)

PVṬ gal te rang bzhin la rag lus pa med pa ni gzhan nyid yin na gang zag gi rag lus pa de yang phung po dag la yod pa de bas na de’i rang bzhin ma yin kyang phung po dag las gang zag gzhan nyid ma yin no zhe na / (326a6f)

45. PVSV ko’yaṃ pratibandho nāma yena sa ca na syāt / nānyasvabhāvaś ca / (147,4f)

SVTib rag lus pa zhes bya ba’di gang yin / gang gis der yang mi’gyur ba dang / rang bzhin gzhan du’ang mi’gyur / (346b6)

KG ko [’]yaṃ pratibandho nāma pudgalasya skandheṣu yena pratibandhena / sa ca na syād iti skandha-svabhāvaś ca pudgalo na syāt / nānyasvabhāvaś ca skandhebhyaḥ / (527,19f)

PVṬ phung po dag la gang zag gi rag lus pa zhes bya ba’di’i gang yin / rag lus pa’i rgyu gang gis der yang mi’gyur ba zhes bya ba gang zag phung po’i rang bzhin du mi’gyur ba dang gzhan gyi rang bzhin can du mi’gyur ba ste / (326a7f)

46. PVSV na ca tajjanmalakṣaṇāt svabhāvapratibandhād anyaḥ pratibandho nāma / anā-yattasya vyabhicārā-virodhāt / (147,10f)

SVTib de’i skye ba’i mtshan nyid kyi rang bzhin gyi rag las pa las rag lus pa gzhan yang yod pa ma yin te / rag lus pa med pa’i’khrul pa la’gal ba med pa’i phyir ro // (347a1f)

KG na cānyaḥ pratibandhaḥ pudgalasya skandheṣu / yasmān na hi janmalakṣaṇāj janmasvabhāvāt svabhāvapratibandhād anyaḥ pratibandho nāma / kiṃ kāra-ṇam (/) anāyattasya tadutpattyā tatrāpratibaddhasya / tena saha yo vyabhicāras tasyāvirodhāt / (528,8f)

PVṬ (;) gal te skye ba’i mtshan nyid can gyi rag lus pas phung po dag las gang zag gzhan nyid du yod pa ni ma yin mod kyi’on kyang rag lus pa gzhan nyid du yod do zhe na / de’i zhes bya ba la sogs pa smos te / skye ba’i mtshan nyid can te / skye ba’i dbang po can gyi rang bzhin gyi rag las pa las rag lus pa zhes bya ba gzhan yod pa ma yin no // ci’i phyir zhe na / de las byung ba’i rag lus pa med pa de ni de la rag lus pa med pa de dang lhan cig’khrul pa gang yin pa de la’gal ba med pa’i phyir ro // gang zhig gang la rag lus pa med pa de ni der’khrul pa’i phyir zhes bya ba’i tha tshig go // (326b5f)

47. PVSV jñānakṛtaḥ pratibandha iti cet / syād etat / yatpratipattināntarīyakaṃ yajjñā-naṃ tadgatau niyamena tatpratibhāsanāt tad atadrūpam apy avācyam iti / (147,12f)

SVTib gal te shes pas byas pa’i rag lus pa yin no zhe na / de ltar ni’gyur na gang rtogs pa med na mi’byung ba’i shes pa gang yin pa des rtogs pa la nges par de snang ba’i phyir de de’i ngo bo ma yin du zin kyang / brjod par bya ba ma yin no zhe na / (347a2f)

KG pudgalasya skandheṣu jñānakṛtaḥ pratibandha iti cet / … / yasya rūpādeḥ prati-pattir yatpratipattis tayā nāntarīyakam avinābhāvi yajjñānaṃ yasya pudgalasya jñānaṃ / tadgatāv iti rūpādigatau niyamena tasya pudgalasya pratibhāsanāt / jñānakṛtaḥ pratibandhas … / tena jñānakṛtāt pratibandhāt / (528,13f)

PVṬ (≠) phung po dag las gang zag gi shes pas byas pa’i rag lus pa yin no zhe na / … (327a4)

48. PVSV nanu saivāsati pratibandhe na yuktety ucyate / (147,26)

SVTib de nyid rag lus pa (DN inserts med pa) med par rigs pa ma yin no zhes brjod pa ma yin nam / (347a6)

KG nanu saiva pratītes tannāntarīyakatā / rūpādiṣu pudgalasyāsati pratibandhe na yuktety ucyate / (530,4f)

PVṬ de med na mi’byung ba’i shes pa de nyid ni gzugs la sogs pa gang zag rag lus pa med par rigs pa ma yin no zhes brjod pa ma yin nam / (328a4)

49. PVSV nākāryakāraṇayoḥ kaścit pratibandha iti coktam / (148,1)

SVTib rgyu dang’bras bu ma yin pa dag la ni rag lus pa cung zad kyang ma yin no zhes bya ba yang bshad zin to // (347a6f)

KG akāryakāraṇayor na kaścid vāstavaḥ pratibandha ity asakṛd uktaṃ … (530,7)

PVṬ rgyu dang’bras bur gyur pa ma yin pa dag la ni dngos su ’brel pa cung zad kyang yod pa ma yin no zhes mang du bshad zin to // (328a5)

50. PVSV vivakṣayā śabdo’rthe niyamyate / na svabhāvataḥ / tasya kvacid apratiba-ndhena sarvatra tulyatvāt / yatrāpi pratibandhas tadabhidhānaniyamābhāvāt / (172,19f)

SVTib brjod par’dod pas sgra ni don dag la nges par bya ba yin gyi ngo bo nyid kyis ni ma yin te / de ni’ga’ zhig la yang rag lus pa med par thams cad la mtshungs pa nyid kyi phyir ro // gang la rag las pa yin na yang de rjod par byed pa’i nges pa med pa’i phyir ro // (363a4f)

KG tasya śabdasya kvacid vastuny apratibandhena sambandharahitatvena kāra-ṇena sarvatrārthatulyatvāt / yatrāpi śabdasya pratibandhaḥ sthānakaraṇeṣu tataḥ śabdānām utpatter abhivyakter vā / (606,3f)

PVṬ de ni dngos po’ga’ zhig la rag lus pa med pa ste /’brel pa med par don thams cad la mtshungs pa nyid kyi phyir ro // gang la sgra’i rag las pa gnas dang byed pa dag gi yin te / de las (DN: la) sgra rnams skye ba’i phyir ram rtag par smra ba’i gzhung gis mngon par gsal ba’i phyir ro // (nye 61a4f)

51. PVSV uktam atrāpratibandhād aniyama iti // (172,27)

SVTib ’dir rag lus pa med pa’i phyir / nges pa yod pa ma yin no zhes bshad zin to // (363a6f)

KG uktam atrottaraṃ / kvacid vastuny apratibandhād aniyata iti / (606,17)

PVṬ dir lan ni dngos po’ga’ zhig la yang rag lus pa med pa’i phyir nges pa yod pa ma yin no zhes bshad zin to // (nye 61b3)

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

Most articles on svabhāva-pratibandha have been published in Japanese. A historical survey of these discussions was written by Kei Kataoka (2012). The idea I present here dates back thirty years. At that time I wrote two short papers on this theme in Japanese (“An Inquiry into the Structure of Dharmakīrti’s Logic,” 1987; “On the meaning of svabhāvapratibandha in Dharmakīrti’s Logic,” 1989). In 2012, I wrote two additional longer papers (“On the Interpretation of the Compound svabhāvapratibandha,” 2012a; “On the Meaning of pratibandha in Pramāṇavārttikasvavṛtti,” 2012b), in which I rearranged the former presentations and supplemented them with more citations to demonstrate my idea.

[2]:

Hereinafter I will mention these terms as pratibandha/pratibaddha without distinction.

[3]:

In the actual texts of Dharmakīrti, these words are often part of negative expressions.

[4]:

Cf. PVSV 2,19–20: svabhāvapratibandhe hi saty artho arthaṃ na vyabhicarati /.

[5]:

Cf. PVSV 8,12–13: apratibaddhasvabhāvasya avinābhāvaniyamābhāvāt /; PVSV 12,24–25: apratiba-ddhasya tadabhāve sarvatra abhāvāsiddheḥ saṃśayād avyatireko vyabhicāraḥ śeṣavataḥ /.

[6]:

PVSV 17,1–3: svaṃ ca svabhāvaṃ parityajya kathaṃ bhāvo bhavet / svabhāvasyaiva bhāvatvād iti tasya (= liṅgasya) svabhāvapratibandhād avyabhicāraḥ /. In this case, svabhāva is consistently the object to be conferred and bhāva is the object conferring it. Śākyabuddhi commented on the second sentence: tasyātmabhūtasya sādhaasya śiṃśapādeḥ svabhāvapratibandhād eva svabhāve sādhyābhimate vṛkṣādaupratibandhād evāvyabhicāraḥ / (KG 75,3ff = PVṬ 39b7f).

[7]:

The Tibetan equivalent of avinābhāva is med na mi’byung ba, while on the other hand the equivalent of ekanivṛttyānyanivṛtti is gcig log pas gzhan ldog pa. As will be shown below, in Tibetan logic the expression corresponding to the latter is de ldog pa’i stobs kyis khyod ldog pa.

[8]:

According to Śākyabuddhi, KG 75,23.

[9]:

The translation “existential dependence” coincides with the translation by F. Th. Stcherbatsky (1930). He translated the first occurrence of svabhāva-pratibandha in NB II.19 (p. 69) as “Because one thing can convey the (existence of) another one when it is existentially dependent (on the latter)” (my emphasis, Y. F.).

[10]:

rGyal tshab rje Dar ma rin chen, tshad ma rnam’grel gyi tshig le’ur byas pa’i rnam bshad thar lam phyin ci ma log par gsal bar byed pa, Zhol ed., cha, 22b4–5. That the defining character of ’brel pa is closely related to the causality of two disappearances was first pointed out in the presentation “rGyal tshab’s Understanding of Svabhāvapratibandha” by Choi Kyeon-jin at the Conference of the International Association of Tibetan Studies, 2013, Ulaanbaatar.

[11]:

The colophon of the PVSV does not mention a translator, but that of the PVṬ mentions lo ts’a ba rma dge ba’i blo gros. Perhaps he also translated the PVSV during the same period.

[12]:

At this first mention of svabhāva-pratibandha, Śākyabuddhi annotates that rang bzhin bsgrub par bya ba’i dngos po dang’brel pa ni de la rag las pa nyid de de yod na’o. But Karṇakagomin comments differently, that svabhāvena pratibandhaḥ sādhanaṃ kṛtaiti samāsa / svabhāvena pratibaddhatvaṃ / pratibaddhasvabhāvatvam iti yāvat / (KG 13,18f), which is the almost same paraphrase as that in Dharmottara’s Nyāyabinduṭīkā (NBṬ 110,1f).

[13]:

Hereinafter I will mention these terms as pratibandha/pratibaddha without distinction.

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