Patthana Dhamma

by Htoo Naing | 2005 | 57,704 words

This ebook is about Patthana Dhamma, the 7th text of abhidhamma pitaka or tipitaka, reffering to the teachings of The Buddha, also known as: the Exalted One, Fully Enlightened One, Tathagata, Well Gone One; 623 BC. The materials are from a small booklet of Chatthasangayanamula Patthana Pali and Abhidhammatthasangaha text written by Venerable Anur...

Chapter 8 - Anantara paccayo (or proximity condition)

There are 89 cittas in total. At any given time, there is a citta and as soon as that citta passes away then next citta has to arise according to citta niyama or law of citta. But if passing away citta is the cuti citta of an arahat, this will not pass on anything that is there is no more citta as continuation after cuti citta of arahat.

Apart from this arahatta cuti cittas, all other 89 cittas whether they are cuti or not, there always is a citta that arises immediately after passing away of foregoing citta. The leaving of the king when he dies means the crown prince automatically the king. Like this simile, leaving of foregoing citta ( all 89 cittas except when it is cuti citta of arahats ) or passing away of foregoing citta conditions the arising of incoming next citta.

Foregoing citta has its cetasikas. So both citta and cetasikas when they pass away condition the next arising citta and its cetasikas. This condition is called proximity condition or anantara paccaya. Anantara is made up of ana and antara. Ana means no not nothing. Antara means interval gap space. So anantara means no interval or it means proximate.

Cakkhu vinnana dhatu tam sampayuttakā ca dhammā manodhatuyā tam sampayuttakānanca dhammanam anantara paccayena paccayo.

Cakkhu vinnana dhatu is cakkhu vinnana citta. Its associated dhamma are 7 universal cetasikas called phassa or contact, vedana or feeling, cetana or volition, sanna or perception, ekaggata or one pointedness, jivitindriya or mental life, and manasikara or attention. When disappear, these 8 dhammas that is citta and 7 cetasikas serve the condition called proximity to the next arising nama dhamma called manodhatu which is sampaticchana citta.

This sampaticchana citta has 10 cetasikas. They are 7 universal cetasikas,vitakka, vicara and adhimokkha altogether 10 cetasikas. The foregoing nama dhamma that is cakkhu vinnana citta and its cetasikas 7 all serve as paccaya dhamma and this paccaya is called anantara paccaya. Sampaticchana citta and its co arising 10 cetasikas are paccayuppanna dhamma.

The relation between paccaya dhamma and paccayuppanna dhamma is called anantara. This is anantara paccayo. As soon as cakkhuvinnana citta passes away, sampaticchana citta immediately arises and this sounds like sampatichana citta takes throne when the king passed away.

After cakkhuvinnana citta or eye consciousness passes away, another citta called sampaticchana citta or receiving consciousness has to arise to receive the object taken by cakkhuvinnana citta. This new citta, sampaticchana citta also has to pass away immediately as it can last only one single moment.

Next arising citta is called santirana citta or investigating consciousness. Sampaticchana citta is also called mano dhatu as it just knows the object and it does not know all the characters and implications of the object in its fullest essence. So does pancadvaravajjana citta or 5-sense door adverting consciousness. 2 sampaticchana cittas ( kusala vipaka and akusala vipaka ) and pancadvaravajjana citta are called mano dhatu.

Mano dhatu just know the object. But mano vinnana dhatu know much more than mano dhatu. Santirana cittas are mano vinnana dhatu.

Mano dhātu ta.m sampayuttakā ca dhammā mano vinnana dhātuyā ta.m sampayuttakānanca dhammāna.m anantara paccayena paccayo.

Sampaticchana citta which follows cakkhuvinnana citta is a mano dhatu. That mano dhatu has 10 cetasikas. They are 7 universal cetasikas, vitakka, vicara, and adhimokkha cetasikas. These 10 dhammas are sampayuttakā ca dhammā or accompanying dhammas.

As soon as sampaticchana citta passes away, these 10 accompanying cetasikas also pass away. Their passing away cause the condition for next arising citta called santirana citta which is one of mano vinnana dhatu. if this citta is upekkha citta, then 10 cetasikas accompany this citta. These 10 are the same kinds of cetasika that arise in sampaticchana citta.

Foregoing citta is sampaticchana citta. It is mano dhatu. Next arising citta is santirana citta. It is mano vinnana dhatu. Disappearing of sampaticchana citta is like death of the king. Death of the king automatically cause crown prince to become a king. Passing away of sampaticchana citta conditions santirana citta to arise.

Paccaya dhamma in this setting is sampaticchana and its accompanying 10 cetasikas. Their passing away is the causal condition for next arising santirana citta. So they are paccaya dhamma. Santirana and its accompanying 10 cetasikas are resultant dhammas and they are called paccayuppanna dhamma.

The relationship between these cause paccaya dhamma and effect paccayuppanna dhamma is called anantara paccaya. Anantara is made up of ana and antara. Ana means no not nothing. Antara means interval gap space. Anantara means no interval no gap. So between causal dhamma or paccaya dhamma and resultant dhamma or paccayuppanna dhamma there is no antara or interval and this is called anantara. This is anantara paccayo.

Sotavinnāna dhātu ta.m sampayuttakā ca dhammā mano dhātuyā ta.m sampayuttakānanca dhammāna.m anantara paccayena paccayo. This relationship between dhammas is also similar to cakkhuvinnana citta and sampaticchana citta.

Mano dhātu ta.m sampayuttakā ca dhammā mano vinnāna dhātuyā ta.m sampayuttakānanca dhammāna.m anantara paccayena paccayo. Sampaticchana citta that follows sotavinnana dhatu also passes away and this is followed by santirana citta which investigates the sound object. This matter is also the same as in cakkhuvinnana citta and following cittas.

Again ghanavinnana dhatu is followed by mano dhatu sampaticchana citta. And this again is followed by mano vinnana dhatu santirana citta. Like these events, jivhavinnana citta and following cittas, kayavinnana citta and following cittas also do the same as in cakkhuvinnana citta and sotavinnana citta.

Again each mano vinnana dhatu is also followed by other mano vinnana dhatu. In all processes of citta that arise one after another making a series of citta called vithi vara, they exactly follow the rules of citta niyama or law of citta.

If foregoing citta is kusala dhamma, then following citta is also kusala dhamma. Foregoing kusala dhamma passes away and cause condition for next arising kusala dhamma. So this is anantara paccaya. If foregoing citta is kusala dhamma, following citta can also be abyakata dhamma. The relationship is anantara paccaya. Abyakata dhamma are non kamma creating dhamma.

If forerunner is akusala dhamma, next citta will be akusala dhamma and they are conditioned by anantara paccaya. If it is akusala dhamma, next citta may still be abyakata dhamma. This relationship is also anantara paccaya.

If abyakata dhamma is foregoing citta, then next arising citta can be abyakata dhamma. This is also anantara paccaya. This abyakata dhamma can also be followed by kusala dhamma. This is anantara paccaya. Again equally, abyakata dhamma can well be followed by akusala dhamma. And the relationship is called anantara paccaya.

Paccaya dhamma is foregoing citta and cetasika. Paccayuppanna dhamma is next following citta and its accompanying cetasikas. The relationship between these paccaya dhamma and paccayuppanna dhamma is called anantara paccayo.