Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön | 2001 | 940,961 words

This page describes “the far-gone ground (duramgama / durangama)” as written by Nagarjuna in his Maha-prajnaparamita-sastra (lit. “the treatise on the great virtue of wisdom”) in the 2nd century. This book, written in five volumes, represents an encyclopedia on Buddhism as well as a commentary on the Pancavimsatisahasrika Prajnaparamita.

Bhūmi 7: the far-gone ground (dūraṃgamā / dūraṅgamā)

Sūtra.

Punr aparaṃ subhūte bodhisattvena mahāsattvena saptamyāṃ bhūmau vartamānena viṃśatidharmā na kartavyāḥ |

1) ātmagrāho na kartavyaḥ || tathā hy atyantatayātmā na saṃvidyate |

2) sattvagrāho na kartavyaḥ |

3) jīvagrāho na kartavyaḥ |

4) pudgalagrāho yāvaj jñānipaśyakagrāho na kartavyaḥ || tathā hy ete dharmā atyantatayā na saṃvidyante |

5) ucchedagrāho na kartavyaḥ || tathā hi na kaścid dharma ucchidyate ‘tvantatayānutpannatvāt sarvadharmāṇām |

6) śāśvatagrāho na kartavyaḥ || tathā hi yo dharmo notpadyate sa na śāśvato bhavati |

7) nimittasaṃjñā na kartavyā || tathā hy atyantatayā saṃkleśo na saṃ viyate |

8) hetudṛṣṭir na kartavyā | tathā hi sa tāṃ dṛṣṭiṃ na samanupśyati |

9) nāmarūpābhiniveśo na kartavyaḥ | tathā hi nāmarūpaṃ vastulakṣaṇena na saṃvidyate |

10) pañcaskandhābhiniveśo na kartavyaḥ |

11) aṣṭādaśadhātvabhiniveśo na kartavyaḥ |

12) dvadaśāyatanābhiniveśo na kartavyaḥ || tathā ho te dharmāḥ svabhāvena na saṃvidyante |

13) traidhātuke ‘bhiniveśo na kartavyaḥ ||

14) tradhātuke pratiṣṭhānaṃ na kartavyam |

15) traidhātuke ’dhyavasānaṃ na kartavyam |

16) traidhātuka ālayo na kartavyaḥ || tathā hi sarvadharmāḥ svabhāvena na saṃvidyante |

17) buddhaniśrayadṛṣṭyabhiniveśo na kartavyaḥ || tathā hi na buddhadṛṣitiniśrayād buddhadharśanam utpadyate |

18) dharmaniśrayadṛṣṭyabhiniveśo na kartavyaḥ || dharmasyādṛṣṭatvāt |

19) saṃghaniśrayadṛṣṭyabhiniveśo na kartavyaḥ || saṃghanimittasyāsaṃskṛtatvād aniśrayatvāc ca |

20) śīlaniśrayadṛṣṭyabhimiveśo na karftavyaḥ || āpattyanāpattitām anabhiniveśāt | ime viṃśatidharmā na kartavyāḥ |

Moreover, O Subhūti, the bodhisattva-mahāsattva in the seventh ground (dūraṃgamā-bhūmi) must avoid twenty things.

1) Avoid belief in a self. – Actually, the self does not exist at all.

2) Avoid belief in existence.

3) Avoid belief in the living being.

4) Avoid belief in the individual, etc., on the subject of who is knowing, who is seeing. – Actually, these dharmas do not exist at all.

5) Avoid belief in extinction. – Actually, no dharma is extinguished since all dharmas are absolutely unborn.

6) Avoid belief in anything eternal. – Actually, a dharma that is unborn is not eternal.

7) Reject the notion of characteristic mark. – Actually, purification [like defilement] does not exist at all.

8) Reject the view of causes. – Actually, the bodhisattva does not consider this view to be correct.

9) Not to be attached to name and form – Actually, name and form do not really exist.

10) Not to be attached to the five aggregates.

11) Not to be attached to the eighteen elements.

12) Not to be attached to the twelve bases of consciousness. – Actually, these dharmas do not exist as inherent nature.

13) Not to be attached to the triple world.

14) Not to take it as a foundation.

15) Not to take it as a term.

16) Not to take it as a home. – Actually, dharmas do not exist as inherent nature.

17) Not to be attached to the view of resorting to the Buddha. – Actually, the [true] seeing of the Buddha does not come from this view.

18) Not to be attached to the view of resorting to the Dharma. – For the Dharma is invisible.

19) Not to be attached to the view of resorting to the saṃgha. – For the saṃgha is unconditioned in itself and does not constitute a support.

20) Not to be attached to the view of resorting to [high] disciplines. – For the bodhisattva is not attached to [distinguishing arbitrarily] between guilt and innocence.

These are the twenty things to be avoided.

Śāstra (p. 417a25). – There are twenty things, the ātman, etc., to which the bodhisattva is not attached (nābhiniviśate) because they do not exist. The reasons they do not exist have been explained above in many ways.

The views (dṛṣṭi) about the ātman, the subject that knows and the subject that sees (numbers 1 to 4), as well as the views about the Buddha and the saṃgha (numbers 17 and 19) are derived from the emptiness of beings (sattvaśūnyatā) and cannot be accepted. All the others, from the view of extinction and of eternity (numbers 5 and 6) up to the view about the disciplines (number 20) cannot be accepted because of the emptiness of phenomena (dharmaśūnyatā).[1]

Question. – The other views are well-known, but what is the view of causes (number 8)?

Answer. – All conditioned dharmas (saṃskṛtadharma) are cause (hetu) and fruit (phala) in turn. But the mind, being attached to these dharmas and grasping at their characteristics (nimittodgrahaṇa), gives rise to the wrong view here called ‘view of causes’ (hetudṛṣṭi); thus for example, one speaks of fruit without cause, or one claims that cause and fruit are identical, different, etc.[2]

1. Sūtra.

Tena viṃśatir eva dharmāḥ paripūrayitavyāḥ | katame viṃśatir | yad uta Śūnyatāparipūritā || svalakṣaṇaśūnyatāparipūriḥ |

This bodhisattva [of the seventh ground] must completely fulfill twenty things. What are they? Completely fulfilling emptiness. – This is completely fulfilling the emptiness of specific characteristics.

Śāstra (p. 417b2). – The bodhisattva who practices the eighteen emptinesses completely “completely fulfills emptiness” (śūnyatāṃ paripūrayati). Moreover, practicing the two kinds of emptiness, the emptiness of beings (sattvaśūnyatā) and the emptiness of phenomena (dharmaśūnyatā), is “to completely fulfill emptiness”. Finally, the bodhisattva who practices the absolute emptiness (atyantaśūnyatā)[3] but is not attached to it (nābhiniviśate) “completely fulfills emptiness”.

Question. – If that is so, why does the Buddha not speak about the emptiness of specific characteristics (svalakṣaṇaśūnyatā) here?[4]

Answer. – Because the three kinds of emptiness of which we have just spoken are the emptiness of specific characteristics.

When he was in the sixth ground, thanks to his merits (puṇya), the bodhisattva had keen faculties (tīkṣnendriya) and, by means of these keen faculties, he still distinguished dharmas and grasped their characteristics: that is why, now that he is in the seventh ground (dūraṃgamā-bhūmi), the emptiness of specific characteristics constitutes for him “the fullness of emptiness” (śūnyatāparipūri).

Sometimes the bodhisattva sets out the emptiness of the conditioned (saṃskāraśūnyatā) and the emptiness of the unconditioned (asaṃskṛtaśūnyatā) as being the “fullness of emptiness”; sometimes he propounds the emptiness consisting of non-perception (anupalambhaśūnyatā) as being the “fullness of emptiness”.

2. Sūtra.

Ānimittasākṣātkriyā || yaduta sarvanimittānām amanasikāraḥ |

Attesting to signlessness. That is to say, not thinking about any mark.

Śāstra (p. 417b11). – Signlessness (ānimitta) is nirvāṇa. It can be vouched for (sākṣātkṛta), but it cannot be meditated on (bhāvita). Since it cannot be meditated on, one cannot pretend to know it; since it is immense (aprameya), infinite (ananta) and unimaginable, one cannot claim to fulfill it completely.

3. Sūtra.

Apraṇihitajñānam || yat traidhātuke cittaṃ na pravartate |

Knowing what does not deserve to be thought about. – The fact that the bodhisattva’s mind does not function in regard to the triple world.

Śāstra (p. 417b13). – The three things [śūnyatā, ānimitta and apraṇihita], although they are penetrations, are knowledges (jñāna); but here the sūtra brings up a modification for the first two and, [in place of calling them knowledges (jñāna)], calls them [‘fullness’ (paripūritā) and ‘attestation’ (sākṣātkāra) respectively]. Here apraṇihita is the only one to be called ‘knowledge’ (jñāna).

Above (p. 1216–1232F) I spoke about the three gates of deliverance (vimokṣamukha); I will not repeat it here.[5]

4. Sūtra.

Trimaṇḍalapariśuddhiḥ || yaduta daśakuśalakarmapathapariśuddhiḥ |

Purifying the three groups completely. – That is to say, purifying entirely the ten good paths of action.

Śāstra (p. 417b15). – The “three groups” (trimaṇḍala) are the ten good paths of action (daśakuśalakarmapatha); the first three are physical (kāyika), the next four are vocal (vācika) and the last three are mental (caitasika).

It is a matter of “purifying them completely” (pariśuddhi). In some people, the physical acts are pure and the vocal acts impure; in others, the vocal acts are pure and the physical acts are impure; in others still, the physical and vocal acts are pure and the mental acts impure; in yet others, the three kinds of acts are pure but they have not rejected the prejudices (abhiniveśa) about them.

Here in the bodhisattva [of the seventh ground], the three kinds of action are pure and he has rejected prejudices about them. This is why it is said that “he has purified the three groups”.

5. Sūtra.

Sarvasattveṣu kṛpākāruṇyaparipaūriḥ || yaduta mahākaruṇāpratilanhaḥ |

Completely fulfilling pity and compassion towards beings. – And he does this by taking possession of great compassion.

Śāstra (p. 417b21). – There are three kinds of compassion (karuṇā); i) that which has beings as object (sattvālambana), ii) that which has things as object (dharmālambana), iii) that which has no object (anālambana).[6] Here it is a matter of great compassion without an object, which is the “fulfillment” (paripūri) of compassion. Since dharmas are empty of inherent nature (svabhāvaśūnyatā) and the true nature of things (dharmatā) itself is empty, the compassion [of the bodhisattva] is called “great compassion without object” (anālambanā mahākaruṇā).

The bodhisattva [of the seventh ground] has deeply penetrated the true nature (dharmatā) and then has compassion for beings. He is like a man, father of a single son, who, having found a precious object, wants to give it as a gift to his son out of his profound affection.

6. Sūtra.

Sarvasattvāmananam || yaduta buddhakṣetrapariśodhanaparipūryā |

Not thinking of any being. – And he does this by completely fulfilling his buddha-field.

Śāstra (p. 417b27). – Question. – If the bodhisattva does not think of beings, how can he purify his buddhafield?

Answer. – By leading beings to establish themselves in the ten good paths of action (daśakuśalakarmapatha), the bodhisattva had already purified his buddhafield, but such an adornment was not yet an obstacle-free (anāvaraṇa) adornment. Now [in the seventh ground], the bodhisattva ripens (paripācayati) beings but does not grasp the characteristic of being (na sattvanimittam udgṛhṇati). His roots of good (kuśalamūla) and his merits (puṇya) are pure and, because of this purity, he adorns [his buddhafield] without obstacle.

7. Sūtra.

Sarvadharmasamatādarśanaṃ tatra cānabhiniveśaḥ || yadutānukṣepo ’prakṣepaḥ sarvadharmāṇām |

Seeing the equality of all dharmas without being attached to it. – This is not adding anything to and not taking away anything from dharmas.

Śāstra (p. 417c2). – See what has been said above (p. 327F) about dharmasamatākṣānti. Here the Buddha himself says that it is not adding anything to (anutkṣepa) and not subtracting anything (aprakṣepa) from dharmas.

8. Sūtra.

Sarvadharmabhūtanayaprativedhas tena cāmanantā || yaḥ sarvadharmāṇāṃ bhūtanāyaprativedhaḥ |

Penetrating the true principle of all dharmas, but not thinking about it. – This is not penetrating the true principle of all dharmas.

Śāstra (p. 417c4). – This has already been fully developed above in many ways.

9. Sūtra.

Anutpādakṣāntiḥ || yā sarvadharmāṇām anutpādāya, aniroddhāya, anabhisaṃskārāya kṣāntiḥ |

Adherence to non-production. – This is adherence to non-production, non-destruction, non-formation of all dharmas.

Śāstra (p. 417c5). – It is believing and understanding, without hindrance (āvaraṇa) or regression (vivartana), the true nature (dharmatā) of dharmas, having neither production nor destruction.

10. Sūtra.

Anutpādajñānam || yan nāmarūpānutpādajñānam |

Knowing non-production. – This is knowing the non-production of name and form.

Śāstra (p. 417c6) – The sūtra first mentions adherence (kṣānti); next it speaks of knowledge (jñāna) here. Adherence is coarse (audārika) whereas knowledge is subtle (sūkṣma).[7] Here the Buddha himself says that it is a question of “knowledge” about the non-production of name and form (nāmarūpa).[8]

11. Sūtra.

Sarvadharmāṇām ekanayanirdeśāḥ || yā cittasya dvayāsamudācāratā |

Declaring the single characteristic of all dharmas. – This is because the bodhisattva’s mind does not move into duality.

Śāstra (p. 417c8). – The bodhisattva knows that the twelve bases of consciousness (dvādaśāyatana), both internal (ādhyātmika) and external (bāhya), are the net of Māra (mārajāla), deceivers (vañcana) and unrealities (abhūta); the six kinds of consciousness (vijñāna) arising from these twelve bases are themselves the net of Māra as well and deceivers. Then what is real? Only non-duality (advaya). The absence of the eye (cakṣus) and visibles (rūpa) etc., up to and including the absence of the mind (manas) and phenomena (dharma): that is reality (bhūta). In order to lead beings away from the twelve bases of consciousness, the bodhisattva constantly speaks to them of this non-duality in many ways.

12. Sūtra.

Kalpanāsamudghātaḥ || yā sarvadharmāṇām avikapanatā |

Destroying the imaginations. – This is not conceptualizing any dharma.

Śāstra (p. 417c12). – The bodhisattva established in this non-duality destroys the differentiations [falsely attributed] to objects (ālambana): the qualities of male (puruṣa) or female (strī), long (dīrgha) or short (hrasva), big (mahat) or small (alpa), etc.

13. Sūtra.

Saṃjñāvivartaḥ || yāpramāṇānāṃ saṃkalpānāṃ vivartanatā |

The reversal of notions. – This is the reversal of the innumerable false notions.

Śāstra (p. 417c14). – Destroying the false conceptualizations (saṃkalpa) of the inner mind differentiating dharmas.

14. Sūtra.

m>– Dṛṣṭivivartaḥ || yā śrāvakabhūmeḥ pratyekabuddhabhūmeś ca dṛṣṭivivartanatā |

The reversal of [false] views. – This is the reversal of the views formed at the stage of śrāvaka and the stage of pratyekabuddha.

Śāstra (p. 417c15). – This bodhisattva has first reversed the wrong views (mithyādṛṣṭi), such as the view of the self (ātmadṛṣṭi), the view of the extremes (antagrāhadṛṣṭi), etc.; next, he has entered into the Path (mārga). Now, [in the seventh ground], he reverses the view of phenomena (dharmadṛṣṭi) and the view of nirvāṇa (nirvāṇadṛṣṭi). [He reverses dharmadṛṣṭi] because dharmas have no fixed nature (niyatalakṣaṇa); he reverses nirvāṇadṛṣṭi because in reversing the śrāvaka and pratyekabuddha views he goes directly to the bodhi of the Buddhas (abhisaṃbodhi).

15. Sūtra.

Kleśavivartaḥ || yaḥ sarvakleśayaḥ |

Reversing the passions. – This is destroying all the passions.

Śāstra (p. 417c18). – By the power of his merit (puṇya) and his morality (śīla), the bodhisattva has first broken up his coarse passions (audārikakleśa) and easily followed the Path (mārga); only the subtle passions (sūkṣmakleśa) – affection (anunaya), views (dṛṣṭi), pride (māna), etc. – remain in him. Now [in the seventh ground] he also eliminates the subtle passions.[9]

Furthermore, the bodhisattva who uses the true wisdom (bhūtaprajñā) sees these passions as being the same as the true nature (dharmatā).[10] He is like a man endowed with the superknowledges (abhijñā) who can change impure thngs (aśuci) into pure things (śuci).[11]

16. Sūtra.

Śāmathavipaśyanāsamatābhūmiḥ || yaduta savākārajñatāpratilambhaḥ |

[Attaining] the state of balance between quietude and introspection. – This is the [gradual] taking possession of the knowledge of things in all their aspects.

Śāstra (p. 417c22). – When the bodhisattva was in the first three grounds, introspection (vipaśyana) was predominant over quietude (śamatha) because he was not yet able to concentrate his mind (cittasaṃgrahana); in the following three grounds, quietude was predominant over introspection: this is why he had not had the assurance of attaining bodhisattvahood (bodhisattvaniyāma). Now [in the seventh ground], his quietude and introspection in regard to the emptiness of beings (sattvaśūnyatā) and the emptiness of phenomena (dharmaśūnyatā) are perfectly balanced (samatā); this is why he can easily (kṣema) travel on his career of [great] bodhisattva.

Starting [from the seventh ground], the level called “non-regressing” (avaivartikabhūmi), he will gradually (kramaśas) attain the knowledge of all the aspects (sarvākārajñatā) (also see notes below).

17. Sūtra.

Dāntacittatā || yā traidhātuke ’nabhiratiḥ |

Taming the mind. – This is not taking delight in the threefold world.

Śāstra (p. 417c26). – Previously the bodhisattva thought about old age (jarā), sickness (vyādhi) and death (maraṇa), the three bad destinies (durgati), and it is out of loving-kindness (maitrī) and pity (kṛpā) for beings that he tamed his mind. Now that, [on the seventh ground], he knows the true nature (dharmatā) of phenomena, he is no longer attached to the threefold world (traidhātukaṃ nābhiviśate) and, out of this detachment (anabhiniveśa) he “tames his mind”.

18. Sūtra.

Śāntacittatā || yā saṇṇām indriyāṇāṃ pratisaṃharaṇatā |

Pacifying the mind. – This is withdrawing the six organs.

Śāstra (p. 417c29). – Previously, the bodhisattva, in view of nirvāna, had only tamed the first five organs (indriya), namely, the eye, ear, nose, tongue and body, by withdrawing them from the five objects of enjoyment (pañcakāmaguṇa) – [namely, color, sound, smell, taste and touch] since, at that time [the sixth organ], the organ of mind (mana-indriya), was too hard to tame. Now, in the seventh ground, he also pacifies the organ of mind [by withdrawing it from dharmas].

19. Sūtra.

Apratihatajñānam || yaduta buddhacakṣuḥpratilambhaḥ |

Unobstructed knowledge. – This is the attainment of the buddha eye.

Śāstra (p. 418a2). – The bodhisattva attains the prajñāpāramitā and is unobstructed (pratigha) about everything, true or false. He acquires the wisdom of the Path (mārga) and guides beings to make them enter into the truths. He obtains unhindered deliverance (apratihatavimokṣa) and possesses the eye of the buddhas (buddhacakṣus). He has no obstacles over anything.

Question. – How can the sūtra say that the bodhisattva obtains the eye of the buddhas in this seventh ground?

Answer. – Here one should refer to the buddha-eye (p. 2263F): the bodhisattva has no obstacle to any dharma and this is equivalent [to having] the eye of the buddhas.

20. Sūtra.

Akliṣṭo ’nunayaḥ | yā ṣaḍviṣayeṣūpekṣā |

Unafflicted affection. – This is indifference in regard to the six sense objects.

Śāstra (p. 418a7). – Although in the seventh ground he has obtained the power of wisdom (prajñābala), this bodhisattva still keeps his fleshly body (māṃsakāya) out of consideration of his former existences (pūrvanivāsa). Having entered into concentration (samādhi), he is detached (nirāsaṅga); but when he comes out, he has flashes of attachment and, conforming to the visions of his fleshly eye (māṃsacakṣus), when he sees a beautiful person he loves him tenderly. Sometimes also he is attached to wisdom (prajñā), to the reality (tattva) of the seventh ground. This is why the Buddha tells him here to practice indifference (upekṣācitta) in regard to the six sense objects (ṣaḍviṣaya).

Notes regarding tranquility (śamatha) and introspection (vipaśyanā):

According to the canonical sources, śamathā (ting houei in Kumārajīva), tche kouan in Hiaun-tsang) is derived directly from the teaching of the four noble truths: 1) five dharmas should be completely known (parijñeya), the five aggregates of attachment (upādānaskandha); 2) two dharmas should be eliminated (prahātavya), ignorance (avidyā) and the thirst for existence (bhavatṛṣṇā); 3) two dharmas should be realized (sākṣātkaratavya), knowledge (vidyā) and deliverance (vimukti); 4) two dharemas should be cultivated (bhāvayitavya), tranquility (śamatha) and introspection (vipaśyanā). All of these processes result from abhijñā or superknowledge (Saṃyutta, V, p. 52).

Śamatha and vipaśyanā constitute he fourth truth, the truth of the Path. Actually the Path arises in the person who practices them (Anguttara, II, p.157) and they lead to the penetration of a multitude of things: anekadhātuprativedha (Majjhima, I, p. 494), to the absorption of the cessation of concept and feeling: saṃjñāvedaitanirodhasamāpatti (Saṃyutta, IV, p. 295), to nirvāṇa. A parable (Saṃyutta, IV, p. 194–195) compares them to a pair of speedy messengers (śīghraṃ dūtayugam) communicating the message of truth (yathābhūtaṃ vacanam), namely nirvāṇa, to the mind (vijñāna).

Although śamatha and vipaśyanā are intimately joined, they can be practiced separately or, preferentially, simultaneously (yuganaddham); by following the Path in this way, the fetters (saṃyojana) are destroyed and the perverse tendencies (anuśaya) eliminated (Aṅguttara, II, p. 157).

The passage of the Pañcaviṃśati commented on here transposes the entire system into the Mahāyānist view. The bodhisattva cultivates vipaśyanā in particular in the first three grounds and śamatha in the three following grounds. In the seventh, śamatha and vipaśyanā are perfectly balanced, and the bodhisattva penetrates correctly the twofold emptiness of beings and phenomena. The goal, the final result, will no longer be nirvāṇa but the knowledge of things in all their aspects (sarvākārajñāna) belonging to the fully and completely enlightened Buddhas.

Tranquility and introspection play a great part in the controversy which, in the 7th century, at the Council of Lhasa or bSam yes, opposed the Chinese Sudden school with the Indian Gradualists. Kamalaśīla’s third Bhāvanākrama is dedicated almost entirely to it: cf. the edition by G. Tucci in Minor BuddhistTexts, Part III, Third Bhāvanākrama, Serie Orientale Roma, XLIII, 1971, and the annotated translation by C. Pensa, Il terzo Bhāvanākrama di Kamalaśīla, Rivista degli Studi Orentali, XXXIX, 1964, p. 211–242.

Interest in this question has not yet flagged and we now have an excellent English translation of it from Tsoṅ-kha-pa’s Lam rin chen mo (1357–1419) in A. Wayman, Calming the Mind and Discerning the Real, 1978.

Footnotes and references:

1.

Items 17 to 20 are a subtle criticism against the noble disciple inspired by faith in regard to the Buddha, the Dharma and the Saṃgha and endowed with disciplines dear to the saints (āryaśrāvako buddhe dharme saṃghe ‘vetyaprasādena samanvāgataḥ, āryakāntaiḥ śīlaiḥ samanvāghataḥ); Saṃyutta, IV, p. 272–273; V, p. 364; Anguttara, IV, p. 406–407; V, p. 183; Avadānaśataka, II, p. 92, l. 6–8; Kośa, VI, p. 292–294. – The avetyaprasāda is defined in Kośabhāṣya, p. 387, l. 9: yathābhūtaṃ satyāny avabudhya saṃpratyayaḥ, the faith following upon correct understanding of the truths.

2.

The problem of causality has been fully discussed above, p. 2170–81F.

3.

Ninth emptiness, p. 2085F.

4.

Thirteenth emptiness, p. 2121F.

5.

In the Taishō edition, this phrase appears in line 16 of p. 417b while it ought to appear in line 15 of the same page.

6.

The three kinds of maitrī and karuṇā are a Mahāyānist invention: see above, p. 1245F, 1250F, n.1, and 2372F.

7.

For more detail, see Kośa, VI, p. 190.

8.

Nāmarūpa is a synonym for the five skandhas.

9.

See Traité, T 1509, k. 39, p. 345c27–346a4.

10.

This theme is fully developed in the Vimalakīrtinirdeśa, French transl., p. 2875–291.

11.

This is the abhijñā of magical powers described above, p. 1819–1822F.